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Copyright, 1888, by L. B. Hamerslt & Oo. 

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I'hts Cyclopaedia is designed to fill a void which still exists in oar 
general literature. It is especially intended to give the Laity, in a condensed 
and handy form, a great variety of information, culled from many elabo- 
rate volumes, and written by a great diversity of men, as to the constitution, 
nature, and practical working of the Church of Christ. It is to enable them 
to judge for themselves, upon the many questions of fact, and doctrine, and 
government, in our Communion, furnishing them the materials for forming 
such judgments, and for holding correct views thereon. 

The importance of having the Laity intelligently taught concerning 
these things, cannot be overrated in our Church, where the Lay element is so 
conspicuous and powerful. 

Nor would we wish it less prominent. The Church gains largely by 
the wisdom and sound counsel of its Laity. Hence the more accessible 
ecclesiastical information is made to them, the wiser will be their action, 
the more loyal their support, and the more conservative their influence. 

While this Cyclopaedia will be of much use to the Clergy who have not 
the advantage of libraries, yet it was not prepared for them, as they are 
supposed to have already a certain basis of information on these topics, and 
also opportunities of prosecuting their researches in any special line of his- 
tory or doctrine. 

Hence, only the outside, as it were, of many questions is shown here ; 
for many of the subjects here introduced require volumes, rather than pages, 
and many minds, rather than one mind, to do them justice. As furnishing 
heads and data of thought and fact concerning the large circle of topics here 
introduced, this volume, then, will be of the greatest service to all Lay 
people, as well as furnish a convenient reference book for the Clergy. 

In preparing this volume, the Editor, himself a scholar of much ripe- 
ness and breadth, has called to his aid writers of varying shades of opinion, 
so as to reflect, as far as possible, the many-sidedness of the Church's views 
on some of the practical questions of ritual and discipline. It does not 

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represent one party or school, but gives fair and candid expression to many 
different minds and opinions, which are tolerated within the wideness of the 
outstretched arms of the Church of the living God. It is well that it 
should be so. In an age when no asserted truth goes unchallenged, and no 
opinion is uttered without subjecting it to the crucible of heated criticism, 
we want to know how these points are viewed by divergent, yet representa- 
tive, minds, in the several departments of sacred learning. The names of 
the contributors show the range of minds, as the number of the different 
subjects treated show the range of topics embraced in the volume. The 
plan has been to let each man speak for himself, and so be responsible alone 
for his opinions. 

Whatever will enlarge the area of knowledge, or give shape and defi- 
niteness to floating opinions, or throw light upon obscure points, or stimulate 
deeper investigation in this broad department of learning, cannot but prove a 
great blessing to all thinking and Christian men. This Cyclopaedia will, it 
is hoped, fulfill all, or nearly all, these conditions, and it ought, therefore, to 
be hailed with favor, especially by the Laity, as a marked help to them in 
seeking after a deeper knowledge and wider views of the person and glory 
of Christ our Lord, as seen in "the Church which is His body, the fullness 
of Him that filleth all in all." 


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A and 9 (Rev. i. 8, xxi. 6, xxii. 13 ; cf. 
Is. xii. 4, xliv. 6). The first and last letters 
of the Greek alphabet, used to express the 
eternity of God.- Its form belongs to St. 
John's Revelation, but its meaning is found 
already in Isaiah. It was used by the Jews 
later to express the comprehensive nature 
of God. The symbol is generally assigned 
to our Lord. In the first passage, the 
symbol may refer to the Trinity, but it is 
better (in view of the fact that in xxii. 13, 
our Lord gives this title to Himself) to hold 
that it is one of our Lord's titles, implying 
for Him all the attributes of the Godhead, 
as being the Source, Upholder, and Snd of 
all things. These two letters passed into 
early Christian use, being found in the 
catacombs; and into ecclesiastical Latin 
poetry (vide Prudentius, Cathem. ix. 10), 
and so into liturgical /^ U8e - It is often 
used as a monogram yn in church deco- 
rations. ( Vide Bishop yA#" Wordsworth ' s 
New Testament, «* -3L Archbishop 
Trench's Commentary on the Epistles to the 
Seven Churches, for thorough discussion of 
the meaning of AQ in the Revelation.) 

Aaron, the brother of Moses and the first 
High-Priest under the Law. His father was 
Amram, and his mother was Jochebed ; his 
wife was Elisheba, daughter of Nahshon, of 
the tribe of Judah. He was three years 
older than Moses, and apparently, since 
God Himself called him "the Levite," 
he was of priestly dignity in his family. 
His was a far weaker character than his 
brother's. Able to speak well, ready, and not 
wanting in courage, ho was given to Moses 
to be his mouth-piece, as Moses was the 
mouth-piece of God, t.«., the Prophet. In 
then his being first the Prophet and then 
the High-Priest Aaron becomes a typo of 
Christ. He went willingly with Moses 
upon the mission. They twain went to the 
people and gathered their elders. Aaron 
apparently does the evidential signs before 

them instead of Motes, and after they had 
been acknowledged by the people, the two 
brothers go before Pharaoh. Throughout 
the first part Aaron acts for Moses : Aaron 
casts down the rod that becomes a serpent ; 
he smites the Nile, stretches the rod over 
the streams, smites the dust. The two 
sprinkle the ashes of the furnace. Thence 
till the last stroke Moses acts. He stretches 
the rod toward heaven, for the storm of 
hail ; over the land, for swarms of locusts. 
But the Lord reserved to Himself without 
stroke of rod or word of prophet the two 
death-plagues at the set time : the murrain 
wasted the herds of Egypt ; at midnight there 
was the great cry. Aaron is withdrawn 
from the prominent place in the narrative 
till the Israelites reach the wilderness of Sin. 
Moses bids him prepare the people for the 
miracle of the manna. Aaron bears up 
Moses 1 hand with the rod till Amalek is 
discomfited. He draws near with Moses to 
the summit of Sinai, but does not enter the 
Fire and the Cloud. Now left to himself, 
he shows the weakness of his character. The 
murmuring of the people upon the long 
absence of Moses, and their cry for some 
god to go up before them, led him to collect 
the offerings of their golden ear-rings and 
to cast the molten calf. It shows him to bo 
a facile and popular leader rather than a 
deeply-principled master of men. The 
worship of the molten calf with the rites 
due to the Lord perversely offered before 
it led to the sin of licentiousness. The end 
of it was the shame and shrinking on 
Aaron's part, the indignant discipline in- 
flicted by Moses, and then his wonderful, 
loving intercession for the sinning people 
and his erring brother. The forgiveness 
was complete, for Aaron was immediately 
consecrated to the High-Priesthood, and it 
was conferred by a perpetual grant to bis 
family alone. Here wo have to call atten- 
tion to the typical character of his office. It 


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was his right to enter into the Holy of 
Holies once in the year, on the great Day of 
Atonement, with the blood of the goat and 
the bullock. He made the atonement when 
he stood between the living and the dead, 
and stayed the fire that burst from the 
Lord's anger. It was his right to offer 
asylum for his lifetime to the manslayer fled 
to the city of refuge. He could not share 
in funeral rites. The intercessory, expiatory, 
and ever-living work of our Lord are typi- 
fied in these rites. Whatever defects in his 
private character marred its evenness, in his 
official character he was between Jehovah 
and jKnovAH's people. Aaron appears 
again when he murmured against his brother. 
His commission, its grandeur, and its awful 
duties dazzled him. His sister presuming 
upon her office as prophetess showed herself 
jealous of Moses also. In fact, Miriam was 
the chief in the resistance to the Lawgiver's 
authority. Its vindication by God Himself 
was a severe lesson. Again, when Koran's 
rebellion ended in his destruction and Aaron 
had used his priestly function of making an 
atonement, then, as a further attestation to 
his office, the Lord chose to give the people 
the sign of his rod, with buds, blooms, and 
fruit, — a sign that was laid up together with 
the pot of manna before the ark testimony. 
Then God gave a special charge to Aaron 
that he and his sons, and his father's house, 
should *' bear the iniquity" of the sanctuary, 
and he and his sons should " bear the in- 
iquity" of the priesthood (ef. Ps. lxxxix. 50, 
51, and the Agony in the Garden). His were 
to be the tithes, the peace-offerings, the wave- 
offerings, the first fruits, the devoted, the re- 
demption-money of the first-born, of man 
and beast, for he and his sons were to have 
no inheritance in the land, but to be sepa- 
rate to the Lord. Aaron's character appears 
again markedly in sharing his brother's im- 
patience at the rock, when he smote when 
ne should have only spoken. Miriam by 
this time was dead, and the weary journey- 
ing was drawing to a close ; now at the very 
end when the longed-for land was almost in 
sight, to be forbidden. He seems to have 
acquiesced in the decree. And when the 
command came for him to climb the Mount 
Hor, and there upon its top to have his 
priestly garments taken from him and put 
upon his son, and then to lie down and die 
there, in the sight of the congregation, his 
submission did not fail him. The Lawgiver, 
the faithful servant, despoiled his loved 
brother of the sacred vestments with which 
he had, at the outset of their journeyings 
so many years before, adorned him, " And 
Aaron died then in the top of the mount, 
and Moses and Eleazar came down from the 
mount. v The real greatness of Aaron's 
character is overshadowed by the splendor 
of his brother's, but he was, with all the 
weaknesses so faithfully recorded in Holy 
Scripture, a far more perfect man than 
many others who are in their careers more 
prominently, not more really, types of 


Christ. His own shortcomings may have 
taught him that compassion which our Great 
High-Priest had learned, not from taint of 
sin, but by contact with and suffering from 
its loathsome effects. In Aaron's descend- 
ants flowed the blood of their mother, a 
daughter of the tribe from which our Lord 
took His Flesh. 

Abaddon (Job xxxi. 12, Destruction). 
In Job xxvi. 6, the Chaldee parapbrast 
makes it mean the " house of destruction ;" 
in Job xxviii. 22, its Chaldee equivalent is 
the angel of Death. It was also applied 
later by the Jews to the Christian schools 
Be'Abidan. In Rev. ix. 11 it is a title of 
the "Angel of the bottomless pit," whose 
name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but 
in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon 
(i.e. , destroyer). There is much Jewish 
trifling upon the name. It is, however, one 
of the titles of Satan. The woe in Rev. ix., 
where Abaddon is spoken of, is interpreted 
usually of the Saracens, and he is named as 
their king. 

Abba (Syriac). A peculiarly tender form 
of Father. Our Lord (Mark xiv. 36) 
uses it in His Prayer in the Garden. St. 
Paul uses it twice (Rom. viii. 15 ; Gal. iv. 
6), in referring to our adoption as Sons 
through the Holy Ghost (vide Confirma- 
tion). Selden and other writers say that 
the Jews had a law which forbade bond- 
servants to use the term father to their mas- 
ters, so Paul used a term tender and expres- 
sive of filial reverence. In the Palestinian 
and Egyptian Churches it became an eccle- 
siastical title, and so probably passed into 
the West as Abbot. 

Abbess. The Mother or Superior of an 
abbey of nuns, or female persons living un- 
der religious vows and discipline. 

Abbey. The building in which a society 
devoted to religion dwelt; a monastery 
whose head was an Abbot or Abbess. They 
were quite numerous in England before the 
Reformation, and the title still clings to 
some of the churches. Westminster is better 
known as Westminster Abbey than as St. 
Peter's. In Cathedral Abbeys the Bishop 
was the Ahbot, and the presbyteral Superiors 
of these establishments were styled Priors. 
Cranmer and Latimer tried hard, at the dis- 
solution of the monasteries, to save some of 
the abbeys from confiscation to put them to 
reformed, use, but did not succeed. 

Abbot. The Father or Superior of a body 
of men living under religious vows. The 
derivation of the word is from Abba (Med. 
Lat. Abbas). The word Father, in its forms 
Abbas, Papa, Father, has been ever applied 
to the Christian presbyter as a title of re- 
spect, except in the later history of the Eng- 
lish Churcn. An Abbot was elected either 
by all the members of the monastery, or by 
a part of them as a chapter. Abbots were 
divided into two ranks, Abbots and Mitred 
Abbots. There were in England twenty- 
five Mitred Abbots, who sat and voted in the 
House of Lords. Abbots were subject to 

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their diocesan ; but special exemptions were 
granted, for favors or by purchase, to many 
monasteries, — some owning obedience to the 
See of Rome, others to the Crown, and so 
exempted from episcopal visitation and ref- 
ormation. The Abbot received confirmation 
of his office and benediction from his dioce- 
san, and vowed canonical obedience to him. 
(Dugdale's Monasticon, Willis's Mitred Ab- 
bots, Encyclopaedia Britannica, sub voce.) 

Abjuration. A solemn act of renouncing 
all false or heretical doctrines which a person 
had formerly held. There is no authorized 
form in use in the English Church, though 
public abjuration has been made by persons 
at different times. A form was put forth by 
one of the houses of Convocation, 1714, but 
it did not receive royal sanction. 

Ablution. A liturgical term for any cere- 
monial washing of the person or of sacred 
vessels. I. Person, — The washings of the 
priests in the Mosaic Law previous to con- 
secration, and after it frequently in their 
ministration. The washing of the feet, after 
our Lord's example, and according to St. 
Paul's question as to the character of a widow 
needing church aid if she have washed the 
feet of strangers ; also the early ritual use of 
washing the hands before and after the cele- 
bration of the Holy Communion. II. Things. 
— So the ablutions in the ceremonial of the 
law. In early liturgie use a reverent ablu- 
tion of the vessels with a little water for the 
consumption of every portion of the conse- 
crated elements. 

Abraham. The Father of the Faithful 
[Rom. iv. 16). The Friend of God (Is. xli. 
8). The Heir of the World (Rom. iv. 13). 
The Solitary in the religion and worship of 
Jxhovah. The grandest of the men of 
the Old Testament save his great descendant, 
Moses. The man through whose faith the 
world has received the blessings of Christ 
the Lord. The man whose name was 
changed by God as a sign of His blessing. 
He in his life and conduct stands forth as 
almost unapproached in true courtesy, noble 
loftiness, and simplicity. The patriarchal 
life he led is accurately portrayed in Holy 
Scripture, and can be, even yet, verified in 
the customs and habits of the Arabs, some 
of whom are his descendants. 

He was the son of Terah, an idolater. 
Though Abram's name is first in the list, he 
was probably the second son. The sons of 
Terah were Haran, who died before the mi- 
gration, Abram, and Nahor, who remained 
in Ur. Terah died in Haran, and Abram 
became the head of the family. The life of 
the patriarch is divided into four chief eras : 

I. The migration from Ur to Haran 
(Charran, Gen. xi. 81; ef. Acts vii. 2-4). 
Here Terah died, and then (Gen. xii.) the 
command was given to Abram to remove 
from Haran to a land God would show him, 
and then he would be blessed, and of his de- 
scendants should be made a great nation, and 
a solemn promise of protection was added. 
He obeyed, and removed with Lot, his 

nephew. He first settled near Bethel, and 
there built an altar to the Lord ; thence ha 
went down to Egypt. It is strange as we 
read it, but in reality it was most natural, 
that he should have unconsciously distrusted 
the full meaning of the promise of protec- 
tion. He was afraid that his wife would be 
taken from him, and he framed a deceit bv 
having her say she was his sister. Sarah 
was taken from him, but Pharaoh was 
plagued of the Lord because of her, and re- 
stored her to him, and ho was dismissed. From 
Egypt be returned to Bethel, and there upon 
the altar he bad built he renewed his worship 
of Jehovah (Gen. xiii. 1-4). A wealthy, 
prospering man, with a large retinue, and a 
kinsman with him who also was wealthy, he 
was sufficiently strong to be safe from attack. 
But this very wealth, and the need of room, 
caused a strife between their followers, and 
they found it prudent to separate. Lot chose 
the plain of Jordan, near Sodom, and Abram 
remained in the hilly region. Here he re- 
ceived a renewal of the promise, which was 
a little more clearly and fully expressed, and 
he was directed to 'walk through the length 
and breadth of the land, for it should be bis. 
Upon this command he removed to Mamre 
(Hebron), and there built an altar and wor- 
shipped. At this point occurs one of the 
most vivid of the incidents of his life. 
While crushing the revolt of the subject 
Sodomites Chedorlaomer carried off Lot and 
his family. Abram, with his three hundred 
and eighteen servants, planned a night sur- 
prise, which was completely successful. He 
apparently slew the king in the fight. Upon 
his victorious return, Melchizedec, the mys- 
terious king of Salem, priest of the Most 
High God, met him witn bread and wine, 
and blessed him. Abram paid him tithes 
and received his blessing as from a superior. 
Abram's refusal to receive any part of the 
spoil was a nobly proud act on his part. 

II. The second period of his life is from 
this event and the renewed promise which 
followed till the third covenanted promise 
with direct promise of Isaac. This second 
renewal was still more full, and was sealed 
with a sacrifice and a solemn sign of a 
horror of great darkness in his sleep. He 
was told of the servitude in Egypt, of the 
deliverance and the establishment of his 
descendants in the land God promised him. 
To accomplish this promise Sarah persuaded 
him to take her Egyptian maid as a concu- 
bine; but the act was both a proof of his yet 
defective trust and of the evil of taking ac- 
complishments into his hands. Hagar's 
insolence and Sarah's jealousy drove the 
concubine to run away from her mistress. 
Hagar was ordered to return and to submit 
to Sarah. She became the mother of Ish- 

III. And yet again the promise was re- 
newed when Abram .was ninety-nine years 
old. God appeared to him, promised thut 
Sarah should bear him a son, changed his 
name to Abraham, and gave him the cove- 

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nant sign of circumcision. Still its fulfil- 
ment was delayed. Here occurred the touch- 
ing visit of the Jehovah Angel with two 
attendants to Abraham, their warning him 
of the impending destruction of Sodom, 
and his earnest, persistent plea in its 
behalf. It was a proof of his growth in 
faith and in a trusting confidence. Again, 
however, he shows his distrust when among 
the Philistines. Afraid of being deprived 
of her (despite God's promise that Sarah 
should give him a son), he called her his 
sister, and King Abimelech sent and took 
her. God protected her, and warned the 
king of his error, who restored Sarah, with 
a just reproach to Abraham for his deceit. 
After this Sarah bore Abraham a son, ancl 
she called him Isaac, or Laughter, in refer- 
ence to Sarah's laugh of joy when she heard 
the promise that she in her old age should 
have a son and also to his own happiness. 

IV. The last main period begins with the 
great trial of faith to which Abraham was 
subjected. He was tempted, was proved in 
the highest form in the command to offer up 
Isaac. How could the promise be fulfilled if 
Isaac was offered, and how could a human 
sacrifice be acceptable to the God of Life ? 
The command was couched in words which 
showed how precious Isaac must be; " Take 
now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom 
thou lovest." The Patriarch had learned 
that nothing could fail of all that Jeiio- 
yah had promised, and he obeyed. His 
obedience and its result were thenceforth 
the very crown of faith and of the truth of 
God's promises, and became the type of 
the sacrifice of His sinless Son upon the 
Cross. It was so wonderful a proof of His 
trust that the gift was given him that the 
spiritual blessing he had should be given to 
all nations upon earth, and the Son of 
Abraham is the heir of the world, by that 
act in verity upon the Cross, which was 
done by figure upon the altar in the Mount 
Moriah. It was done, it is well to note, 
when Isaac could understand what was to 
be transacted, and his obedience, therefore, 
must not be overlooked. Was it now that 
Abraham saw the day of Christ and was 

Sarah died at an advanced age at Kerjath 
Arba, to which Abraham removed from 
Beersheba, some time after the offering of 
Isaac. The whole account of the death, 
the purchase of a burying-placo in the land 
which had all been given to him, his court- 
esy and stately mode of preferring his re- 
quest, and the high respect paid to him by 
the Hittites, and the simplicity of the whole 
narrative, make it one of the most touching 
passages in the record of his life. 

He lived nearly thirty years longer, and 
married Keturah. It was, perhaps, not, we 
should suppose, fit for so holy and exalted a 
personage, — one so blessed and prospered, — 
out Abraham was living at a different era, 
with ideas current around him far other than 
those we are habitually using and living in. 

He if a person, to us, so conjoined to the 
faith that he displayed that we cannot think 
of him as a man who, in that Eastern life, 
needed the care of some woman's hand to 
minister to him. At the age of a hundred 
and seventy-five years he died, and was 
buried by his sons, Isaac and Ishmael. 
Abraham is for us the typo of the solitari- 
ness of the man of faith. Others, as Job, as 
Melchizedec, were servants of God and of 
great holiness, but he had still greater and 
more enduring blessings because of his faith. 
And this faith grew ; it was disciplined and 
developed. The clash between this faith 
and his conduct that occurs in his career 
was rather the result of not seeing how 
trustfulness must penetrate the lower planes 
of our daily life and work. He believed 
that God would not forsake him ; still, the 
emergencies seemed so pressing that he 
deemed he must do something, and he acted 
as he did. The consequences bore evil fruit 
for him and his children in the first in- 
stance, as the Egyptian maid gave him so 
much trouble, and a thousand years later 
Ishmael sorely distressed Israel. And, too, 
the daily life and authority of a man of 
lordly means, while it was a constant proof 
of God's blessing, tended to withdraw him 
from the finer, subtler interconnection of his 
religious life with the slightest parts of his 
daily life. But this he evidently outgrew. 
Again, to him we owe our salvation. To 
him, more than to any one man, we owe our 
Christian privileges. The children of Abra- 
ham (according the faith he had, before cir- 
cumcision) we are heirs with him of the 
world, not only of this visible, but of the 
world unseen. Prom him came the Lord 
Jesus Christ, through whom he, as well 
as we, received all the promises, and in whom 
they are fulfilled. 

The more Abraham's life and conduct are 
studied the more thoroughly human do they 
appear. He was a great man, endowed with 
large capacities, with deeply religious and 
meditative characteristics, with power of 
will to rise to the height of the demands 
made upon him, and with a loving and a 
sympathetic strain throughout. His abili- 
ties and weight were early acknowledged by 
the peoples in whose neighborhood he dwelt. 
It was only by deep pondering and prayer 
that he could have been strengthened to 
meet the discipline God put upon him. The 
influence Sarah had over him and his deep 
affection for Isaac are proof enough of that 
best of all domestic bonds, — a loving nature. 

Absolute. In theology, a perfect unalter- 
able condition, e.g., Divine goodness is abso- 
lute ; so Divine justice and mercy, without 
imperfection or defect. The absolute gift 
of redemption will be at the resurrection. 
Its gift is conditional here and now. 

Absolution. The authoritative act of 
declaring God's forgiveness of a penitent. 
Cf. P. B., "Hath given power and com- 
mandment to His ministers to declare and 
I pronounce to His people being penitent the 

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absolution and remission of their sins. He 
pardoneth and absolve th all those who truly 
repent and unfeignedlv believe His Holy 
Word.* 1 The use of this authority is con- 
fined only to the bishops and the priests. It 
is formed upon the authority our Lord gave 
His Church (St. Matt xvi. 19, xviii. 18 ; 
St. John xx. 23). A charge thrice repeated 
at different times, first while preparing the 
Apostles for their work and then immedi- 
ately after His resurrection. It is an inte- 
gral part of the ministry of the Church 
to men, as it is involved in the sacraments 
of Baptism and the Eucharist. But its 
practical use was also long before involved 
in all sacrifices in the Levitical dispensation ; 
and a notable instance of the declaration of 
absolution is in Nathan's reply to King 
David, — u The Lord also hath put away 
thy sin M (2 Sam. xii. 13). Our Lord mak- 
ing all forgiveness flow from His own person 
pronounced His absolution authoritatively. 
" Son, thy sins be forgiven thee. . . . That 
ye may know that the Son of man hath power 
on earth to forgive sins." So to the sinful 
woman, " Thy sins are forgiven. " Then it 
was a development into Christian use of the 
germ wb : ~h lay in the Mosaic dispensation, 
and was ordained by our Lord for the 
comfort of His own. As all power is His 
in heaven and in earth, and as Ho is ever 
with His Church to the end of the world, 
and has by a direct gift of the Holt 
Ghost for that end endowed the Apos- 
tolate with the Commission, it must be of 
continuous and continual use in His Church. 

44 The special acts or ways in which the 
ministers of Christ are commissioned or 
authorized to exemplify this their power of 
retaining or remitting sins appear to bo four 
acts of the ministry whereby the benefit of 
absolution is ordinarily dispensed unto men. 

41 The power of administering the two sac- 
raments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper 
to all such as are qualified to receive them, 
which is, therefore, called 4 sacramental 

44 The power of declaring or publishing the 
terms or conditions upon which the Gospel 
promises pardon ana remission of sins, 
which is called the 4 declaratory absolution 
of the word and doctrine.' 

44 The power of interceding with God for 
pardon of sins through the merits of Christ, 
which is tho 4 absolution of prayer.' 

44 The power of executing Church disci- 
pline and censures upon delinquents, which 
consists in excluding flagitious and scan- 
dalous sinners from the communion of tho 
Church, and receiving poni tents again into 
her communion when tney have given just 
evidence of a sincere repentance. 

44 In these four acts, regularly exercised, 
consists the ministerial power of retaining 
or remitting sins, so far as the delegated 
authority of man can be concerned in it." 
(Bingh. Chr. Ant., bk. viii.) 

44 The minister can only lend his mouth or 
his hand toward the external act of absolu- 

tion ; but he cannot absolve internally, nuch 
lees the unqualified sinner. Chkiht Him- 
self has assured us, that unless men repent, 
they must inevitably perish; and that unless 
they forgive men their trespasses, their 
heavenly Father will sot forgive then? 
their trespasses. Now, it would be absurd 
to think, after this, that a sinner who per- 
forms neither of these conditions should, 
notwithstanding, be pardoned by God, con- 
tinuing impenitent still ; and only because 
he chances surreptitiously to be loosed on 
earth by some error or fraud, that, therefore, 
he should be also most certainly loosed in 
heaven. This were to imagine one of the 
vainest things in the world, that Christ, 
to make His priests' words true, would make 
His own words false, as they must needs be 
if any outward absolution, given by a falli- 
ble and mistaken man, could translate an 
impenitent sinner into the kingdom of 
heaven." (Bingh. Chr. Ant., bk. iii.) 

The very formal words which our Church 
requires to be used in the ordination of 
a minister are these: "Whose sins thou 
dost forgive, they are forgiven ; and whose 
sins thou dost retain, they are retained." 
(The Form of Ordering of Priests.) We ac* 
knowledge most willingly that tho principal 
part of the priest's ministry is exercised in 
the matter of " forgiveness of sins," — the 
question only is of the manner, how this part 
of their function is executed by them, and 
of the bounds and limits thereof. 

That we may therefore give unto the 
priest the things that are the priest's, and to 
God the things that are God's, and not 
communicate unto any creature the power 
that properly belongs to the Creator, who 
4t will not give His glory unto another" 
(Isaiah xlviii. 11), wo must, in the first 
placo, lay this down for a sure ground, that 
to forgive sins properly, directly, and abso- 
lutely, is a privilege only appertaining unto 
the Most High. "I, even I, am He that 
blotteth out thy transgressions for mine 
owd sake, and will not remember thy sins" 
(Isaiah xliii. 25). 44 Who is a God like 
unto thee, that pardoneth iniquity?" says 
the prophet Mican (vii.18); which in effect 
is the same with that of the scribes (Mark 
ii. 7, and Luke v. 21) : 44 Who can foi- 
give sins but God alone?" And there- 
fore, when David says unto God, 4t Thou 
forgavest the iniquity of my sins" (Ps. 
xxxii. 5), Gregory, surnamed the Great, 
the first Bishop of Rome of that name, 
thought this to be a sound paraphraso of 
his words: 4< Thou, who alone sparest, who 
alone forgivest sins. For who can forgive 
sins but God alone ?" (Gregor. Exposit. 
xi., Ps. Poenit.) Irenaeus tells us that our 
Saviour in this placo, " forgiving sins, 
did both cure the man and manifestly dis- 
cover who He was. For if none," says 
ho, 44 can forgive sins but God alone, and 
our Lord did forgive them, and cured 
them, it is manifest that He was the Word 
of God made the Son of man ; and that, as 

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man, He was touched with compassion of us, 
as God He hath mercy on us, and for- 
giveth us our debts which we do owe unto 
our Maker" (Irenaeus, adv. Hares., lib. v. 
cap. 17). Tertullian (lib. iv. adv. Marcion, 
cap. 10) s ay 8, that " when the Jews, be- 
holding only His humanity, and not being 
yet certain of His deity, did deservedly rea- 
son that a man could not forgive sins, but 
God alone, He, by answering of them, that 
1 the Son of man had authority to forgive 
sins,' would by this remission of sins have 
them call to mind that He was * that only 
Son of man prophesied of in Daniel, who 
received power of judging, and thereby also 
of forgiving sins'" (Dan. vii. 13,14), St. 
Ambrose also observes, upon the history of 
the woman taken in adultery (John viii. 9), 
that " Jesus being about to pardon sin, 
remaineth alone. For it is not the ambas- 
sador," says he, " nor the messenger, but 
the Lord Himself that hath saved His 
people. He remaineth alone, because it can- 
not be common to any man with Christ 
to forgive sins. This is the office of Christ 
alone, who * taketh away the sin of the 
world' " (Ambros. Epist. Ixxvi., ad. Stu- 
dium). So, too, St. Chrysostom is careful 
to preserve God's privilege entire, by often 
interposing such sentences as these : " None 
can forgive sins but God alone" (Chrys- 
ost. in 2 Cor. iii., Horn. vi.). u To forgive 
sins belongeth to no other" (Id. in John 
viii., Horn, liv., ed. Gr®c, vel liii., Latin). 
" To forgive sins is possible to God only" 
(Id. in 1 Oor. xv , Horn. xl.). " God alone 
aoth this; which also He worketh in the 
washing of the new birth" (Id. ib.). Whence 
it is seen that the work of cleansing the soul 
is wholly God's, and the minister hath no 
hand at all in effecting any part of it. 
Having thus, therefore, reserved unto God 
His sacred rights, we give unto His under- 
officers their due, when we "account of 
them as of the ministers of Christ, and 
stewards of the mysteries of God" (1 Cor. 
iv. 1, 2), not as lords, that have power to 
dispose of spiritual graces as they please 
(Chrysost. in 1 Cor. iv., Horn, x.), but as 
servants that are bid to follow their master's 
prescriptions therein (Id. in 2 Cor. iv., Horn, 
viii. circa init.) ; and in following thereof 
do but bring their external ministry, for 
which itself also they are beholden to God's 
mercy and goodness, God conferring the 
inward blessing of His Spirit thereupon, 
* when and whore He will. " Who then is 
Paul ?" says St. Paul, " and who is A polios, 
but ministers by whom ye believed, even 
as the Lord gave to every man?" (1 Cor. 
iii. 5.) "Therefore," says Optatus (lib. 
v.J, "in all the servants there is no do- 
minion but a ministry." " It is He who is 
believed that giveth the things which is be- 
lieved, not he by whom we do believe" 
(Id. ib. Similiter et Chrysost. in 1 Cor. iii., 
Horn. viii.). Whereas our Saviour then 
said unto His apostles, " Keceive the Holy 
Ghost; whose sins you forgive shall be 

forgiven" (John xx.). St. Bazil (lib. t. 
adv. Eunom, p. 118, ed. Greco-Latin), Am- 
brose (de Spir. Sanct., lib. iii. cap. 19), Au- 
gustine (contra Epist. Parmenian, lib. ii. 
cap. ii. et Horn, xxiii. Ex. 60), Chrysostom 
(in 2 Cor. iii., Horn, vi.), and Cyril. Alex- 
and. (in Joh., lib. xii. cap. 56), make this 
observation thereupon : that this is not their 
work properly, but the work of the Holt 
Ghost, who remitteth bv them, and therein 
performeth the work of the true God. " For, 
indeed," savs St Cyril (Id. ib.), "it be- 
longeth to the true God alone to be able to 
loose men from their sins. For who else 
can free the transgressors* of the law from 
sin but He who is the author of the law 
itself?" "The Lord," says St. Augus- 
tine (Horn, xxiii. Ex. 60), " was to give 
unto men the Holt Ghost; and He 
would have it to be understood, that by 
the Holt Ghost Himself sins should be 
forgiven to the faithful, and not that by the 
merits of men, sins should be forgiven. 
For what art thou, O man, but a sick man 
that hast need to be healed ? Wilt thou be 
a physician to me? Seek the physician 
together with me." So St. Amoroso (de 
Spir. Sanct., lib. iii. cap. 19), " Behold, that 
by the Holt Ghost sins are forgiven. But 
men to the remission of sins bring their 
ministry; they exercise not the authority 
of any power." St. Chrysostom, though he 
makes this to be the exercise of a great 
power, yet in the main accords fully with 
St. Ambrose, that " it remains in God 
alone to bestow the things wherein the 
priest's service is employed" (Id. in Joh. 
xx. Horn, lxxxvi., ed. Grsac., vol. Ixxxv. 
Latin). " And what speak I of priests?" 
says he (Id. ib.). " Neither angel nor arch 
angel can do aught in those things which 
are given by God ; but the Father and 
the Son and the Holt Ghost do dispense 
all. The priest lendeth his tongue, and 
putteth to his hand." " His part only is 
to open his mouth; but it is God that 
worketh all" (Id. in 2 Tim., cap. i. Horn, 
xi.). And the reasons whereby both he and 
Theophylact (Id. in Joh. viii., Horn, liv., 
Grasc, vel liii., Latin) after him do prove 
that the priests of the law had no power to 
forgive sins, are of as great force to take the 
same power from the ministers of the Gospel. 
First, because (Theophylact in Joh. viii.) it 
is God's part only to forgive sins, which is 
the moral that Haymo (Halberstat in Evang. 
Domin., xv., post Pentecost) makes of that 
part of the history of the Gospel, wherein 
the lepers are cleansed by our Saviour 
before they be commanded to show them- 
selves unto the priest, " because (Theophy- 
lact in Joh. viii.) the priests were servants, 
yea, servants of sin, and therefore had no 

gower to forgive sins unto others ; but the 
on is the Lord of the house, who was 
manifested to take away our sins, says St 
John (1 John iii. 6)." Upon which sayiijg 
of his, St. Augustine writes : " It is He in 
whom there is no sin that came to take away 

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sin. For if there had been sin in Him too, 
it must have been taken away from Him ; 
He could not take it away Himself (Au- 
gust., Tract, iv., in 1 John iii.). There then 
follows another part of the ministry of rec- 
onciliation, consisting in the due adminis- 
tration of the sacraments, which being the 
proper seals of the promises of the Gospel, 
as tne censures are of the threats, must there- 
fore necessarily also have reference to the 
"remission of" sins" (Acts ii. 88; Matt 
zxvi. 28). And so we see the ancient fathers 
held that (Cyprian, Epist. lxxvi. sec. 4, ed. 
Famelii, 8 Goulartii; Cyril. Alexand., in 
Joh., lib. xii. c. 56; Ambros. de Poenit. lib. 
i. c. 7 ; Chrvsost. de Sacerdot., lib. iii. torn, 
vi., ed. Savif., p. 17, lin. 26 ; vide et torn. vii. 
p. 268, lin. 87) the commission, " Whosoever 
sins remit, they are remitted unto them 11 
(John xx. 28), is executed by the ministers 
of Christ, as well in the conferring of 
baptism as in the reconciling of peni- 
tents; yet so in both these, and in all 
the sacraments likewise of both the tes- 
taments, that (August. Qussst. in Levit 
clxxxiv. ; Optat. lib. v. contra Donat. ; Chrys- 
ost. in Matt, xxvi., Horn, lxxvii., edit. Graec., 
vel lxxxiii., Latin ; in 1 Cor. iii., Horn. viii. ; 
et in 2 Tim. i., Horn. ii. circa fin em) the 
ministry only is to be accounted man's, but 
the power God's. "For," as St. Augus- 
tine observes, " it is one thing to baptize by 
way of ministry, another thing to baptize 
by way of power" (Aug. in Evang. Joh., 
Tract, v.): "the power of baptizing the 
Lord retaineth to Himself, the ministry 
He hath given to His servants" (Id. ib.): 
" the power of the Lord's baptism was to 
pass from the Lord to no man, but the 
ministry was ; the power was to be trans- 
ferred from the Lord unto none of His 
ministers ; the ministry was both unto the 
good and unto the bad" (Id. ib.). And the 
reason which he assigns is, " that the hope 
of the baptized might be in Him by whom 
they did acknowledge themselves to have 
been baptized. The Lord, therefore, would 
not have a servant to put his hope in a ser- 
vant" (Id. ib.). And therefore tnose school- 
men argued, " It is a matter of equal power 
to baptize inwardly, and to absolve from 
mortal sin; but it was not fit that God 
should communicate the power of baptizing 
unto any, lest our hope should be reposed in 
man. Therefore, by the same reason, it was 
not fit that He should communicate the 
power of absolving from actual sin unto 
any" (Alexand. do Hales, Summ., part iv. 
qusest. xxi. Memb. i.). Our Saviour, 
therefore, must still have the privilege re- 
served unto Him of being the absolute Lord 
over His own house. It is sufficient for His 
officers that they be esteemed, as Moses was, 
"faithful in all His house as servants" (Heb. 
x. 5, 6). The place wherein they serve is a 
steward's place ; and the Apostle tells them 
that " it is reguired in stewards, that a man 
be found faithful" (Cor. iv. 2). They may 
not, therefore, carry themselves in their office 

as the unjust steward did, and presume to 
strike out their Master's debt without His 
direction, and contrary to His liking (Luke 
xvi. 6-8). But our Lord has given no au- 
thority unto His stewards to grant an acquit- 
tance unto any of His debtors that bring not 
unfeigned faith and repentance with them. 
"Neither angel nor archangel" can ; "neither 
yet the Lord Himself (who alone can say, 
* I am with you') when we have sinned, doth 
release us, unless we bring repentance with 
us," writes St. Ambrose (Epist. xxviii. ad 
Theodosium Imp.) ; and Eligius, Bishop of 
Eloyon, in his sermon unto the penitents, 
" Before all things, it is necessary you should 
know that howsoever you desire to receive 
the imposition of our hands, yet you cannot 
obtain the absolution of your sins before 
the divine piety shall vouchsafe to absolve 
you by the grace of compunction" (Eligius 
Noviamens, Horn. xi. torn, vii., Biblioth. 
Partr., p. 248, ed. Colon). To think, there- 
fore, that it lies in the power of any priest 
truly to absolve a man from his sins, with- 
out implying the condition of his " believing 
and repenting as he ought to do," is both 
presumption and madness in the highest de- 

And Cardinal Bellarmine, who censures 
this conditional absolution in us for idle and 
superfluous, is driven to confess that when 
the priest (Bellarmin, de Poenitent., lib. ii. c. 
4, sect, penult.) says, " I absolve thee," ho 
" doth not affirm that he doth absolve abso. 
lutely, as not being ignorant that it may 
many ways come to pass that he doth not 
absolve, although he pronounce those words ; 
namely, if he who seemeth to receive this 
sacrament" (for so they call it) " peradven- 
ture hath no intention to receive it, or is not 
rightly disposed, or putteth some block in the 
way. Therefore the minister," says he, " sig- 
niflcth nothing else by those words but that 
he, as much as in him lioth, conferreth the 
sacrament of reconciliation or absolution, 
which, in a man rightly disposed, hath vir- 
tue to forgive all his sins." 

"Evil and wicked, carnal, natural, and 
devilish men," says St. Augustine (do Bap- 
tism, contra Donatist., lib. iii. cap. ult.), 
" imagine those things to be given unto 
them by their seducers, which are only the 
gifts of God, whether sacraments or any 
other spiritual works concerning their pres- 
ent salvation." But such as are thus de- 
ceived ought to listen to this grave admo- 
nition of St. Cyprian (de Laps., sec. 7, ed. 
Pamel, 14 Goulart) : " Let no man deceive, 
let no man beguile himself; it is the Lord 
alone that can show mercy. He alone can 
grant pardon to the sins committed against 
Him, who did Himself bear our sins, who 
suffered grief for us, whom God did deliver 
for our sins. Man cannot be greater than 
God, neither can the servant by his indul- 
gence remit or pardon that which by heinous 
trespass is committed against the Lord; 
lest to him that is fallen this yet be added as 
a further crime, if he be ignorant of that 

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which is said, * Cursed is the man that put- 
teth his trust in man.' " Whereupon St 
Augustine (in Evang. Joh., Tract, v.) writes, 
that good ministers do consider that " they 
are but ministers ; they would not be held 
forjudges; they abhor that any trust should 
be put in them ; and that the power of re- 
mitting and retaining sins is committed unto 
the Church, to be dispensed therein, " but 
according to the arbitrament of God 11 (Id. 
de Baptism, contra Donatist., lib. iii. c. 18). 
Repentance from dead works is one of the 
foundations and principles of the doctrine 
of Christ (Heb. vi. 1). " Nothing maketh 
repentance certain but the hatred of sin 
and the love of God" (August. Serm. vii., 
de Tempore). And without true repent* 
ance all the priests under heaven are not able 
to give us a discharge from our sins and do- 
liver us from the wrath to come. " Except 
ye be converted, ye shall not enter into the 
kingdom of heaven" (Matt, xviii. 3). " Ex- 
cept ye repent, ye shall all perish' 1 (Luke 
xiii. 3, 5), is the Lord's saying in the New 
Testament. And in the Old, " Repent, and 
turn from all your transgressions ; so iniquity 
shall not be your ruin. Cast away frcm you 
all your transgressions, whereby ye have 
transgressed, and make you a new heart and 
a new spirit ; for why will ye die, O house 
of Israel?" (Ezek. xviii. 80, 31). (Dr. 
Stephens's Notes to Book of Common 

Abstinence. A reduction of food for the 
take of self-discipline. It implies a certain 
degree of voluntariness on the part of him 
who practices it, and also a power to deter- 
mine how far he will or will not abstain. It 
is not to be confounded with fasting, though 
it is so often. As for total abstinence, i.e. 
from " alcoholic liquids," no Christian can 
take the vow in its fullest sense, as he must 
receive for his soul's health the Holy Com- 
munion. But St. Paul gives us the only 
true principle in, " It is good neither to 
eat flesh nor to drink wine, nor anything 
whereby thy brother stumbleth or is offended 
or is made weak." 

Accidents. This term of ancient philos- 
ophy, which referred to the changeable parts 
of matter, as form, color, taste, as opposed to 
substance, proper, and the immutable prop- 
erties of matter, was appropriated by later 
medircval theologians to the alleged change 
in the elements after consecration at the 
Eucharist. The "species," or "accidents," 
were said to remain of bread and wine, but 
the substance was transubstantiated. It was 
a mere subterfuge for a logical difficulty in 
endeavoring to explain what is given us as a 

Accommodation. A word used to express 
the manner in which Divine teachings con- 
vey and adapt Divine truths to our compre- 
hension. These, it is evident, must bo fitted 
to the capacity, development, and circum- 
stances of those receiving these truths. 
Abraham, with his surroundings, could not 
receive what was given to David, or Isaiah, 

or Daniel, though he was the Father of the 
Faithful. So, again, the use of parables is 
an instance of accommodation. But, again, 
it is an accommodation to our limited power 
to speak to us of God's anger or jealousy, or 
that His Eye is upon us, His Hand upholds 
us. It would be impossible for us to under- 
stand many things revealed to us of God 
without some such accommodation from 
Him. But while fitted to our dwarfed power, 
yet they are themselves truths, which we are 
gradually enabled to understand better and 
to throw aside grosser, materialistic concep- 
tions which the mere words would teach. 
Another form of accommodation is in the 
gradual additions to the fundamental ele- 
mentary truths first revealed. Eve received 
a prophecy of Christ, but a fuller one 
was given to Abraham, and a still fuller to 
David, and so on. "We practice this mode, 
rather of development than of accommoda^ teaching children. So St. Paul gave 
the Corinthians milk rather than meat. But 
a positive accommodation perverts the truth 
and therefore it is inadmissible, and any 
attempt to explain difficult passages upon 
such a principle must be condemned. 

Acephali (without a head). Certain here* 
tics who separated from the Church, follow- 
ing Nestorius, or who held Eutychian prin- 
ciples and were condemned by the Synod at 
Constantinople 636 a.d. The Church in 
Cyprus was autocephalous as not under the 
jurisdiction of the Patriarch. But those 
priests who refused to be under a bishop 
were said to be acephali. 

Acolyte. A sub-officer assisting in Divine 
service in the Latin and Greek Churches. 
His duty is to light the candles, hand the 
bread and wine, the water, etc., to the priest. 
In the Greek Church it is another name for 
a sub-deacon. In the English Church, before 
the Reformation, the name was corrupted 
into Collet. 

Acrostic Psalms. Certain Psalms in 
Holy Scripture begin with the several suc- 
cessive letters of the alphabet, each stanza 
beginning with each letter in its order. 
There are twelve such poems in the Old 
Testament: Psalms xxv., xxxiv., xxxvii., 
cxi., cxii., cxix., cxlv., a part of Prov. xxxi., 
Lamentations i.-iv. But Psalm cxix. is 
the most remarkable of these compositions. 
It is divided into twenty-two sections, of 
eight couplets each; each division begin- 
ning with that letter of the alphabet in its 
order, and every couplet in the division be- 
ginning with the letter of its division, t.g, % 
the first division begins with Ashre, etc., 
and each couplet begins with the letter A. 
Psalms xxv., xxxiv., and cxv. are of twenty- 
two stanzas each, the first line only of each 
couplet being acrostical. Psalm xxxvii. is 
in twenty quatrains, the first line of each 
quatrain being acrostical. Psalms cxi. and 
cxii. are of twenty-two lines each, and each 
line begins with a new letter in alphabetical 
order. But Proverbs xxxi. is in twenty* 
two couplets; Lamentations chs. i. ii. in 

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twenty-two triplets, the first line of each 
triplet being acrostical. Lamentations ch. 
iii. is in twenty-two triplets, each triplet being 
in each line acrostical, while Lamentations 
ch. iv. is in twenty-two couplets, each couplet, 
in its first line, being acrostical. These re- 
markable poems exhibit well the rhythmical 
and antithetical character of Hebrew poetry, 
and its peculiar style of parallelisms. 

Acts of the Apostles (The). Probably St. 
Luke did not give any title to his work fur- 
ther than would be implied in the term by 
which he designates this gospel,— " the for- 
mer treatise" (Acts i. 1). In this, then, as 
in nearly all the other books of the Bible, 
there was no title or name supplied or pre- 
fixed by the writer. And as the heading 
Acts of the Apostles does not literally con- 
form to the contents of the history, it would 
be better to give it its truer meaning, " Prac- 
tice of the Apostles, " which is probably 
nearer the idea intended by those who sup* 
plied the title. For the treatise only records, 
and, too, partially records, the Acts and the 
Practice of four Apostles, SS. Peter, John, 
Paul, and Barnabas, with scarcely more than 
a reference to St. James. In fact, SS. John 
and Barnabas appear only in connection 
with, or in relation to, SS. Peter and Paul. 
The history, then, may be considered as 
the inspired record of what should be the 
Apostolic policy and practice historically 
illustrated by the actions of these represen- 
tative Apostles; also as unfolding the ex- 
pansion of the Gospel from Jerusalem to 
Samaria, and thence to the Gentiles ; as be- 
side in a peculiar way declaring the control- 
ling power of the ascended Lord Jesus. 

It is no lessening of the authenticity and 
inspired accuracy of St. Luke to suppose 
that he may have used written documents, 
easily accessible to one so situated as him* 
self, for his earlier facts, and to have re- 
corded what came within his own personal 
knowledge later in his attendance on St. 
Paul. But the whole tone of the Acts im- 
plies that though he may not have taken an 
active part, yet he was not only an eye-wit- 
ness of the general course of the events he rec- 
ords, but had intimate relations with some of 
the principal actors. The minute touches in 
his narrative provo this, e.<?., the description 
of St. Stephen before the-Sanhcdrim, and the 
spirited condensation of his speech ; the men- 
tion of significant surnames; the detailed 
account of St. Peter's deliverance from 

Srison, and his reception at the house of 
Cary, the mother of Mark, whose surname 
is John. Even the narrative of the conver- 
sion of Cornelius renders it probable that he 
W0S one of the brethron who went with St. 
Peter from Joppa to Cosarea. Of course 
in the journeys of St. Paul we have the 
record of an actual companionship, though 
St. Luke was often separated from the Apos- 
tle by the exigencies of the mission work, as 
is clearly marked by the pronoun ** we" used 
in many places, and then (when St. Luke 
was away) dropped for " they." 

The plan of the book, while the narrative 
passes on in a perfectly natural way from 
event to event, is not always evident to ordi* 
nary readers. But when we remember that 
the Holt Spirit caused certain facts to be 
set down, and others seemingly even more 
important to be omitted, and that there is no 
waste or uncertainty in His purposes, His 
purpose, we may reverently say, is to record 
the work given to the Church to do, not the 
achievements of His servants. With this 
clue we can well see that it is an outline, 
sufficient, clear, definite, but very concise, 
of the work -to be done, of the lines upon 
which the future officers in the Church were 
to move forward. It contains in its history 
the true solution of the problems which can 
be presented to the Church in the several 
epochs of her career. It is (to borrow the 
illustration of Bishop Wordsworth) the jour- 
nal of the movements, directed by the Cap- 
tain of our Salvation, of His officers leading 
His army to its final victory. Tho Apostles 
had much the same difficulties to encounter. 
And their mode of surmounting obstacles and 
their strategy and tactics are lessons to us in 
the present day. The plan of the Acts is 
simply a development of our Lord's direc- 
tion, " But ye snail receive power, after that 
the Holy Ghost is come upon you, and ye 
shall be witnesses unto me, both in Jeru- 
salem and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and 
unto the uttermost part of the earth." 

Beginning with the Ascension (ch. i. 1-12), 
St. Luke goes on to record the continuance 
of the company of the one hundred and 
twenty faithful in prayer and supplication 
(vs. 13, 14), and the election of Matthias into 
the place of Judas (vs. 15-26) ; then the 
wondrous outpouring of the Holy Ghost 
(ch. ii. 1-4), and the attention it attracted, 
and the resulting conversion of the three 
thousand (vs. 6-41). Thereupon he describes 
the practice of the new community (vs. 42- 
47). Chapter iii. narrates the miracle of 
healing the lame beggar at Solomon's Gate, 
and St. Peter's appeal, and ch. iv. the arrest 
and imprisonment by " the priests, tho Cap- 
tain of the Temple, and the Sadducccs," with 
St. Peter's manly boldness, and their dis- 
missal (vs. 1-22), and the thanksgiving, and 
their renewed courage by the grace of the 
Holy Ghost (vs. 23-81). Then the commu- 
nity life is described (vs. 82-37), with the 
stern retribution that foil upon Ananias and 
Sapphira (ch. v. 1-11) ; the continued growth 
of the Church through the signs and wonders 
wrought by the Apostles (vs. 12-16) ; the in- 
dignation this produced in the Jewish rulers ; 
the arrest of the Apostles and their defense : 
the private consultation and tho counsel 
given by Gamaliel ; their illegal stripes and 
release (vs. 17-42). 

Then the narrative relates for us another 
step in the Church's development. It has 
nearly outgrown the swathing-bands of a 
mere community life. The increase of their 
number demanded a new arrangement for 
the government of the rapidly-growing 

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Church, and this led to the establishment 
of the Diaconate and the special reservation 
to themselves by the Apostles of the duties 
of prayer and the ministry of the Word (ch. 
vi. 1-8). The new Order, however, shared 
in the work of preaching ; specially Stephen 
(vs. 9, 10), who was arrested and placed be- 
fore the council (vs. 11-15). Then follows St. 
Stephen's most characteristic speech (ch. vii. 
vs. 1-63), and glorious martyrdom (vs. 64- 
60). Out of the change in the interior organ- 
ization grew this first martyrdom, and then 
the persecution (ch. viii. 1—8), which, without 
breaking up the Church, drove those who 
were activo in the work of conversion to the 
third step in her work. The deacon Philip 
goes down to Samaria, and there (vs. 4-18) 
gathers in many of the Samaritans, but as 
yet no Gentile was admitted. Since only 
the Apostles could confirm, the College of 
Apostles sent SS. Peter and John down to 
give them the Holy Ghost by the laying 
on of hands (vs. 14-34), and took the oppor- 
tunity (v. 25) to preacn in the neighboring 
Samaritan villages. Then follows the send- 
ing Philip to gather in the first convert for 
Africa (vs. 26-40). Then (ch. ix.) succeeds 
the narrative of St. Paul's conversion (vs. 
1-22) his escape from the Jews, who lay in 
wait for him (vs. 23-31). St. Peter's mission 
work in lower Syria (vs. 32-43) brought him 
to Joppa, whence he was called to fulfill his 
work part in laying the foundation of the 
Church for the Gentiles by the bapti&jn of 
the centurion Cornelius (ch. x.). 

This brought on the second dissension 
within the Church (ch. xi. 1-18), which was 
settled by St. Peter's account. Henceforth, 
whatever temporary or local prejudice there 
might be, there was no contention about it. 
But this work was transferred, as soon as it 
began to be important, to Barnabas, who 
soon took Saul to labor with him (vs. 19-30). 
St. James's martyrdom and the imprison- 
ment of St. Peter follow in the narrative 
(ch. xii. 1-19), which, however, soon reverts 
to Barnabas and Saul. But the Church has 
overstepped her narrow bounds. The mis- 
sion, by command of the Holy Ghost, of 
Barnabas and Saul to their work (ch. xiii. 
1-3) inaugurates a new work. Hence- 
forth, while the Jews are first appealed to, 
the Gentiles have the Gospel preached to 
them. This first missionary journey beyond 
the limits of Syria (chs. xiii. 4; xiv.) was 
important in its results, but really it led the 
way to greater changes. Saul becomes Paul, 
and is the leading speaker. Ch. xv. records 
the third and last struggle within the 
Church. The Judaic party made their last 
resistance upon circumcision. This was also 
settled ,* and now whatever bickering might 
arise, the policy of the Church was settled by 
this Council at Jerusalem in its Encyclical. 

From this time forward the narrative is 
of St. Paul alone with the company he 
gathered about him (ch. xv. 86-99). But 
there is also a significant change in the pol- 
icy of carrying forward the Gospel. St. Paul 

does not trust to his personal influence and 
constant supervision, nor pause for minute at- 
tention to comparatively unimportant fields. 
That is trusted in true faith to his companions, 
or to those chosen out of the new converts 
to be their ministers. He seeks centres and 
influential towns with the instinct of a 
general who plans his strategy and leaves 
tactical dispositions to his trusty subor- 
dinates. Only in Corinth and in Ephesus 
did he make voluntarily any long stay, and 
both were most important posts for the 
Church to hold firmly. His first journey is 
recited in chs. xiii. and xiv. His second in 
chs. xv. 86; xviii. 23. His third journey is 
recounted in chs. xviii. 26 ; xxi. 14. His 
labors are henceforth from a prison or a 
guard-house, ever in the presence of, if not 
chained to, a soldier, or elso upon a storm- 
driven ship, till he is at last permitted, though 
a state prisoner, to dwell in his own hired 
house through two quiet years. These last 
chapters (from ch. xiii. to the end) are 
most precious to us Gentiles. With the 
direction of our Lord clearly set before us, 
they are the only record of the fulfillment of 
His command. This Book of the Acts, then, 
bears upon its front the stamp of consistent 
truthfulness. It is a faithful account, scru- 
pulously accurate, of the chief and to us 
most important facts connected with the 
Apostolic founding, nurture, organization, 
and proclamation of the Church as the Body 
of Christ, which He purchased with His 
own blood. Its title, " The Practice of the 
Apostles, 11 gives with concise clearness its 
purpose. When we question it we find that 
it gives us the Threefold order, — Apostles, 
Presbyters, Deacons. It sets before us the 
Sacrament of Baptism j the necessity of Con- 
firmation ; the daily celebration of the Com- 
munion ; the observance of the Lord's Day. 
In it we learn the true Financial policy of 
the Church ; the Apostolic authority for 
Episcopal visitation ; the tone and policy of 
our missionary work ; the power of sermons ; 
the use of forms of prayer. In it is given 
us naturally, incidentally as a part of the 
narrative, the usages or practice of those 
who had the mind of Christ, and who had 
been instructed by Him for the forty days 
He was with them in the things pertaining 
to the Kingdom of Heaven. 

This, as with every other book of the 
Scripture, has been subjected to the wildest, 
vaguest criticism, which is best replied to 
by pointing out that, as in so many other 
cases, the critics cannot agree upon any 
one common ground. Its text, which, of 
course, was copied out by writers in succes- 
sive ages, has undergone some mutilation, 
and some slight variations have crept in, 
but there is nothing to throw the slightest 
shadow of doubt upon its genuineness or its 
inspiration. Nor is there any material va- 
riation in the best critically restored form 
of the text that can affect the sense of our 
Authorized Version. 

Adiaphoristic Controversy. (Adiaphoi t, 

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or things indifferent.) A dispute which 
arose and continued for some time between 
the followers of Luther and of Melancthon 
about the traditions and ceremonies of the 
Church. Melancthon was disposed to sur- 
render them as indifferent for the sake of 
peace and unity. The chief opponent in 
the controversy was the Hebrew professor 
at Wittenberg, Illyrius Flaccus. 

Adjuration. The binding of, or solemn 
appeal to, a person by an invocation of the 
Divine name, as the High- Priest to our 
Lord: "I adjure Thee by the living Goi> 
that Thou tell us whether Thou be the 
Christ the Son of God." To this adjura- 
tion our Lord, hitherto silent, at once re- 
plied. Adjuration was a part of the form 
of exorcism which anciently was the prece- 
dent office to baptism. 

Administration. The performance of a 
duty, or office, or function. It is used sev- 
eral times in the Prayer-book, as in the 
title to the Office of the Holy Communion, 
the prayer for those to be ordained, and in 
the Ordinal. In ecclesiastical law it refers 
to the distribution of the effects of intes- 

Admonition. Advice or warning. A 
word used to assert the advisory authority 
of a Bishop over his clergy, when they 
promise to follow with a glad mind his godly 
admonition. But it is also in the charge to 
the priest at his ordination. It is, however, 
now used in a harsher sense, meaning the 
first stop of warning, which, if persistently 
rejected, must lead on to excommunication ; 
following St Paul's direction, " A man that 
is an heretic after the first and second ad- 
monition reject' ' (Titus iii. 10). 

Admonition, Godly. The earliest form 
of an examination of a candidate for orders 
during the process of ordination is found in 
an Ordinal of the eleventh century, though 
questions were asked of Bishops, at the time 
of their consecration, at an earlier period. 
The questions propounded in our Ordinal 
are peculiar to the English service, and 
were framed by the reformers of our Liturgy 
in 1549-60. They seem, as Palmer has said, 
"to have been modeled in a great degree 
after the parallel formularies used in the 
ordination of Bishops. 1 ' The last question 
is probably the most ancient of them all, 
and is found in manuscript Ordinals, written 
eight hundred years ago, where it is placed 
in exactly the position which it holds in our 
service, at the beginning. In the English 
Prayer-book the phrase used is, " Will you 
reverently obey your Ordinary and other 
chief ministers?" The Ordinary, according 
to Canon Law, is the Bishop, and the " other 
chief ministers" are such officers as are 
established by law, — tlje Archdeacon, Dean, 
or Commissary of the Bishop. But in our 
Ordinal is inserted after " chief ministers" 
the words, " who according to the Canons of 
the Church may have the charge over you." 
The reason of this change is found in the 
fact that on the introduction of the Episco- 

pate into this country, it was not deemed 
best at that time to introduce those other 
offices and titles, such as Archdeacons, Deans, 
and Rural Deans, which have so long existed 
in England. It .will be noticed that the 
only chief ministers other than the Bishop 
whose admonitions and judgment the Deacon 
and Priest are to follow are those who are 
invested with such authority by the " Canons 
of the Church." This must mean the Canons 
of this Church, because the Canons of the 
English Church recognized these several 
offices and dignities ; and its use here was 
evidently to restrict this vow of obedience 
to those whom the American branch of the 
Church by its Canons might appoint over 

The only chief ministers recognized by our 
Canons as invested with any governing or 
controlling authority are those elected bv 
the several Standing Committees, which 
Standing Committees, under certain circum- 
stances, exercise " the powers and duties to 
be performed by a Bishop." For in case 
there is a vacancy in the Episcopate, the 
Standing Committee is the ecclesiastical au- 
thority of the diocese for all purposes 
declared in the Oanons of the Church. And 
this authority is exercised by them when 
acting in their corporate capacity as mem- 
bers of that committee. There is but little 
doubt that the phraseology of the question 
was so framed in order to meet just such a 
development as is now seen in some of the 
dioceses where the Cathedral and Decanal 
institutions and usages obtain more or less, 
and which, perhaps, it was conjectured 
might in the future, in the great growth of 
the Church, arise as a practical necessity. 

Confining ourselves simply to the Ameri- 
can Ordinal, what is promised here ? Reverent 
obedience ; conformity to godly admoni- 
tions; submission to godly judgment— of 
the " Bishop and other chief ministers who, 
according to the Canons of the Church, may 
have the charge and government over you." 
But here the question arises, What is meant 
by the phrases " godly admonition ; godly 
judgment"? This must be interpreted by 
the tenor of the office in which the terms 
are found, and by the general usage and ex- 
planation of it in recognized authorities. It 
is that admonition and that judgment 
which as a reverend father in God in the 
fullness of his Episcopal office he delivers in 
questions of conduct and duty in carrying 
out the provisions of the Church's law and 
worship. It is an " admonition " delivered 
in the fear of God, to whom the Bishop is 
amenable for all his acts, in reference 
to some course or practice which the Bishop, 
acting as an authorized ruler in God's 
house, deems wrong. It is a "judgment" 
made in the fear of God, and with a full 
recognition of his being judged of God; 
as to the right or wrong, the propriety or 
impropriety of some act or ceremony which, 
in the estimation of the Bishop, contravenes 
the letter or the spirit of the promise of 

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conformity to the doctrine, discipline, and 
worship of the Protestant Episcopal Church. 
It is not meant that a godly admonition 
or a godly judgment should be a perfectly 
holy and perfectly just admonition or judg- 
ment such as God Himself would give, be- 
cause the admonition and judgment, being 
human, must necessarily partake of human 
infirmity and imperfection. Neither does it 
mean that such an admonition or judgment 
will be such as shall be sustained by process 
of law, because decisions of law are ever 
varying both in time and place, and the 
conflict of laws is a fact recognised by the 
most eminent jurists. 

Neither does it mean that such an ad- 
monition and judgment shall always be 
wise and productive, for as "to err is 
human," so Bishops are not exempt from 
such errancy, and with the most devout 
aspirations and earnest endeavors to do 
right they may yet miss the marks of wis- 
dom and prudence. But it does mean that 
when a Bishop under the realizing sense of 
his, consecration vows to "banish and drive 
away from the Church all erroneous and 
strange doctrine contrary to God's Word," 
and " both privately and openly call upon 
and encourage others to do the same," and 
14 diligently exercise such discipline as by the 
authority of God's Word and by the order of 
this Church is commended to Him ;" does, on 
questions of conduct which he believes to be 
reprehensible or on points of ritual of doubt- 
ful interpretation and authority, give his 
official admonition and judgment touching 
these things, it is the duty of the clergy to 
reverently obey such godly admonition and 
submit themselves to such godly judgment. 
Yet this submission to obedience does not 
debar them the privilege or weaken the duty, 
of -testing the right of the clergy to their 
course and views by the process of Canon 
Law. For such admonition and judgment 
but takes the place of a temporary injunc- 
tion in civil law, whereby a course of con- 
duct is arrested and made stationary until 
judicial decision shall be had in the premises. 
80 in these cases, if the clergyman feels ag- 
grieved by, the admonition of the Bishop or 
that he has been wronged by the judgment, 
he has redress in law. The ecclesiastical 
courts are open to him, and questions of fact, 
of interpretation, of issue, can be then and 
there settled. 

Bishop Mant, in his "Discourses upon the 
Church and Her Ministrations," says in 
reference to these words : " The rule and 
limits of the respect and deference due may 
be judged to be that in all matters of 
spiritual or ecclesiastical concern, in all 
matters which affect the welfare of religion 
or of the Church, it is the duty of the clergy 
to comply with the advice and to acquiesce 
in the decision of their Ordinary, unless his 
authority be suspended by a paramount or 
superior power. If the Law of God or 
the law *he country clearly and indis- 
putably presu.l?:s a different course, their 

authority surpasses that of the Bishop and 
ought to be preferred. If neither of these 
authorities clearly interferes with it, then I 
apprehend they concur in sustaining and 
supporting it, and it becomes the duty of 
the clergy to follow with a glad mind and 
will the admonition of their lawful governor, 
though abstractedly their inclinations may 
lead them in a different course, and to sub- 
mit their judgment to the judgment of their 
official superior, though abstractedly thoy 
may not be convinced of the correctness of 
his decision." (The Church and Her Minis- 
trations, p. 286.) " It may be noted also," 
says Dean Comber, "that the candidates 
promise gladly to obey, that is, readily and 
willingly, without murmuring or too nice 
disputing, unless the thing enjoined be 
notoriously evil ; for to be very scrupulous 
proceeds from the pride of inferiors and 
tends to overthrow the superior's authority. 
Yet this doth . not give superiors any un- 
limited powers to command anything that 
is evil, for they only promise to obey ttteir 
godly admonitions, so that such as govern 
in the Church must take heed they do not 
enjoin anything but that which is either 
good in itself or apparently tends to pro- 
mote piety and virtue and is not evil." (On 
the Ordination Offices, p. 214.) Canon James 
(Comment on the Ordination Services, p. 
270) says " The Episcopal admonition which 
the clergy are to follow, and the like judg- 
ments to which they are to submit them- 
selves, must be 'godly admonitions' and 
•godly judgments.' Now this caution by 
which the vow is accompanied, like every 
other cautionary counsel and guarded com- 
mand given by the Church, is used not at 
doubting either the godliness of the Bishop 
or the due obedience of his clergy, but be- 
cause this or any other vow is required to 
be soUmnly made, and because all the ser- 
vices, and particularly the ordination ser* 
vices, are written as unto fallible men, and 
there can be no sound legislation either in 
' Church or State where all is not based on this 
principle. The framers, therefore, of these 
services wisely so acted. They remembered 
that St. Paul scrupled not to avow of himself 
that he was a man of like passions, as well 
with those he ordained as with those among 
whom he ministered. A frank avowal this 
that he was liable to error. It is only in 
this view of the case that the term can be 
considered appropriate, for to suppose that 
the admonitions of a Bishop to be other than 
godly would appear impossible, and it is 
eaually impossible to conceive otherwise of 
his judgment in matters of religion than 
that it should be godly according to the 
written Word of God declared in His Gos- 
pel and adopted by the Church." 

The venerable BishopWhite, in his " Com- 
ment on the Ordination Offices," a book 
unanimously approved by the whole House 
of Bishops in 1888, speaking of these prom- 
ises, after stating that these " godly admoni* 
tions must have respect to some standard by 

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which they are directed, and that this stand- 
ard must be the various established institu- 
tions of the Church and not the private 
opinions of the Bishop," he adds, " that in- 
judicious or even impertinent interference 
is possible ought not to bo denied, and can- 
not be justified." But there are two de- 
scriptions of cases in which no such censure 
is applicable. One is where an offense agai nst 
morals, the other where an offense against 
order is the subject In either of these cases 
indeed the admonition of the Bishop would 
be unseasonable unless the offense were no- 
torious and admitted, because he would be 
in danger of making himself an accuser 
when he is appointed to' be a judge. But 
if either of the species of offense is acknowl- 
edged by the offending party, and especially 
if it be Justified and persevered in, then is 
here claimed to the Bishop the right in ques- 
tion, not only on the ground of ecclesias- 
tical law, but on that of the consent of the 
party in the answer to the question last read, 
which may be considered as a personal con- 
tract binding him to submission under re- 
proof for past fault, and to amendment 
under exhortation relative to the time to 

When, therefore, a Bishop acting as a 
Father in God of a family over which 
the Holt Ghost has made him overseer, 
moved by an honest and zealous love for 
God's truth, and sustained by the specific 
decisions of the established and recognized 
Ecclesiastical tribunals of the Church of 
England, a Church from which ours has not 
departed " in any essential point of Doc- 
trine, Discipline, or Worship," and by the 
decisions and Canons of our own Church, 
issues his admonition and gives his judg- 
ment upon questions of usage and ritual, es- 
pecially when the points objected to are in- 
novations upon the established services of 
this Church, as carried on since its founda- 
tion nearly a century ago, such admoni- 
tions and judgment are those recognized by 
the Ordimil as godly. They proceed from 
godly motives, are directed to godly ends, 
and concern things pertaining to the worship 
of God in His Holy Temple. 

To disobey, then, is an act of self-will and 
subversive of all authority. In the case of 
a Deacon, we see at once that subordination 
to the Presbyter which makes that Presbyter, 
speeially the one under whom he serves, one 
of the chief ministers set over him, to whose 
admonitions and judgment he must conform 
himself as a true Diaconoa; and if to a Pres- 
byter set over him in a particular parish or 
missionary station, much more to his Bishop, 
to whose direction and authority he is canon- 
ical ly bound. 

Kt. Rev. Wm. Bacon Stevens, D.D., 

Bishop of Pennsylvania. 

Adonai. One of the titles of God (q. v. ) ; 
My Lord. It was pronounced by the 
Jews for the word Jehovah, which was 
only uttered by the priests in the sanctuary 
when blessing the people (Numb. vi. 22), 

and by the High-Priest on the Day of Atone- 
ment when before the mercy-seat. The true 
pronunciation was said to be lost. The Jews 
refuse, generally, to utter the " Incommu- 
nicable Name,' 1 and for it substituted the 
phrase Shem Hammephorash, i.e., the name 
of four letters, Yod He Vav Ho. The Alex- 
andrian translators of the Scriptures into 
Greek (Soptuagint) used the word Kyrios as 
its equivalent, and thus it passed into the 
New Testament as the title of our Lord. 
The word Adon, Lord, is found in many 
names, as in Adonijah, Adonizebek, Nebuch- 
adon-ezer, and in Greek mythology the 
Syrian Adon is Adonis. 

Adoption. A term of Roman law which 
St. Paul used to express the relation of the 
Christian to his heavenly Father. Tb« 
Roman law ran thus : " When aliens were to 
be taken into a family or into the place of 
children, the ceremony was either before a 
praetor or before the people. If it were done 
through the praetor it was called adoption." 
The parallel is accurate. Our adoption is 
not created by our will or choice, but is by 
the gift of God. We may choose whether 
we shall accept it, but it is still His gift, and 
not ours by any claim or merit. It is granted 
to us in and through our Lord Jesus 
Christ, therefore by His incarnation and 
the grace thereby accruing to the human 
race from Him. It is conveyed in baptism, 
and reversing the order of the verses, " As 
many of you as have been baptized into 
Christ have put on Christ" (v. 27) ; 
» For ye are all the children of God by 
faith in Christ Jesus" (v. 26), and then 
" And if ye be Christ's then are ye Abra- 
ham's seed, and heirs according to the prom- 
ise" (Gal. iii. 29) ; and the Apostle proceeds 
in his argument (ch. iv. 4-7) : " But when 
the fulness of the time was come, God sent 
forth His Son, made of a woman, made under 
the law to redeem them that were under the 
law, that we might receive the adoption of 
sons. And because ye are sons, God hath 
sent forth the Spirit of His Son into your 
hearts, crying Abba, Father. Wherefore 
thou art no more a servant, but a son ; and 
if a son, then an heir of God through 
Christ." So, too/in the Apostle's argument 
in the eighth chapter of Romans. St. Paul 
uses the word adoption in Rom. viii. 15, 23, 
ix. 4 ; Gal. iv. 5 ; and Ephesians i. 5. 

Adoptionist. Heresy. A heresy which 
taught that Christ was not the Son of 
God by His eternal generation, but by 
adoption. It was broached as early as the 
later Arian controversies, 880 a.d, but did 
not take a distinct shape, though combated 
by the early fathers (as Ambrose, Gregory, 
Naz. Cled., i.),till the eighth century, 
and in Spain, Elipandus, Archbishop of 
Toledo, and Felix, Bishop of Urgel. It 
was probably hit upon by Elipandus as a the- 
ory to conciliate the Mohammedans among 
whom his province was placed. Felix was 
a subject of Charlemagne. They taught 
that Christ Jesus as man was adopted, 

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though as the Word of God eternally he- 
gotten, thus practically dividing the Person 
of Christ, for they denied that the man 
Christ Jesus from the beginning of His 
Incarnation perfectly united with the Word 
the eternal and only-oegottcn Son of God. 
It was but another form of Nestorianism. 
Several theologians at once combated it, as 
Beatus and Bishop Etherius, of Osma, but 
Charlemagne sent for Alcuin, who refuted 
tho heresy in several works and letters 
written both to Felix and to EUpandus, 
founding his argument not only upon the 
opposing silence of Scripture, but upon the 
contradiction in the nature of the Unity of 
Person in Christ, that He could be the Son 
of God by nature and the Son or God by 
adoption. His two natures cannot make 
Him two Sons, for they are perfectly con- 
joined in His one Person. 

Felix recanted his heresy at the Council 
at Ratisbon, 792 a.d., but was sent to Rome 
by Charlemagne, where he had to make 
a second still more formal abjuration of his 
error in full orthodox terms, but when he 
regained his diocese he relapsed. Being 
summoned anew, and his tenets condemned 
at Frankfort (796 a.d.), he sought refuge 
with Elinandus within the Mohammedan 
rule. Adoptionism was again condemned at 
Friule (796 a.d ). 

The heresy was condemned again at Aix- 
la-Chapclle, 799 a.d., and was abjured by 
Felix, but Elipandus steadily adhered to it 
to the last. They sought in vain to prove 
their error by appeals to the Liturgy, which 
appeals are valuable to us now as settling 
the date of parts of the Mozarabic Liturgy. 

Adoration. A synonym for devout, rev- 
erent worship. Its origin is from the Latin 
manua ad oa mittere, to put the hand to 
the mouth in token of silent awe. It is used 
exclusively to mean the worship paid to 
God, and is in act both outward and in- 
ward ; outward in such kneeling or bowing 
and singing or speaking words of praise ; 
interior, of the heart and mind in such de- 
vout affections as raise the soul in adoring 
thought. Tho outward is empty form if it 
be not conjoined and informed by the inter- 
ior adoration, which make it acceptable as a 
personal offering to God. 

Adultery. Criminal intercourse of a mar- 
ried person of either sex with another of the 
other sex, whether married or not. The 
moral sin of adultery is implied in the in- 
spired words with which Adam received 
Eve, and is set forth in the Scvonth Com- 
mandment. Christ confirmed the binding 
force of Adam's declaration in emphatic 
terms fMark x. 6-9), and expounded tho 
force of the Commandment in His Sermon 
on tho Mount (Matt. v. 27-32). In all 
countries the crime has been branded as a 
heinous one, and often and earlier was pun- 
ishable with death, and if the injured hus- 
band should slay tho guilty parties flagrante 
delicti* oven now, tfio homicide does not 
receive tho condemnation it should. Our 

Lord's forgiveness of the guilty woman 
(John viii. 11) is taken as a mitigation of 
the death-sentence under the Mosaic dispen- 
sation ; but the guilt of it, both as to the 
moral and spiritual death of the sinning ones, 
and as to the sin against society, is not there- 
by extenuated,' and tbo severest enactments 
have always stood upon the Church's Canon 
Law against the guilty parties. This and 
fornication are the only causes allowed by 
our Lord to justify divorce. It is a sin 
that is absolutely heinous in the sight of 
God and in His Law. But moral theolo- 
gians sometimes distinguish between degrees 
of hcinousness in reference to the destructive 
results to society. A petition against the 
sin stands in the English Prayer-book in the 
Litany, which petition has been softened by 
hardly equivalent phrases in tho American 

Advent. There is no certainty of the 
date when the season of Advent was ap- 
pointed. The early Sacra men tary of Leo I. 
does not mention any Sundays in Advent. 
The Comes of St. Jerome, and* later the Sac* 
ramentary of Gclasius I. (496 a.d.), as- 
cribe Collects, Epistles, and Gospels to five 
Sundays in Advent. These documents are 
probably much interpolated. But Maximus 
of Tours (460 a.d.) makes the earliest cer- 
tain mention of Advent, and Csesarius of 
Aries (601-42 a.d.) has left the first set of 
Advent sermons we have (those ascribed to 
St. Ambrose and St. Augustine are spu- 
rious). In the Ambrosian and Mozarabic 
Liturgies the Advent season dates from St. 
Martin's day (November 11), and include! 
forty days, which were accounted as a lesser 
fast among the religious. But the first of 
these five Sundays was really counted as pre- 
ceding tho Sundays in Advent, so that there 
were only four Sundays counted. The Gal- 
lican Church (Macon, 681 a.d.) ordered 
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday to be ob- 
served as fasts in Advent, but the rule was 
disregarded. In tho Prereformod English 
Uses, as in the Gallican and Mozarabic 
Kites, we find special Epistles and Gospels for 
these days. The observance of Advent in 
tho Greek Church was probably much later, 
for Balsamon (1200 a.d.) says " the others 
(besides the Lenten fast), as tho fast of the 
Nativity, are each of seven days only. Those 
monks who fast forty days, viz., from St. 
Philip (September 14), are bound to this* by 
their rule. Such laics as do the like are to 
be praised therefor." 

Advowson. The right, in England, of 

Satronage to a church or an ecclesiastical 
eneflcc, and he who has the right of Advow- 
son is called tho Patron of the Church, 
from his obligation to defend tho rights of 
the Church from oppression and violence. 
For when lords of manors first built 
churches upon their own demesnes and ap- 
pointed the tithes of these manors to be paid 
to the officiating ministers which were before 
given to tho clergy in common, the lord 
who thus built a church and endowed it 

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with glebe or land had,, of common right, a 
power annexed of nominating such minister 
as he pleased (provided he were canon ically 
qualified)' to officiate in that church of 
which he was the founder, endower, main* 
tainer, or, in one word, the patron. This 
patronage is heritable, and is subject to many 
curious and intricate rules. (Vide Burns 
Ecclesiastical Law.) 

^Eon. This is a word which has two sepa- 
rate uses ; the true one, in connection with 
the future life and eternity, and the other, 
in which the Gnostics used it, personifying 
and deifying their imagined succession of 
ages. Borrowing some phrases from Chris- 
tian Revelation and adding to them the 
wildest imaginings, the Gnostics, who were 
either Orientals or Egyptians, pretended to a 
deeper Gnosis than that the Apostles taught. 
Their origin must have been in the years 
nearly contemporary with the close of the 
Apostolic century, for we find Ignatius al- 
luding to this word shortly after the death 
of St. John. 

Aerians. A small sect, founded by 
Aerius, a Presbyter of Sebaste, about 855 
a.d. Aerius, it is said, was disappointed in 
not obtaining the Episcopate, and in conse- 
quence seceded from the Church and denied 
that there was any difference between the 
office of a Bishop and that of a Presbyter. 
In contrast to the care that all other schis- 
matical or heretical bodies had taken to 
procure at the outset Episcopal consecration 
for their ministers, Aerius, by this, gave 
the best proof possible that hitherto an un- 
broken succession from the Apostles was 
ever deemed essential to a true ministry, 
even by those who were attacking that very 
authority of the ministry itself. The sect 
did not last very long. 

Affections. The Affections, as love, joy, 

frief, anger, jealousy, are also called the 
eelings. In later religious teaching they 
arc made the basis of theologic systems to a 
much larger extent than the New Testament 
warrants. Feeling cannot be called into 
proper activity without a use (rightly or 
wrongly) of the Reason. As then reason 
must precede, to base religion upon feeling, 
which may or may not have any true depth 
in separate individual natures, is to build 
upon the shifting sand. The value of the 
Affections t>r Feelings cannot be overesti- 
mated in their true place, but thoy must be 
subordinated to the reason, and must not 
warp the free action of conscience, a danger 
which is very imminent in all enthusiastic 
forms of religion. The inspired teachers 
never appealed in the first instance to the 
Affections; nay, they speak very strongly 
upon the need of controlling them. The 
popular confusion of the principles and doc- 
trines of Christianity, and the enthused 
reception of them, leads to a false compre- 
hension of the true Christian state. Ac- 
cording to a very common confusion, a per- 
son is not a true Christian unless he has 
certain experiences or feelings overlooking 

the true basis in the gifts and. adoption by 
God in the Church. A German school of 
Pietism lias endeavored to shelter religion 
from the attacks of opponents by withdraw- 
ing it into the province of Feeling. The 
folly of making Religion wholly a state of 
experience or spiritual judgment is evident 
by instituting the slightest comparison be- 
tween the dogmas and history of the New 
Testament and the fanciful notions of the 

Affinity. The relationship contracted be- 
tween a husband and his wife's blood rela- 
tions. By the old Canons illicit intercourse 
also resulted in affinity. Within certain de- 
grees the Divine Law (in the 18th ch. of Le- 
viticus) has forbidden marriage with a wife's 
relations. The Table of Kindred and Affin- 
ity, which is Canon Law in England, does 
not bind the Church in America, though va- 
rious efforts have been made to make it so, and 
the House of Bishops declared (General Con- 
vention of 1808) that it ought to be observed 
By the old Law (Just. Cod.) a kind of spir 
itual affinity was created between the spon 
sors and the adult or the infant baptized 
and marriage was consequently forbidden. 

Affusion. Vide Baptism. 

Agapae. The feasts of charity, St. Jude 
v. 12; St. Peter ii. 18. They had their rise 
in the community of goods mentioned in 
Acts ii. 44, and as the snaring of all things 
in common could not be continued when 
the society became too numerous, such a 
feast for the poorer members would become 
a substitute which could express well the 
fellowship and love between Christians of 
all ranks. St. Paul describes but does not 
so designate a feast of this kind. It became 
very popular and spread throughout the 
Churcn. Pliny may refer to it in his famous 
letter to Trajan ..." that they, later in the 
day, partook in common of a simple and in- 
nocent meal." Ignatius speaks of it. Ter- 
tullian also, in the next century ; Clement 
(192 A.i).) also speaks of the luxury which 
was introduced into the feasts which were 
intended to be for the poor, and as simple 
and temperate as became Christians. Meat, 
wine, fish, cheese; bread, milk, poultry, made 
up the articles usually furnishea by the richer 
for the poorer brethren. The real use of the 
feast was not the relief to the needy, for 
that could be and was attained by other 
agencies, but as a living proof of the com- 
mon brotherhood. This common bond was 
lost sight of as the Church grew in wealth 
and drew into it the wealthy upper classes. 
Ascetic ideas, too, and the practice of fasting 
before Communion, and the abuses readily 
growing up about these Feasts of Charity, 
would lead to their disuse and abolishment. 
When they finally disappeared is not prob- 
ably to be ascertained now, but traces of the 
practice survived in Egypt till near the close 
of the fifth century, and the Council in 
Trullo (692 a.d.) forbids them, though no 
other notice of tnem at that date is found. 

Agenda. A term meaning Things to be 

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done, in distinction from Things to be be- 
lieved. It usually means the divine offices, 
as in the Council of Carthage (390 a.d.) and 
Innocent I. (Ep ad Decentium, though its 
genuineness is now questioned.) Latterly, 
as in Bcde, it meant specially commemora- 
tion of the dead. 

Agnosticism (from the negative particle 
a and yiyroa/cw, I know) is a modern word 
representing a form of philosophy which has 
attained a wide acceptance with some men 
of cultivated intellect. It is fairly described 
in the following sentences taken from Pre- 
bendary Row's " Revelation and Modern 
Theology Contrasted," London, 1883, p. 838 : 
u This philosophy maintains that while be- 
lief in the existence of a first cause of the 
universe, which it designates God, is a ne- 
cessity of thought, yet this first cause, or 
God, owing to the limitations of the human 
intellect, must forever remain unknown and 
unknowable to man. In other words, that 
it is impossible to affirm of it a single attri- 
bute; and that to assert that it possesses 
personality, volition, intelligence, or a moral 
character is nothing else than anthropomor- 
phism, by which is meant that to ascribe 
such conceptions, being purely human, to the 
first cause of the universe is simply to manu- 
facture a God after our own likeness. The 
God of this system, therefore, while the as- 
sumption of this existence satisfies an intel- 
lectual necessity, is precisely the same for 
all moral purposes as if He existed not. ( Vide 
Atheism.) For anything that we can know, 
He is incapable of caring for us or regarding 
our conduct, and we, in like manner, may 
both live and die without any regard for 
Him." Wh : le this subtle philosophy is ap- 
parently more modest than atheism, and to 
that degree less offensive to the cultivated 
taste of intellectual men, it is plain from the 
above description that it is absolutely antv- 
Christian. ( Vide Atheism. Sec also " Ag- 
nosticism : A Doctrine of Despair," by Pres- 
ident Porter, of Yale College, in the series 
of " Present-Day Tracts." London, The 
Religious Tract Society.) 

Rev. Hall Harrtsox. 
Agnus Dei. I. The words with which 
St. John Baptist pointed out Jksus to His 
disciples — " Behold the Lamb of God which 
taketh away the sin of the world" — was 
very naturally and' devoutly used in the 
liturgic worship. It was incorporated into 
the glorious hymn "Gloria in Excelsis," 
found at the end of St. Clement of Alexan- 
dria's works (192 a.d.), and now in our 
Prayer-Book. It was also used as a versicle 
during the celebration of the Holy Com- 
munion, at the time of consecrating the 
elements, and became common during 
the mediaeval ages. But the English Use 
dropped it, though it is being revived in 
many places. 

II. A medallion of wax stamped with the 
effigy of a lamb. It was an ancient custom 
to distribute to worshipers on the first Sun- 
day after Easter particles of wax taken from 

the Pasehal taper, which had bfcen solemnly 
blessed on the Easter-eve of the previous 
year. These particles were burned in houses, 
fields, or vineyards to secure them agairist 
evil influence or thunder-strokes. In Rome 
itself, however, instead of a Paschal taper, 
the archdeacon was accustomed to pronounce 
a benediction over a mixture of oil and wax, 
from which small medallions were made 
bearing the figure of a lamb, to be distrib- 
uted to the people on the first Sunday after 
Easter, especially to the newly baptized. In 
modern times this benediction of the Agnus 
Dei is reserved to the Pope himself, and 
takes place in the first year of his pontifi- 
cate and every seventh year following. 

Alabama, Diocese of. On Monday, Jan- 
uary 26, 1830, a meeting of the members 
and friends of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in the State of Alabama was held 
in the city of Mobile, for "the purpose ot 
giving a more efficient and permanent char- 
acter to its institutions, and for the better 
administration of its rites and ordinances." 
This seems to have been the first step taken 
towards organizing the Diocese. Two cler- 
gymen of the Church were then living in 
the State, — the Rev. Mr. Shaw in Mobile, 
and the Rev. Mr. Muller inTuskaloosa, — and 
both were present at this meeting. It also 
appears that the Rt. Rev. Bishop Brownell, 
of Connecticut, and the Rev. William Rich- 
mond, of New York, were in Mobile at tha* 
time, and were invited to be present. Bishop 
Brownell, by special request, presided ovei 
the meeting. " 

The Diocese was formally organized by 
the adoption of a constitution, which recog- 
nized the authority of the Church in the 
United States. After this was done, a reso- 
lution was passed looking to the formation 
of a Southwestern Diocese, to be composed 
of the Dioceses of Mississippi, Louisiana, 
and Alabama. After correspondence be- 
tween the parties interested in this, a num- 
ber of clergy and laity, duly elected to rep- 
respnt thos-o several States, assembled in 
Christ Church, New Orleans, on the 4th of 
March, 1835. Their object was to secure 
the privilege granted by a Canon of the 
General Convention of 1832, which Canon 
was expressed in the following words: " The 
Dioceses of Mississippi and Alabama, and 
the Clergy and Churches in the State of 
Louisiana, are hereby authorized to associate 
and join in the election of a Bishop, any- 
thing in the Canons of this Church to the 
contrary notwithstanding; the said associa- 
tion to be dissolved on the demise of the 
Bishop, and not before, unless by the consent 
of General Convention." Acting under the 
authority of such Canon, this Convention 
unanimously elected the Rev. Francis L. 
Hawks, D.D., of St. Thomas' Church, New 
York, Bishop of this Southwestern Diocese ; 
but, in consequence of the repeal of said 
Canon by a succeeding General Convention, 
this plan was abandoned. 

The Convention of Alabama which 

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met in Tuskaloosa, on the 3d of January, 
1831, invited Bishop Brownell to take 
charge of parishes in this State, under the 
provisions of Canon 20 of the Church in the 
United States, and to perform such Episco- 
pal services as might be required. This 
invitation was accepted, and the Bishop 
remained in official charge of this Diocese 
until 1840, at which time he requested to be 
relieved. Between 1831 and 1840 Bishop 
Brownell paid at least two vUits to Alabama. 
He presided at the Convention which met 
in Tuskaloosa in 1835, confirmed several 
persons, and consecrated the church in that 
city ; and again in 1837, administered con- 
firmation in the city of Mobile. 

In 1836, Bishop Otey, of Tennessee, acting 
for Bishop Brownell, visited the State ; and 
in 1838, Bishop Kemper, at the invitation of 
Bishop Otey, performed several Episcopal 
acts in the Diocese. 

In 1840 the Diocese was placed under the 
official charge of the Rt. Be v. Bishop Polk, 
who made two visits to the Diocese, and 
presided at the Convention of 1843. 

In* the year 1842 the Rev. Martin P. 
Parks, of Virginia, at that time Chaplain 
at the Military Academy at West Point, 
was elected Bishop, but declined to take 
charge of the Diocese. In 1843 the Rev. 
James T. Johnston, of Virginia, was duly 
elected Bishop, but declined to accept the 

. At a Convention held in Greensboro', 
Alabama, in 1844, the Rev. N. H. Cobbs, 
D.D., of the Diocese of Ohio, was elected 
Bishop of Alabama. The Rev. Dr. Cobbs 
accepted the election, was consecrated in 
October, 1844, and came at once to his work 
in the Diocese. 

At the Convention of 1845, the first one 
held after Bishop Cobbs took charge of the 
Diocese, the number of clergy entitled to 
seats was 17 ; at the Convention of 1860, the 
last one at which this Bishop was present, 
the number canonically connected with the 
Diocese was 32. The labors of this Bishop 
were very greatly blessed; the number of 
his clergy rapidly increased, and his Diocese 
was always a household at unity with itself. 

Bishop Cobbs died in January, 1861, and 
on May 2, 1861, the Annual Convention of 
the Diocese assembled in St. John's Church, 
Montgomery. Failing to agree in the choice 
of a Bishop the Convention adjourned to 
meet in Selma, on Thursday, November 21, 
1861 ; and reassembling at the time and place 
appointed, the. Rev. Richard Hooker Wilmer, 
D.D., of the Diocese of Virginia, was unani- 
mously elected Bishop of Alabama. The 
Rev. Dr. Wilmer accepted this election, 
and was consecrated in St. Paul's Church, 
Richmond, Va., March 6, 1862, the Rt. Rev. 
William Meade, D.D., Bishop of Virginia, 
the RL Rev. John Johns, Assistant Bishop 
of Virginia, and the Rt. Rev. Stephen Elliott, 
D.D., Bishop of Georgia, uniting in this 
consecration. When the war ended this 
Consecration was fully recognized by the 

Protestant Episcopal Church in the United 
States, and the Bishop of Alabama took his 
seat with his brethren in the House of 

Bishop Wilmer came at once to his Dio- 
cese, and in God's providenco has been 
spared to labor continuously in this portion 
of the Master's vineyard. 

In 1857 the subject of a Diocesan School 
for Girls was brought before the Convention 
in the Bishop's address, and thp action which 
then began resulted in the purchase of a lot 
near the city of Montgomery, and the erec- 
tion of a suitable building, called Hamner 
Hall. This property was managed for a 
time by a separate board of trustees, then 
by St. John's Parish, Montgomery, and 
finally came into the possession of the Dio- 
cese. The school. is now in a very flourish- 
ing condition, under the charge of Rev. 
George M. Everhart, D.D. 

On the same lot is a large and handsome 
brick house, known formerly as the Bishop 
Cobbs Home for Orphans, which house is 
also the property of the Diocese, and is re- 
served as the residence of the future Bishops 
of Alabama. 

In 1864, Bishop Wilmer issued a Pastoral 
Letter urging upon the Diocese the estab- 
lishment of a Home for Widows and Or- 
phans, which should be under the care of a 
Sisterhood of Deaconesses. The plan was 
approved by the Convention, and steps were 
taken to carry it into effect. A few orphans 
were collected at Tuskaloosa, but they were 
soon removed to Mobile, and to this number 
were added the inmates of the Bishop Cobbs 
Home at Montgomery. A building was 
purchased in which were placed a number 
of orphan girls. As necessity required it, a 
similar Home was furnished for boys, both 
Homes being under the care of the Dea- 
conesses. The liberality of Church people, 
almost exclusively of Mobile, has enabled 
the managers not only to provide comfort- 
ably for these orphans from day to day, but 
also to lay up funds for future use; the 
property of the Home amounting, in 1888, 
to $15,769.29. 

In 1846 there was formed a Society for the 
.Relief of Disabled Clergymen, and of the 
Widows and Orphans of Deceased Clergy- 
men. This society has preserved its exist- 
ence under several changes of constitution, 
and seems destined to be the means of do- 
ing much good. It holds property to the 
amount of $13,108.42. 

In 1836 an effort was made to secure a 
Bishop's Fund. Three trustees were ap- 
pointed to receive a gift of land offered by 
Jacob Lorillard, Esq , of New York City, 
for the benefit of a fund whose annual in- 
terest would in time be sufficient to support 
the Bishop of the Diocese. This fund is 
managed by three trustees, who are elected 
annually by the Convention, and its prop- 
erty now amounts to $29,862. 

From 1830 %o 1844 the various reports 
show the following statistics : baptisms, 836 j 

Digitized by 




confirmations, 168; marriages, 194; funer- 
als, 814. 

Prom 1844 to 1861, baptisms, 6493; con- 
firmations, 2351 ; marriages, 1082 ; funerals, 

From 1861 to 1883, baptisms, 10,739 ; con- 
firmations, 6768 ; marriages, 2558 ; funerals, 

Total baptisms, 18,068; confirmations, 
9287 ; marriages, 8834 ; funerals, 7735. 

Deacons ordained from 1845 to 1861, 28. 

Priests " " " " 26. 

Churches consecrated" •• u 14. 

r Deacons ordained " 1861 to 1888, 26. 

Priests " " " " 17. 

Churches consecrated" " " 19. 

Total deacons ordained, 54. 
" priests " 43. 

" churches consecrated, 83. 

The present condition of the Diocese is 
best explained by citing some words from 
the address of Bishop Wilmer to the Con- 
vention of 1882 : v 

" We have passed through a grand revo- 
lution, socially and politically. In view of 
•all that has taken place during the last 
twenty years, the wonder with me is that so 
much has been accomplished by our people, 
under every possible disadvantage and dis- 
couragement. We have lost a large number 
of our people by emigration to more fertile 
territories. Compare the number of con- 
firmations reported for the last twenty years 
with the number of communicants at pres- 
ent reported, and it will be seen how large 
a number must have emigrated from the 
State. And the clergy, finding no sufficient 
maintenance, have followed the tide of pop- 

" The statement following will show, at a 
glance, how the clergy have been affected by 
the fluctuations of the times : 

No. of clergy eanonically resident la the Diocese 
March 6,1862 34 

No. of clergy since added by transfer from other 
Dioceses 49 

No. of clergy since added by Ordination to Dea» 
conate *.... ~ 22 

— 71 
No. of clergy at any time connected with Diocese — 

since above date..... 106 

No. of clergy died whilst resident in Diocese.... 8 
No. of clergy transferred to other Dioceses since 

date « 66 

No. of clergy deposed since above date. 3 

— 77 

One under suspension, nan* not reported......*. 1 

Present number reported. 27" 

There has been a strong tendency on the 
part of the people to leave the country 
and make their homes in the cities, and in 
consequence, while the city parishes have 
rapidly increased in numbers, the country 
parishes have languished. With the return 
of prosperity the Church will go forward, 
with lresh vigor, in the discharge of her work. 

Statistics for 1886 a.d. : Clergy, 80; par- 
ishes, 83 ; missions, 25 ; candidates for H. O., 
2 ; ord., 1). 1 ; baptisms, 164; con, 869 ; com., 

4216 ; 8. S. teachers, 316 ; S. 8. scholars, 2688 ; 
contr., f92,721.92. Richard H. Cobbs, D.D. 

Alb. Vide Vestments. 

Albany, Diocese of. History. — The Dio- 
cese of Albany, forming a part of the Stato 
of New York, consists of nineteen counties, 
which comprised the old Northern Convo- 
cation. These counties are Albany, Clin- 
ton, Columbia, Delaware, Essex, Franklin, 
Fulton, Greene, Hamilton, Herkimer, Mont- 
gomery, Otsego, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Sche- 
nectady, Schoharie, St. Lawrence, Warren, 
and Washington. It embraces within its 
limits 20,888 square miles, and, according 
to the census of 1880, has a population of 
949,646 souls. Its territory is diversified 
by lake and river, mountain and valley, 
forest and plain ; while the great Adiron- 
dack Wilderness, with its wonderful re- 
sources, lies in its bosom. It has also such 
famous summer resorts as Lebanon and 
Richfield Springs, Luzerne and Scharon, 
Lake George and Saratoga. The Diocese 
takes its name from the capital of the State, 
which is also the residence of the Bishop. 
It was carved out of the Diocese of* New 
York, together with Long Island, in the year 
1868, by act of the General Convention. Its 
primary Convention, pursuant to the call of 
the Rt. Rev. Horatio Potter, D.D., LL.D., 
D.C.L., Bishop of New York, met in the 
city of Albany, in St. Peter's Church, on 
December 2, 1868. The Bishop of New 
York presided and preached the sermon. 
Among the visiting clergy was the Rt. Rev. 
Henry Lascelles Jenner, D.D. f Lord Bishop 
of Dunedin, New Zealand. On the second 
day of the Convention, December 8, the 
Rev. William Croswell Doane, S.T.D., Rec- 
tor of St. Peter's Church, Albany, was 
chosen Bishop. His consecration took place 
in the same church on the Feast of the Pu- 
rification in 1869, the preacher being Rt. 
Rev. W. H. Odenheimer, D.D , Bishop of 
New Jersey. The Bishop of New \ork 
was the Consecrator, and was assisted by 
the Bishops of New Jersey, Maine, Mis- 
souri, and Long Island. Under the wise 
management of Bishop Doane the Diocese 
of Albany has been steadily increasing in 
strength and influence. At the time of its 
organization in 1868 there were 78 clergy^ 
men belonging to it. In 1878 there were 
117, and in 1888 there were 123. In 1868 
there were 96 churches, in 1878 there were 
113, and in 1883 there were 122. 

There were reported from 76 churches : 

Baptisms. Confirmations. Communicants. 

In 1888. 1137 795 65«l 

In 1878......... 1800 1358 10,617 

In 1883 1790 937 13,018 

In 1868 the offerings were $118,433.87; 
in 1878, $236,400.06; and in 1883 they were 
$296,928.62. In some parishes new churches 
have taken the place of old ones, while 
in others the old have been renovated. 
Church property also of great value has 
been acquired for mission work and other 
religious purposes. Offerings are made for 

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the following objects, as required by Canon : 
Diocesan Fund, Missions of the Diocese, 
Aged and Infirm Clergy, Widows and Or- 
phans of Dcceused Clergymen, Bible and 
Common Prayor-Book Society of Albany, 
Episcopal Fund, salary of . the Bishop, 
Education of Young Men for the Ministry, 
Orphan House of the Holy Saviour, Do- 
mestic Missions, Foreign Missions. Offer- 
ings are also presented by the Sunday- 
schools of the Diocese for the Child's 

Missions. — The chief glory of the Diocese 
is its mission work. Under the energetic 
leadership of the Bishop who must be the 
great missionary, the Church is extended far 
and wide, and the things that remain are 
strengthened. There are about ninety mis- 
sion stations receiving aid from the Board 
of Missions, and the sum of $10,000 is appro- 
priated annually for this work. The Board 
is composed of the Bishop, ex-officio presi- 
dent, and five other clergymen, and five 
laymen chosen by the Convention. 

Convention. — The Convention meets an- 
nually on the first Tuesday after the first 
Sunday after the Epiphany. Where, the 
Bishop determines. Hitherto the cities of 
Albany and Troy have shared the honors of 
the meetings. This body is composed, first, 
of the Bishop; secondly, of all clergymen 
canonically resident within the Diocese for 
six months previous to Convention, restric- 
tion of time not to apply to rectors duly 
elected, or missionaries duly appointed ; and, 
thirdly, to three lay delegates from the 
Cathedral and three lay delegates from each 
Church in union with the Convention. The 
delegates must be, in all cases, communi- 
cants. The sessions usually last two days. 
The permanent officers of the Diocese are 
the Bishop, a Standing Committee, a Secre- 
tary, a Treasurer, and a Registrar. 

Convocations. — The Diocese is divided into 
districts called Convocations, the titles and 
limits of which are as follows : The Convo- 
cation of Albany comprises the counties of 
Albany, Greene, Columbia, Schenectady, 
Montgomery, Fulton, Hamilton, and Her- 
kimer ; the Convocation of Troy, the coun- 
ties of Rensselaer, Saratoga, Washington, 
Warren, Clinton, and Essex ; the Convoca- 
tion of Susquehanna, the counties of Dela- 
ware, Otsego, and Schoharie; the Convoca- 
tion of Ogdensburg, the counties of St. 
Lawrence and Franklin. The Bishop Is 
head of each Convocation ex-officio, and the 
executive officer is an Archdeacon, appointed 
annually by the Bishop, on the nomination 
of the Convocation, from among its clergy. 
Two meetings are required each year by 
Canon. Others may oe held by order of 
Convocation. The work of the Convoca- 
tions is spe .ially missionary in its character. 

Other Institutions of the Diocese are the 
Bible and Common Prayer- Book Society of 
Albany and its vicinity, incorporated in 
1820. St. Agnes' School for Girls, located 
in Albany, with the Bishop as Rector, and 


twenty-six teachers and officers ; the Child's 
Hospital, Albany, with branch Homo for 
Convalescents at Saratoga in the summer; 
the Orphan House of the Holy Saviour, 
Cooperstown; St. John's Clergy House, 
East Line, incorporated in 1881 ; Home of 
the Good Shepherd, Saratoga Springs, incor- 
porated in 1869 ; the Church Home, Troy. 

The Sisterhood of the Holy Child Jesus 
has its headquarters at Albany, and is under 
the direction of the Bishop of Albany. Tho 
Sisters are at work in St. Agnes' School, 
and in charge of the Child's Hospital, 
Albany, and the Child's Convalescent 
Home, Saratoga Springs. The Cathedral 
Building of All-Saints, which has been 
the dream of the Bishop for years, will 
soon crown the commanding site chosen 
for it. A large lot has been secured in the 
city of Albany, north of the Capitol, and 
near St. Agnes' School and the old chapel, 
which has done good service. About $75,000 
are in hand, and the work is to bo diligently 

Eroiecuted. The grand edifice, which will 
e built of stone, will be an enduring mon- 
ument of the zeal and labors of the first 
Bishop of Albany. Bishop Doanc, on 
whom has fallen the mantle-spirit of his 
sainted father, a former Bishop of New 
Jersey, is in his vigor and manly prime, 
and is noted for his ripe scholarship, his 
facile pen, his gifts as a presiding officer, 
his eloquence as a preacher, and his large- 
ness of heart. He received the degree of 
Doctor of Laws a few years ago from Union 
University,— a just recognition of his ability 
and superior talents. 

Statistics for 1886 a.d. : Clergy, 130; par- 
ishes, 100 ; missions, 40 ; candidates for H. 
O., 18; ordinations, D. 2, P. 2; baptisms, 
1348; confirmed, 1135; com., 14,840; S. S. 
teachers, 1172; S. S. scholars, 9981 ; contr., 
$218,248.98. Rev. Joseph Carey, D.D. 

Albate. A sort of Christian hermits, so 
called from the white linen they wore. 

Alexandria. Vide Eastern Churches. 

Alexandria, School of. Every church 
had its catechetical school, somewhat corre- 
sponding to our confirmation classes, but 
with more definiteness of organization, and 
some provision was made for the education of 
Christian children, but no church ever pos- 
sessed as famous a school as that at Alexan- 
dria. Its foundation is obscure, though as- 
cribed to St. Mark, and the list of its earliest 
masters is very doubtful till we reach Pantae- 
nus, who was at its head about 179 a.d. He 
was as a heathen an eclectic, but brought his 
philosophical studies to the service of the 
Church. In such a city as Alexandria his 
ability would be very useful in attracting 
many to his lectures. When he was sent on 
his mission to the Indians (probably to 
I^ybia), Clement, who was most likely of 
Roman extraction, himself in early life an 
enthusiastic student of philosophy, and later 
a devout Christian, succeeded him. His 
works, the «* Cohortatio," " Paedagogus," and 
the " Stromata," discursive collections of hii 

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lectures, probably based upon a loose outliife 
of the Apostolic constitutions, are a valu- 
able picture of how far a public lecturer 
upon Christian topics could go before a 
mixed audience. The administrative ability 
of the Bishop Demetrius used both Pantte- 
nus and bis two successors with great wis- 
dom till Demetrius fell out with Origen. It 
•is said that before Demetrius's time the 
Church of Alexandria had no dependencies, 
but from the date of Pantaenus's mission, and 
from the fame and success of the school, 
toon Sees were added upon Sees, till Alexan- 
dria was at the head of a large province. 
Origen, who succeeded to Pantamus, who 
tresumed his post upon his return, brought, 
perhaps, the loftiest abilities yet used for 
the task. Adamantine in endurance, with a 
mind capacious of all instruction, a master 
of the Scriptures, no mean critic, he was de- 
voted to his school. His peculiar notions, 
probably more speculatively held than other- 
wise, gave a notoriety that pained him, since 
they were rather questions for debate in his 
school than formulated dogmas. At any 
rate, they were fastened 'upon him. In an 
hour of enthused fear for himself and his 
influence in the school he mutilated him- 
self, giving a wrong interpretation to our 
Lord's words (Matt. xix. 12). The act 
disabled him from ordination. When, then, 
he received ordination on a visit to Pales- 
tine, contrary to'the Canons, his Bishop took 
his office as catechist from him. The school 
became of less importance later as the adults 
to be prepared for baptism and confirmation 
grew rarer, but it nurtured a spirit of dis- 
pute which produced Arius, the famous here- 
tic, who, however, had received his dialectic 
training from Lucian, of Antioch. The 
school was finally closed by becoming a mere 
nursing-school for the young to be prepared 
for baptism and confirmation. It is not 
worth the while to give the names of its 
later masters save one, Didymus, who was 
totally blind (340-395 a.d.). 

Alienation is, in church matters, the im- 
proper disposal of such lands or goods as 
nave been given to the Church for sacred 
and devout uses. It has always been deemed 
sinful to apply such means or property to 
other than direct Church needs. It was 
hardly an alienation in this sense, when, for 
the ransom of Christian captives, Bishops 
sold the Church's plate, or lands even. The 
like was done in cases of severe famine. But 
this does not justify the act under other cir- 
cumstances. The Bishops were only the 
stewards, and not the owners, and many 
Canons were necessary throughout the his- 
tory of every part of the Church restraining 
thorn from wasting and for private purposes 
parting with Church property. 

Alienation in Mortmain. The conveying 
of real estate to any corporate body ; in this 
case, for religious purposes. 

Allegory (Gal. iv. 24). An allegory 
sums up in itself the separate purposes of the 
Type, Parable, or Metaphor, using either 

one of these three as a leading form at vary- 
ing times. The Canticles are filled with 
types of Cubist and His Church, but the 
whole is allegorical. It expresses one thing 
under words that, upon the surface, are the 
expression of another. So Ps. lxxx. 8-16, 
are an allegory. But the same imagery in 
Is. v. is there a parable. St. Paul use3 the 
allegory in 1 Cor. x. 4, and in Gal. iv. 16- 
21. The use of allegories is peculiarly 
Oriental. It is a form adapted to the con- 
veyance of religious truth in very attractive 
shapes. Allegorical interpretations became 
a favorite mode of explaining the obscurities 
in Holy ScripturS. The example of St. 
Paul, as above quoted, was imitated, and a 
devout spirit, seeing Chrikt everywhere 
in the Scripture, was tempted to drag into 
line many texts which could not possibly 
contain any direct reference to Him. Theo- 
logians .claimed for the interpretation of 
Scripture several modes of treating the text, 
some of them enumerating sixteen, but 
three were generally admitted, — the Moral, 
the Allegorical, and the Mystical Sense, 
apart from the historical or grammatical 
sense. But the striving to torture new sig- 
nifications and to find new allegories soon 
brought on a reaction. However, these 
methods of interpretation held precedence 
till the Reformation, when the reaction went 
too far, producing a temper which empties 
Holy ^Scripture of much of its true meaning. 

Alleluia. A formula, or proclamation, 
" Praise ye the Lord," found in Ps. cxvii., 
and as a heading to several other Psalms, 
especially cxiii.-exviii., the great Hallel. 
Psalms sung at all the greater Jewish festi- 
vals. The word has been transferred into 
all languages. It was recorded by St. John, 
as used by the Angel Host (Rev. xix. 6, 7). 
Of course it passed immediately into Chris- 
tian usage. There is the story of the Halle- 
lujah victory by the Christian Britons over 
the pagan Picts and Scots (429 a.d.). It 
was used as a watch-cry of encouragement. 
It was introduced into the Liturgy in both 
East and West. It is in the Liturgy of St. 
James, as the earliest instance. In the 
West, the Mozarabic (which is of Eastern 
parentage, however), it was freely used; but 
in the other Western Churches it was very 
sparingly used, being used most freely dur- 
ing the Easter and Whitsun feasts. Our 
own Church bears as one of the marks of 
Eastern influence the use of the Hallelujah 
in the Versicles, " Praise ye the Lord, the 
Lord's name be praised," in the Morning 
and Evening Prayers. 

All-Saints. In the Eastern Church this 
Was a very ancient feast, St. Chrysostom 
speaking of it under the name All-Martyrs. 
It falls upon our Trinity Sunday, crowning 
the Church's year with a joyful commemo- 
ration of all saints of God. 

In the Western Church this feast had its 
rise much later, in the consecration into 
Christian Churches of heathen temples. This 
practice began in the latter part of Pope 

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Gregory's life, and when (607 ad.) Boni- 
face III. procured from the emperor a recog- 
nition of his supremacy, his successor, Boni- 
face IV., consecrated the Pantheon to the 
Virgin and all martyrs (May 13). It is 
not certain when the commemoration was 
transferred to November 1. It was not ob- 
served in Gaul till later ; in England, Bode 
speaks of it; nor was it general till Louis 
the Pious, under advice from Gregory IV., 
ordered it. The Collect, Epistle, and Gospel 
were of later date. 

All- Souls. A festival falling on the next 
day after All-Saints' Day. Ii had its origin 
in the continuous commemoration at the 
Holy Communion of " the souls of all those 
who have died in the communion of the 
body and blood of our Lord. 1 ' But beside 
this Eucharistic commemoration, there were 
anniversary observances, probably by the 
surviving relatives. In 887, Amalarius of 
Metz writes of the annual commemoration 
of the dead. The festival was at once very 
popular, after an ordinance by Odilo, Abbot 
of Clugny, for the abbacies under him. 

Almighty. Synonymous with Hebrew 
Lord God of Hosts; the Mighty God; 
Omnipotent. A title which God gives 
Himself in His covenant with Abraham 
(Gen. xvii. 1). It is continuously used 
afterwards adown the stream of Kevela- 
tion. It was taken at once into the Creed, 
and has maintained its place there ever since 
as an integral part of the first clause. It is 
a most important title, for it may be con- 
sidered (a) as Comprehensive, containing all 
things; (b) Originative, as creating all 
things ; (c) Preservative of all things. It is 
fitly used, therefore, by the Church in her 
Creed, in her Prayers, at the Holy Com- 
munion, and in her Hymns, the " Te Deum" 
and the "Gloria in Excelsis." But this power 
being of the essential attributes of the Divine 
Nature belongs equally to the Thrbb Pkr- 
sons of the Trinity, and so the Athanasian 
Hymn, " So, likewise, the Father is Al- 
mighty, the Son is Almighty, the Holy 
Ghost is Almighty, and yet there are not 
Three Almighties but One Almighty." 

Alms. In Job's solemn protestation of 
his integrity he places the sharing of his 
bread with the poor as one of his righteous 
customs (Job xxxi. 17). From the earliest 
ages almsgiving and relief of the poor and 
needy has had a special promise and pledge 
attached. The Israelite when given the 
land was ordered to leave the gleaning. 
He was to share the tithe of his produce 
every third year with not only the Levite, 
but also the stranger, the fatherless, and the 
widow. From the Law the Israelite had 
this Enjoined upon him, and he received the 
promises of prosperity (Prov. xix. 17 ; Ps. 
xii. 1). Our Lord assumes it as a right 
and duty in His Sermon on the Mount, and 
- Himself, though ministered to by others, was 
a Giver of alms. It was the llr«*t popular 
duty in the Church, and it grew so rapidly 
that the Diaconate was established to super- 

intend the work. When St. Peter and St 
Paul arranged their missionary jurisdictions, 
St. Paul was enjoined to be mindful of the 
poor. And it received from him much at- 
tention, as we gather from his directions to 
the Corinthians and elsewhere. He went up 
to Jerusalem with the collections made for 
the saints there. When there was a famine 
threatened in Judaea, alms were sent to the 
poor from other parts of Syria. In the 
course of time this almsgiving took more 
systematic shape. The offertory included 
food as well as money, and it was shared by 
the ministers with the poor. The moneys 
gathered into the treasury were divided into 
three parts, — one for the ministry, one for 
the repairing and building churches, and 
the third for the widows and poor. The 
offertory now should take this latter place 
to a far larger extent than it has done, es- 
pecially as the Rubric makes the alms for 
the poor its chief use. Iu England extra- 
ordinary collections have been taken up from 
time to time upon royal briefs, but latterly, 
as the machinery for such a gathering was 
yery expensive, — taking up above half the 
amount collected,— it has not been often 
used. After reforms under Anne, and again 
under George IV., it gradually fell into dis- 
use, though a royal brief was issued as late 
as 1864. 

There should be some system devised and 
faithfully carried out in each Diocese that 
shall teach the duty of almsgiving, and 
show how much good it effects. Alms should 
be put into the hands of the Bishop of the 
Diocese for use oftcner than they are. 

Altar. A structure of stone or wood, 
upon which the elements of the Holy Com- 
munion are consecrated. The more usual 
name in the Prayer-Book is the Lord's 
Table, but the term Altar is used in the. 
office Qf Institution. The word occurs in 
the Epistle to the Hebrews, " We have an 
altar, whereof they have no right to eat 
which serve the tabernacle 11 (Heb. xiii. 10), 
and is best referred to the Christian Table. 
The altar of the Old Testament was one on 
which bloody sacrifices were offered, though 
there was also the Altar of Incense. The 
first altar was built by Noah. The altar 
was usually placed in some spot deemed for 
some reason hallowed: as where God ap- 
peared to Jacob. The material of which they 
were made was, according to the Mosaic Law, 
either of earth or of " stones, upon which no 
tool had been lifted." It was contrary to 
the Law to build an altar elsewhere than in 
the Tabernacle, and afterwards in the Tem- 
ple, though this was frequently violated : 
MS when David built an altar at the thresh- 
ing-floor of Araunah. Altars, not for sacri- 
fice, were often built, as when the tribes of 
Reuben and Manasseh, and Gad, put up an 
Altar of Witness. There was the altar for 
burnt sacrifice in the Tabernacle made of 
wood and overlaid with brass; a second 
larger one made wholly of brass was erected 
in the first Temple; a third, of unhewn 

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stones (at least the one tfaat replaced it under 
Judas Maccabeus, when be cleansed the 
polluted Temple after Antiochus Epipbanes 
had desecrated it, was so), was placed in the 
second Temple on the spot where the brazen 
altar bad stood. In the Temple, as restored 
by Herod, the altar was also of unhewn 
stone. There was also the Altar of Incense, 
which, however, was not properly so, since 
no sacrifices were offered upon it. As for 
Christian altars, they have been made of 
various materials, in early times, generally 
of wood, but very often of marble, and in 
one or two instances of gold. Often the 
wood was decorated or covered with gold or 
silver plating or chased work and adorned 
with gems. The form varies from the Table 
to the Tomb form. In the Greek Liturgical 
language the term used is trapeza, — table, 
but with some epithet, as " the spiritual,' 1 
" the mystical," " the royal," " the holy," 
or "the divine." 

In this country there is no rule, and an 
altar may be made of either wood or stone, 
and in either of the forms above described. 
There can be no real objection to using the 
term altar for the Holy Table, since both 
terms are used in the Prayer- Book, and upon 
U are placed the oblations for the memorial 
our Lord commanded us to make of His 
one, full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice once 

Altar-Cloth. The cloths with which the 
Holy Table is vested, either as permanent 
coverings, or for the celebratton of the Holy 
Communion. The earliest unquestionable 
reference to altar-cloths other than for the 
celebration is found in St. Chrysostom's 
Homily on Matthew xiv. 23, 24, wherein 
he contrasts the costly silken embroidered 
covering given for the Holy Table with the 
scanty clothing often grudgingly given to 
the poor. In his time (390-405 a.d.) we see 
that such costly a 1 tar-cloths were usual. The 
symbolic use of colors in altar vestments 
for the several seasons of the Christian year 
is not more than seven or eight centuries 
old. ( Vide Colors.) 

Altar- Piece. This was a picture or carved 
bas-relief placed behind ana over the altar. 
This practice of placing pictures in churches, 
though very ancient, still won its way 
slowly, against much opposition. The dan- 
ger that arose later was clearly seen by a 
few. The feeling that the house of God 
should be made as glorious as possible filled 
the devout hearts of the many. The earliest 
instance we have of a picture in a church is 
from St. Epiphanius (391 a.d.), who, when 
journeying through Palestine, found at 
Anablatha a veil hanging before the doors 
of the sanctuary of the church with a 
painting of Christ or some Saint upon it. 
This he had torn into pieces and given for a 
winding-sheet for the poor, and replaced it 
with a plain veil from his own home in Cy- 
prus. Paulinus of Nola (402 a.d.) introduced 
pictures largely in his new church. They 
were of Scripture subjects, and were de- 

signed to instruct the illiterate. From thia 
time on the decoration of churches with 
paintings became more common. These re- 
marks apply to pictures proper, for we find 
symbolic decoration much earlier, but noth- 
ing that applies to paintings, hut while 
frequent casual references are made to pic- 
tures, after this there is ever a note of warn- 
ing sounded. The famous Gregory I., in 
condemning the misuse of pictures, urges 
that it would be wrong to remove them, aa 
they were object-lessons in sacred history to 
the unlearned (Ep. ad Ser. Mass.). There 
was, at first, very much objection to produc- 
ing any likeness of our Lord, but that, 
soon after the common introduction of art 
into the Church, was overcome. 

Very oarly mosaics exist, the oldest of 
which are at Ravenna and at Thessalonica. 
The Cross was a symbol that was employed 
at a very early date, but the Crucifix was 
not used till very much later. The oldest 
frescoes are of Saints, in the catacombs at 
Naples, in the fifth, but the nearest in age 
after them are dated about the eighth, cen- 
tury. There were three styles, distinct in 
treatment of the same subjects, — the Roman, 
the Byzantine, and the Lombard, which 
developed upon different lines of church 
decoration. In the Greek Church the icon- 
ostasis is the space on which the greatest 
amount of painting is placed. 

Altar-Rails are of modern arrangement, 
being due probably to Archbishop Laud, 
who had them erected to prevent the profa- 
nations and intrusions which frequently oc- 
curred. They have taken the place of the 
old open-work grating or screen which parted 
the choir from the nave. This latter sep- 
aration was of ancient date, as may be shown 
by the frequent references and descriptions, as 
that by Eusebius (326-40 a.d.) of the Church 
in Tyre. It was open trellised work, often 
enriched by bronze or gilt or silver. The 
material was usually of wood or iron, but 
sometimes of stone. There was always some 
mode of marking the division between the 
nave of the church and the sanctuary. In 
the Eastern Church it was as above, till 
later, when the open-work was paneled and 
painted with pictures of Christ and the 
Apostles or Saints, and entered by doors, 
which therefore formed a complete partition 
between the two portions of the church 
(Iconostasis). The material of which this 
iconostasis was made was usually of wood, 
though other material is used also. In tno 
West, the partition was, as stated above, 
without railing and open-work. 

Ambon, or Ambo. The desk or raifed 
platform for the reader, from which the 
Epistle and Gospel were read, notices were 
published, and from which the inferior 
clergy preached. Its position varied. It 
probably occupied the same position rela- 
tively that the place for the readers did in the 
synagogue. It often stood in the middle 
of the nave, but sometimes to the right of 
the front of what we now call the choir. 

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In large churches there were often 'two 
Ambons, one on the right for the Gospel, 
the other on the left for tho Epistle. The 
Ambon was probably movable. It pre* 
ceded the pulpit, which was later. (Vide 
Pulpit.) ft was frequently ornamented 
with carved work on its panels, and in some 
examples still surviving it was supported 
upon a pillar. That at St. Sophia (586'a.d.) 
had two flights of steps, the one on the east, 
the other on the west. The Bishop generally 
preached from his chair (Cathedra), but 
sometimes from a desk in front of the altar. 
St. Chrysostom preached from the Ambon 
that he might be heard the better. At 
Ravenna exists still an Ambon which may 
date from the building of the church (498- 
625 a.d.). 

Ambrosian Rite. Vide LmrROiKS. 

Amen. Faithful, True, Firm (Heh. and 
Gr.). The response of the people to every 
prayer. It is a strong asseveration of 
either faith in or consent to the contents of 
the prayer. The people gave their consent to 
the binding power of the curses pronounced 
upon Mt. Ebai (Deut. xxvii. 16) by their 
Amen. It was a title God by Isaiah (lxv. 
16) gave Himself,—" the God of Amen." 
It had the force of an oath, as when the 
accused woman was to reply to the Priest, 
reciting the curse upon perjury, Amen, 
Amen, in the trial for jealousy (Num. v. 
22). It, of course, passed into Christian use 
at once (1 Cor. xiv. 16), but our Lord 
gave it a significance which we undervalue. 
The enunciation of solemn central truths of 
His Revelation was always preceded by an 
Amen, Amen (Verily, Verily), as in St. John 
iii. 8, 5, 11'; v. 19, 24, 25 ; vi. 82, 47, 63 ; 
viii. 51, 68, etc. Compare with this and 
with Is. lxv. 16 ; Rev. iii. 14. The response 
was always made loud and full. The Amen 
should be printed in other type when it is 
a response than when it is an invocation. 
In the one case (in Italic*) the congregation 
alone respond, as in the prayers generally, 
but when it is also for the minister to use, 
it should bo always printed in Roman. 

American Church, The (officially, " The 
Protestant Episcopal Church in the United 
States of America"), is that branch of the 
One, Holy, Catholic, Apostolic Church in 
America which traces its Apostolic origin 
through the Church of England. It is in 
communion and in agreement in doctrine, 
discipline, and worship with the Church of 
England, which it venerates as its mother- 
Church, while being at the same time as 
entirely independent of it as any daughter 
can be who has left her mother's home and 
is mistress of a house and family of her own. 

Through the Church of England this 
Church has affiliations with the whole 
Church of the West. In its Creeds and 
Liturgy and Discipline it occupies the 
ground which is common to all the churches 
of Christ from the beginning. As having 
east off the errors of Rome, it is so far in 
sympathy with those bodies of Christiana 

who, since the Reformation of the sixteenth 
century, have been known as Protestant and 

The history of the Church in America it 
a story of lull three hundred vears, for it 
was in the year 1678 that on the shores of 
Frobishcr's Straits (named in honor of the 
admiral in command) "Master Wolfall 
celebrated a communion upon land, at the 
partaking whereof were the captain and 
many others with him. The celebration of 
tho Divine mystery was the first sign, seal, 
and confirmation of Christ's death and pas- 
sion ever known in these quarters. 11 The 
first known baptisms in English America 
were those of Virginia Dare, the grand- 
daughter of Governor White, and u Man- 
teo the savage," both baptized on shipboard 
off Roanoke Island, on the coast of North 
Carolina, both baptised by "White, the gov- 
ernorof Raleigh's second colony. Another 
layman, Sir Thomas Hariat, records his use 
of the Prayer-Book among u the poor infi- 
dels" in 1685, — one of " the first lay-readers 
in the American Church." The next date 
takes us north again. In 1605 an expedition 
sailed from Bristol, under Captain Richard 
Weymouth, whose declared object was <4 the 
promulgating of God's holy Church by 
planting Christianity," and which sailed up 
the Penobscot and erected a cross near the 
site of the present town of Belfast. This 
attempt failed, but two years later another 
effort promised better results. In August, 
1607, a company, among whom was the 
Rev. Richard Seymour, landed on an island 
at the mouth of the Sagadahock, or Kenne- 
bec, and, besides fifty bouses and a fort and 
store-house, built a church. The severity 
of the climate, and a fire that destroyed their 
store-house and church, disheartened them, 
and tbey returned to England the next sea- 
son. This was thirteen years before the 
celebrated Pilgrim Fathers landed on Ply- 
mouth Rock. The same year, 1607, the first 
permanent settlement was effected in Vir- 
ginia. In May, 1607, under Mr. Robert 
Hunt, a priest of the Church of England, 
the first services were held, and a church 
begun at Jamestown in Virginia. Services 
were held at first "under an awning and 
in an old cotton tent. This," says Captain 
John Smith, " was our church till we built 
a homely thing like a barn, where we had 
daily common prayer morning and evening, 
every Sunday two sermons, and every three 
months the Holy Communion till our min- 
ister died. But our prayers daily, with an 
homily on Sundays, we continued till more 
preachers came." With liberal gifts of 
money and land the Church in Virginia 
was in a fair way to prosper, though the 
disturbances at home told upon the colonies, 
and the clergy who came out were by no 
means all that they should have been. 
Among those who deserve to be remembered 
were Buck and W hi taker, who succeeded 
Mr. Hunt. Whitaker has been named the 
Apostle of Virginia. He it was who bap- 

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tized Pocahontas. In the mean time settle- 
ments were being established all along the 
coast under different religious influences, 
and some of them, as in New England, dis- 
tinctly hostile to the Church. Among them 
were here and there Churchmen and Church 
colonies, though the Church was never so 
strong, even in Virginia and Maryland, as 
is often supposed. Elsewhere it was very 

The case of Maryland is peculiar and not 
generally understood. The Charter of 1684 
and the Act of 1649 are represented as a 
noble instance of religious toleration on the 

Sart of Roman Catholics, but without suf- 
cient ground. Those acts, it is true, were 
obtained by Roman Catholics, but they were 
granted not by them, but to them. They 
were obtained from Charles and his advisers 
for the special benefit of Roman Catholics, 
and Roman Catholics took advantage of 
them, as it was intended that they should. 
That liberty and protection which was 
granted was all they asked for, and all they 
could have obtained. But neither in Mary- 
land nor anywhere else did Roman authority 
ever regard the doctrine " that in conscience 
and in worship men should be free" as any- 
thing but insanity (delir amentum). In 
Maryland from the first the Church of Eng- 
land was " protected," and the Rev. Richard 
James, a clergyman of the Church of Eng- 
land, came on with the first Lord Baltimore 
and with his flock settled on Kent Island, 
opposite Annapolis. In 1623, Governor 
Robert Gorges Drought with him the Rev. 
"William Morrell, a Church of England 
clergyman, to his colony on Massachusetts 
Bay. In 1630 the Rev. William Blackstone 
sold his farm in Shawmut, where Boston 
now stands, and removed to Providence. 
In 1629, John and Samuel Brown, two of 
the original patentees, were banished from 
Salem for using the Prayer-Book. In 1646 
and 1664 petitions were presented in Boston 
for permission to use the Prayer-Book ; and 
the petitioners were punished for sedition. 
The first church services were held in Boston 
in 1686. None are known to have been held 
within the limits of New York before 1678, 
n6r i n Pennsylvania before 1695. When the 
Independents became the masters in Mary- 
land, they at once repealed the laws of tolera- 
tion and proscribed " popery and prelacy," 
as they had from the first in New England. 
The Church grew, however, slowly, but it 
was without head or chief pastors until 1685, 
when Br. Blair was sent to Virginia as Com- 
missary of the Bishop of London ; there was 
no authority over the Presbyters of the 
Church, who too often were just the men who 
needed overlooking. Soon afterwards Dr. 
Bray was sent out as Commissary to Mary- 
land, and they did what good men could who 
were clothed with such authority as a Bishop 
can delegate, but who still were not Bishops. 
The Church in America for another hundred 
▼ears was an Episcopal Church without a 
bishop. Dr. Blair was Commissary of Vir- 

ginia for fifty-three years. Dr. Bray entered 
upon the field of his labors in 1700, and a 
result of his missionary zeal was the found- 
ing of two societies which have done so much 
for the cause of the Gospel, the Society for 
promoting Christian Knowledge, and the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts. "When after a few years he 
returned home, the majority of the colony 
of Maryland were accounted of the commu- 
nion of the Church. In 1667 New Amster- 
dam was ceded to the English, and in 1696 
44 Trinity Church," in New York, was built 
and endowed. In 1679 King's Chapel, in 
Boston, was erected <4 for the exercise of relig- 
ion according to the Church of England.' 1 

At the time of the foundation of the S. P. 
G. " in South Carolina were 7000 souls, be- 
sides negroes and Indians, living without any 
minister of the Church, and above half re- 
gardless of any religion. In North Carolina 
above 5000 without any minister. Virginia 
containing 40,000, divided into 40 parishes, 
but wanting near half the number of clergy- 
men. Maryland containing 25,000, in 26 
parishes, wanting half the number of clergy- 
men. In Pennsylvania at least 20,000 souls, 
of which not above 700 frequent the church, 
and not above 250 are communicants. In 
New York the numbers are 30,000, 1*200, 
450. In Connecticut, 80,800, 150, 85. In 
other colonies of New England, 90,000, 750, 
160." And the writer adds, " This is the true 
though melancholy state of our Church in 
North America." 

The missionaries of the S. P. G. were sent 
into the provinces in which the Church had 
no establishment, as it had in Virginia and 
Maryland, and fruit was not wanting to their 
labors, though it was not gathered without 
opposition. In New England the movement 
Churchward began within the very walls of 
Yale College, when Dr. Cutler the rector of 
the college, and Messrs. Johnson and Brown, 
two of the tutors, through reading of works 
of the English divines in the college library, 
were brought to resign their positions, and 
in 1723 went over to England for ordination. 
Mr. Brown died in England of smallpox, 
but Dr. Cutler in Boston, and Mr. Johnson 
at Stratford, labored many years, and ex- 
erted a powerful influence for the Church. 
Many more would have followed them into 
the priesthood, but were deterred by the 
dangers of the sea-voyage and ** the unhappy 
fate of Mr. Brown." 4< The fountain of all 
our misery is the want of a Bishop." They 
were bitterly opposed and persecuted, but 
nowhere in the country were there so many 
native clergy, and nowhere was the Church 
more firmly planted, at the breaking out of 
the Revolution, than in Connecticut. On 
the other hand, in Virginia and Maryland 
the Church, though comparatively strong in 
numbers, was weak in influence. There was 
no Episcopal authority, and the whole system 
of the Church was gradually dissolved. 
44 Certainly," says Bishop White, 4< the dif- 
ferent Episcopalian congregations knew of 

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no union before the Revolution : except what 
was the result of the connection which they 
in common had with the Bishop of London. 
That authority being withdrawn, tho clergy 
and people of any district might, without 
unlawfulness, have acted for themselves, and 
in some departments such a proceeding would 
not have been surprising." 

There could be no confirmations and no 
ordinations, and the supply of clergy fell off, 
and the authority which belonged to a Bishop 
was usurped or lost altogether. 

Many causes were at work to prevent the 
appointment of a Bishop, and to make that 
which was not altogether easy at first more 
and more difficult. The primary obstacle 
lay in the eighteenth century idea, which 
friends and enemies shared alike, that a 
Bishop was partly an ecclesiastical function- 
ary and at least half a State dignitary. 
Many who would not have objected to a 
" purely religious Episcopacy 11 did object to 
a "political Episcopacy.' 1 So general hud 
this apprehension become that Bishop White 
declares his belief that a few years before 
the Revolutionary war it would have been 
"impossible to have obtained the concur- 
rence of a respectable number of laymen in 
any measure for the obtaining of uu Ameri- 
can Bishop, 11 and that when all were ready 
to avow •" their preference of Episcopacy 
and of a form of prayer." To add force to 
this apprehension came in tho understanding 
that this dignitary required a large endow- 
ment to support him. But more than all 
other causes was the prevailing ignorance 
and coldness which prevailed even among 
professed friends of the Church in the 

A writer in 1785 expresses the feeling of 
a great many, who writes that " considering 
how long a time it is since the establishment 
(of the S. P. G.J, the colonies may by this 
time bo provided with ministers among 
themselves, and likewise be of sufficient 
abilities to support them if they were in- 
clined to it." And still more when he adds, 
" in effect I know hardly any here that are 
disposed to do much for promoting or ad- 
vancing religion, or that seems to be much 
concerned what becomes of it either abroad 
or at home." Efforts were made, but they 
failed. At one time matters went so far 
that a palace was purchased for the Bishop 
at Burlington, and considerable bequests 
were received for the endowment of tho See, 
but the death of the queen in 1712 put a stop to 
all proceedings. In 1727, chiefly through the 
exertions of Berkeley (afterwards Bishop), 
a charter and a grant were obtained, but be- 
fore the broad seal was attached the king 
died. Once the Church came near obtaining 
Bishops in spite of opposition, when Dr. 
Welton ard Mr. Talbot were consecrated by 
one of the non-juring Bishops. But the 
matter went no further. Dr. Welton was 
summoned home, and Mr. Talbot dismissed 
from his post as missionary of the S. P. Gk 
Archbishop Seeker renewed the effort in 

17C1, and the New England clergy joined 
in strong representations, but all in vain. 

But God was preparing for II is Church 
a deliverance in His own way. England's 
statesmen in neglecting the Church in Amer- 
ica had neglected the strongest of all bonds 
between tho colonies and the mother-coun- 
try, and England owes in no small degree to 
that noglect t he loss of these colonies. When 
the war of the Revolution came, while in 
the North the Church clergy were generally 
loyal to the mother-country, they were weak 
in numbers and in influence. For a timo it 
seemed as though the war, with its conse- 
quent hatred of England, would work the 
destruction of the Church. But instead, it 
gave her freedom. The close of the war saw 
most of the clergy exiles, their churches 
desecrated or destroyed, and their congrega- 
tions broken up. In Pennsylvania only one 
church was left, — Christ Church, in Phila- 
delphia, under the Rev. (afterwards Bishop) 
William White. Virginia entered on the 
war with 164 churches and chapels and 91 
clergymen. At the close of the contest a 
large " number of her churches were de- 
stroyed, 95 parishes were extinct or forsaken, 
and only 28 clergymen remained, and the 
Church was so depressed and so little zeal 
was found in her members that Dr. Griffith 
was unable to go over, with Drs. White and 
Provoost, to be consecrated Bishop of Vir- 

Sinia, because funds could not be raised to 
efray his expenses. 11 

The number of those in " English Amer- 
ica" who belonged to tho Church was never 
so large as would be and is naturally sup- 
posed, partly owing to the fact that some of 
the colonies were settled by those disaffected 
and hostile to the Church, partly because of 
the immigration of those of other nations. 
At the beginning of tho Revolutionary war 
there were only about eighty clergymen of 
the Church to the north and east of Mary- 
land, and those, except in Boston, Newport, 
New York, and Philadelphia, principally 
supported by the S. P. G. Outside of Phila- 
delphia there were never more than six in 
Pennsylvania. In Maryland and Virginia 
the Church was more numerous, and sup- 
ported by legal establishments. Farther 
south they were less than in these provinces, 
but more than in the North. And besides 
this paucity of numbers, the very connec- 
tion and name of England was a disadvan- 
tage. But the greatest disadvantage of all 
lay in its very organization, which required 
Bishops, who were denied. 

The difficulties which stand in the way ot 
the Church are illustrated by the fact that 
Mr. Adams took up the case of some candi- 
dates for orders, and through the Dunish min- 
ister at tho court of St. James made appli- 
cation for their ordination to the Danish 
Church, which was favorably received but 
never acted upon. Indeed, those who sought 
to supply the exigency had no idea of having 
recourse to any others besides the English 
Bishops, at least until that hope failed. 

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In 1784 occurred a correspondence which 
needs no comment to illustrate the condition 
of the Church. Two young men had braved 
the dangers of the sea to obtain ordination 
in England, but had been refused because 
the Bishops could not dispense with the 
oaths of uniformity, and they applied to 
Franklin for assistance. His answer is dated 
44 Passy, near Paris," and with a refreshing 
innocence he informs them that he had 
applied to the Pope's Nuncio on their behalf, 
but advised them to give up the thought of 
England and go to the Church of Ireland, 
and if that application failed, to act as 
though England and Ireland were sunk in 
the sea ; and expresses his wonder " that 
men in America qualified to pray for and 
instruct their neighbors should not be per- 
mitted to do it till they have voyaged 6000 
miles to ask leave of a cross old gentleman 
at Canterbury, who seems, by your own 
account, to have as little regard for your 
souls as did Attorney-General Seymour for 
those of Virginia. Commissary Blair begged 
hira to consider that the people of Virginia 
had souls to be saved. 4 Souls I 1 (said he); 
4 your souls ! make tobacco. ' " 

One curious result of the want of Bishops 
may well be noticed. In 1784, John Wesley 
ordained and sent out Dr. Coke to be Super- 
intendent of the Methodist Societies in 
America, and afterwards joined Mr. Asbury 
with him in office. Partly as a result of 
this action, the Methodists were separated 
from the Church. For this action, so 
opposed to his former conduct and teaching, 
Mr. Wesley gave the reason that while at 
home he would not suffer it, inasmuch as 
there were in America 44 no Bishops with 
legal jurisdiction, his scruples were at an 
end." The excuse is a sufficiently weak 
one, and it is Dr. Coke's own testimony that 
he went further in separation than Mr. 
Wesley intended, as he did in calling him- 
self a Bishop ; but such as the excuse is, it 
suggests some interesting questions as to the 
possibilities in case even this had been want- 
ing. It was only in November of the same 
year that Bishop Soabury was consecrated. 
In 1791, Dr. Coke applied to Bishop White 
for the ordination of the Methodist minis- 
ters and for the consecration of himself and 
Mr. Asbury, and expressed a strong regret 
for his past action and desire of reunion. 
The effort came to naught, but when the 
question of separation turned upon such 
points, it is hardly possible to avoid saying 
to ourselves, What might have been if a 
Bishop had been here 1 So hopeless did the 
prospect seem of obtaining Bishops and con- 
tinuing the proper ministry of the Church, 
that Dr. White put forth a scheme of prcs- 
byterian and provisional ordination, in order 
that the duty of worship and of preaching 
the Gospel might not utterly lapse. But the 
peace of 1783 opened a better prospect, and 
in 1784 several conferences were held in 
Brunswick, N. J., in Philadelphia and New 
York, which resulted in a General Conven- 

tion in Philadelphia in 1785. But in the 
mean time the clergy of Connecticut had 
acted for themselves, and by their appoint- 
ment Dr. Samuel Sea bury sailed for England 
and applied for consecration as Bishop. But 
the English prelates could do nothing with- 
out the consent of the ministry, and the 
ministry would not give their consent with- 
out a formal request of Congress, which of 
course was out of the question ; and after 
waiting some months in vain, at length 
following the instructions which he had 
received at home, and acting upon the 
advice of friends in England, Dr.- Seabury 
turned his steps to Scotland, where was 
a Church which, if it was persecuted by 
the state, and its assemblies forbidden by 
law, was, at least, not hampered in its spirit- 
ual rights by state control. On the 14th 
of November, 1784, in a little upper room 
in Aberdeen, the first Bishop of the Amer- 
ican Church was consecrated by three Bish- 
ops, Kilgour, Petre, and Skinner, and in 
June, 1785, be was at home. His consecra- 
tion had a double good effect, encouraging 
the Churchmen of America and rousing 
the authorities in England, by the certainty 
that oven if they were refused by England, 
Scotland could and would supply them with 

At the Convention in Philadelphia in 
October, 1785, seven States were repre- 
sented. Dr. White presided, and it is to his 
meekness and wisdom that the Church owes 
its deliverance from the many dangers 
that encompassed it. There were grave dif- 
ferences on almost every conceivable sub- 
ject. Some were afraid of a Bishop, and 
wanted his hands tied and himself made 
the creature of the Convention. Some would 
have excluded the laity from the Convention. 
Some would omit the opening petitions of 
the Litany. Bishop Seabury ana his clergy 
declined to attend the Convention. Bv 
some Dr. White himself was charged with 
Socinianism. There were elements in the 
Church and in the Convention that boded 
neither any good, but out of them all the 
Lord delivered them. 

The •» proposed book" of 1785, which 
was by order of the Convention sent out 
into the different States for consideration, 
and which embodied many radical changes 
from the English Prayer- Book, fell flat. Cor- 
respondence with the English Prelates re- 
sulted in bringing the mind of the Church to 
a general agreement that the best thing to 
be done was to take the English book with as 
few changes as possible, and when, in 1786, 
Dr. White and Dr. Provoost, elected for 
Pennsylvania and New York, arrived in 
England, they were favorably received, and 
on February 4, 1787, were consecrated in 
Lambeth Chapel by the two Archbishops, 
and the Bishops of Bath and Wells, and 
Peterborough. In 1789 the union between 
the Dioceses was happily effected, Bishops 
White and Seabury constituting the House 
of Bishops in General Convention. When 

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again the alterations in the Prayer- Book 
came under discussion, the influence of 
Bishop Seabury appears in the important 
alterations in the Communion office, by 
which that office follows the Scottish model. 
The prayers of invocation and oblation are 
those of the First Book of Edward VI., 
but the order is that of the Scottish and of 
the ancient Liturgies. It was a change 
that " lay very near to the heart of Bishop 
Seabury," who oven doubted whether the 
form of the Church of England "strictly 
amounted to a consecration." When the 
proposed change came down to the lower 
house, by the influence of the President, Dr. 
William Smith, it was accepted without op- 
position. By it *« the Holy Eucharist is 
restored to its ancient dignity and efficacy,' ' 
and we have an office than which nothing 
more magnificent and worthy can be con- 
ceived. In comparison with this great gain, 
for which, under God, we have to thank 
Bishop Seabury, the other changes and 
omissions are small. The omission of the 
Athanasian Creed was the only important 
emission. Besides changes required by the 
ehanged political condition of the coun- 
try, others were made. Selections from the 
Psalms were added to the Psalter. The 
Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis were omitted, 
the Venite and Benedictus shortened, and 
other alterations were made, some of them 
decided improvements, some decided losses, 
and some for which it would be hard to give 
a reason, but none of them affecting any 
doctrine or indicating any " essential de- 
parture from the doctrines, discipline, or 
worship of the Church of England." 

The revolution, therefore, effected no break 
in the line of the Church's history. Noth- 
ing in her discipline, or worship, or prac- 
tice is to be regarded as having a beginning 
at that time. There were portions of the 
Prayer-Book, as the Articles, for example, 
not finally acted upon until 1801, and even 
later, but there was no release from former 
obligations on that account, except from those 
political obligations which were affected by 
the war. The Church always had the Lit- 
urgy, and that which was not expressly 
changed simply continued in force. The 
declaration which was made in the Conven- 
tion of 1811, that the Protestant Episcopal 
Church is the Church formerly known under 
the name of " the Church of England in 
America," a declaration called for by some 
disputes which had arisen about land-titles, 
expressed the universal understanding that 
in no respect was this a "new Church." 
"We look back over the long struggle for ex- 
istence which culminated so successfully, 
and we are more and more impressed with 
the greatness of the leaders of the Church, 
of the two especially who made up the House 
of Bishops in 1789, and on whom so much 
depended ; but of those two we must give 
the palm to one. Bishop Seabury's zeal and 
devotion to Church principles supjplicd what 
was lacking in the character of BishopWhite, 

and we owe him a great debt of admiration 
and gratitude But the gentle and firm 
hand that guided the frail bark of the Church 
through the dangers that beset her on every 
side, the one man who was to the Church 
what Washington was to the State, was 
William White. 

The life was still very feeble. In 1790, 
one hundred and eighty-four years after the 
first planting of the Church of England in 
Virginia, Dr. Madison went over to England 
and was consecrated Bishop of Virginia. 
But nineteen years after, when the General 
Convention was held in Baltimore, the 
Bishop of Virginia considered that his duties 
to the college of which he was president 
were sufficient excuse for his absence from 
Convention, and the Diocese was not repre- 
sented. At that Convention only Bishops 
White and Claggett were present, and, as 
Bishop Claggett was just recovering from a 
severe illness, it was a question not unlikely 
to present itself whether a single Bishop 
could constitute a house. Special reasons 
doubtless existed in some Dioceses for the 
weakness of the Church. In Virginia the 
immediate and apparent reason was the 
withdrawal of the stipends and seizure of 
the glebes by the Legislature Patrick 
Henry resisted the act to the last, and as 
long as he lived it could never bo obtained, 
and it was declared unconstitutional by the 
Supreme Court of the United States ; but, 
aside from the illegality of the act, such was 
the character of many of the clergy who 
received the stipends and held the glebes, 
that, in the opinion of Bishop Meade, the 
loss of them was the saving of the Church, 
by relieving her of the burden of unworthy 
ministers and throwing her upon her own 
resources, though for a time her condition 
was deplorable. 

The Convention of 1811 met in New 
Haven under serious difficulties, since out of 
seven Bishops in the Church there were but 
two present, — Bishops White and Jarvis. 
Bishop Claggett was prevented from at- 
tendance by sickness; Bishop Madison by 
the duties of his college. Bishop Provoost 
was in ill health. The consecration of Drs. 
Hobart and Griswold was necessarily post- 
poned, and, after the Bishops had gone down 
to New York, it was till the last minute 
doubtful whether the assistance of Bishop 
Provoost could be obtained. He, however, 
" finally found himself strong enough to give 
his attendance, and thus the business was 
happily accomplished." 

The Church in America was in more 
ways than one hampered by its English 
origin. The branch had been bound, and 
choked almost to death by long neglect 
before it was broken off and planted in the 
American soil, and it inherited many of the 
defects and deformities of worship and dis- 
cipline of the mother-Church at that time. 
In its earliest dealing with its own proper 
missionary work it rivaled its teacher. In 
1801 several clergy of Western Pennsylva- 

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nia and Virginia, which were largely settled 
by Church people, made an effort to have 
the Western country organized into a sepa- 
rate Diocese. It was not till 1808 (hat 
General Convention gave the desired per- 
mission, which, in effect, was repeated in 
1811. In 1819, Philander Chase was conse- 
crated for Ohio; but it was not till 1825 
that a Bishop was seen in Pennsylvania 
west of the Alleghanics. From 1800 to 
1823 the clergy in Pennsylvania had only 
increased from 16 to 34. It is only natural 
to add that the Church in the western part 
of the State had been for many years in a 
state of decline, while the disposition to fra- 
ternize with those who in doctrine and dis- 
cipline were the Church's enemies, and to 
44 oppose the received properties of our Com- 
munion, or to undermine them insidiously 
and by degrees," saddened the last years of 
Bishop White's life, and made him fear, 
while he prayed, for the Church's existence. 

In Maryland, party spirit ran so high that 
at Dr. Kemp's election a party endoavored 
to create a schism in the Church, and after 
the death of Bishop Stone, in 1838, it was 
three years, and after two elected had de- 
clined the See, that a successful choice was 

In Virginia, the Convention which as- 
sembled to elect Bishop Moore, after Bishop 
Madison's death, numbered only 7 clergy 
and 17 laymen, and was the first which 
had met for seven years. In Richmond 
44 Episcopacy was almost dead." Church- 
men assured Dr. Moore that 44 no man 
could carry out our forms in all their ru- 
brical sign;" but the man of their choice 
had had a different training and held dif- 
ferent views, and acted upon them, though 
he was not able to carry the body of his 
clergy with him. The Church in Virginia, 
through his efforts and those of his successor, 
was roused from its slumbers that were 
almost death. Only three years before 
the election of Bishop Moore to Virginia, 
John Henry Hobart had been chosen As- 
sistant Bishop of New York, and along with 
Dr. Griswold had been consecrated at a time 
when the Episcopate could with the greatest 
difficulty muster the necessary three for a 
consecration. He did not find the Church 
or the Cburchmanship of New York what 
he left it, or what it has been ever since, 
but he roused his own Diocese from its 
slumbers, and the influence of his writing 
and preaching, and of his laborious and holy 
life, was felt in the State as well as the Dio- 
cese, and went out over the whole country 
and through the whole Church. His motto 
was "the Gospel in the Church," and he 
shrunk from no labor and from no contest 
in behalf of bis belief. BUhop White looked 
forward to the future of his son in the 
faith with the keenest hope " that he would 
not cease to be efficient in extending the 
Church and preserving her integrity," and 
it was fulfilled. Schools and seminaries 
were established, publication societies incor- 

porated, the Board of Missions was organ- 
ized, the old apologetic tone was laid aside, 
and the Church claimed her place and her 
right. It is one indication of the rapid turn 
of the tide that the Diocese which at his con- 
secration contained 40 clergy, twenty-four 
years afterwards — five years after his death 
—contained 108. Not till 1819 was the first 
44 Western" Bishop consecrated, — Philander 
Chase for Ohio. In 1835, the last Conven- 
tion at which Bishop White presided, Jack- 
son Kemper was consecrated the first Mis- 
sionary Bishop of the Northwest, and in his 
sermon at the consecration Bishop Doane 
spoke for the Church, which was waken- 
ing to new life, when he laid down the 
principle that this u Church is to be a Mis- 
sionary Church, that her Bishops are true 
Apostles, and that of this missionary body 
every Christian by the terms of his bap- 
tismal vow is a member." 

The difference between the Church of then 
and now is greater than appears by any 
mere comparison of numbers. We read in 
reports of General Convention, 44 so many 
Bishops present, so many Dioceses repre- 
sented;" Dut the bodies which they repre- 
sented were smaller still. In Illinois, in 
1835, 44 three clergymen met for organiza- 
tion," and 4( this Convention unanimously 
appoint Philander Chase to the Episcopate 
of Illinois;" and at the seventh Annual 
Convention the Bishop reports " that neither 
as pioneer missionary, as a Diocesan Bishop, 
or as parish minister, has he received any 
salary except $20." In Delaware, in 1791, 
3 clergymen and 11 laymen met to frame a 
constitution and organize the Church. In 
the Peninsula of which Delaware forms part, 
in 1827, there were only 15 clergy, while 
there were 40 churches in a fit state for wor- 
ship. In Kentucky the 44 organization of 
the Diocese was thus happily effected, there 
being 16 lay delegates and 3 of the clerical 
order," only one of whom was u settled." 
In North Carolina, where, in 1770, a list is 
given of 18 settled clergy, and which was 
organized in 1817, at Bishop Kavenscroft's 
death, in 1830, the clergy only numbered 11. 
In South Carolina, where 153 clergy are re- 
corded as laboring from 1700 to 1800, in 
1786 only 9 parishes are represented. On 
the other hand, South Carolina, in 1882, 
reports 45 clergy ; North Carolina, 73, and 
in 1883 asks for a division; Kentucky 86 
clergy ; and Illinois is a province including 
3 Dioceses, with 60, 26, and 45 clergy re- 

Bishop Doane was elected to New Jersey 
in 1832, and died in 1858. During hit 
Episcopate the number of communicants in 
New Jersey increased from 800 to 4500, the 
clergy from 14 to 94, and the parishes from 
31 to 79. In 1882 the two Dioceses of New 
Jersey and Northern New Jersey report 99 
clergy and nearly 8000 communicants, and 
80 clergy and 8700 communicants. 

The first Convention of Now York, in 
1785, consisted of 5 clergy and delegates 

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from 7 parishes. In 1811, the year of Bishop 
Hobart'a consecration, the number of clergy 
was 40. In 1835, five years after his death, 
the number was 104. 

In 1882 the Dioceses of New York, Al- 
bany, Western New York, Central New 
York, and Long Island contained 748 clergy 
and 87,864 communicants. 

Pennsylvania, which, in 1811, contained 
20 clergy, in 1882 reports in the throe Dio- 
ceses of Pennsylvania, Pittsburg, and Cen- 
tral Pennsylvania 852 clergy and 89,251 

Some figures presented at the General 
Convention of 1883 will give an idea of the 
general growth of the Church. In 1790 
there were 7 Dioceses and 190 clergy ; in 
1800, 12,000 communicants. In 18*2, 18 
Dioceses, 592 clergy, 80,939 communicants. 
In 1883, 48 Dioceses and 15 missionary 
jurisdictions, with 67 Bishops, 3575 clergy, 
4348 parishes and missions, 378,000 com- 
municants. Between 1865 and 1883 the reve- 
nue of the Church increased from $6,471,669 
to $23,217,765. 

When the venerable Bishop Green took 
leave of the Convention of 1883, he said, 
"Of the Convention of 1823, which met in 
this city, I alone am alive. When I went 
into holy orders, sixty-three years ago, 
there were nine Bishop in ttie Church. 
When I looked around me to-day in the 
House of Bishops I cast my eyes upon more 
than seven times that number. How hath 
God wrought! His blessing hath been 
upon the Church and she hath prospered." 
Since 1800, when the first report is made of 
communicants, the increase has been over 
30 to 1, while the population of the country 
has increased as 10 or 12 to 1. 

If, however, the American Church suffered 
from the deadness of the English Church in 
the last century and in the first part of this 
century, it has felt in no less a degree the 
movement of life which has wrought such a 
reformation and restoration in that Church 
in the last forty years, and it is still feeling 
it. There was "in the forties" the same 
panic— cry of " popery" — here as in Eng- 
land, and the same folly has been repeated 
on occasion since ; but wisdom has come with 
advancing years : only a weak handful has 
gone over to Rome to justify the fears, while 
in respect of knowledge of the Church and 
faith in her as a true branch of the Church 
Catholic, of the doctrine and practice of wor- 
ship, of belief in her mission in America, 
there has been a general education and ele- 
vation that has brought whole "parties" 
forward upon ground -which, forty years ago, 
they were almost ready to condemn as heret- 
ical. The Convention of 1844 came to the 
conclusion of far-sighted wisdom when, 
after days of excited discussion, the effort of 
some to procure a condemnation of the doc- 
trine of the Oxford Tracts resulted in a 
vote of confidence in the " Liturgy, officers, 
and Articles and Canons of the Church as 
sufficient exponents of the sense of Holy 

Scripture, and affording ample means of dis- 
cipline and correction." A similar result 
was reached in 1808, and again in 1871, 
when, after a protracted and brilliant dis- 
cussion, the conclusion was in effect a vote 
of general condemnation of all ceremonies 
fitted to express a doctrine foreign to that 
set forth in the authorized standards of the 
Church, and expressing confidence in the 
paternal counsel and advice of the Right 
Keverciid Fathers. 

Some untoward events require to be no- 
ticed. The trial and suspension of the two 
brother?, Bishop Henry W. Onderdonk, of 
Pennsylvania, in 1844, and of Bishop Ben- 
jamin T. Onderdonk, of New York, in 1846, 
demonstrated at l«ast the power of disci- 
pline that existed in the Church. The at- 
tempted "trial" of Bishop Doane (1849-53) 
resulted not only in his triumphant acquit- 
tal, and in " making the trial of a Bishop 
hard," but established firmly the principles 
of order upon which an Episcopal Church 
must stand. Bishop Ives, in 1853, set the 
only example of a Bishop of this Church 
perverting to Kome. In 1878, Bishop Cum- 
mins became the leader of the only schism 
which has rent the Church, and which has 
effectually taught us the lesson that all the 
treachery and danger does not lurk on one 
side of the camp. The " Keformed Epis- 
copal Church," commonly known as the 
" Cumminsite movement," still continues to 
exist for our warning. 

A real danger was escaped at the close oi 
the civil war of 1861-65. During the war 
the Southern Dioceses had organized them- 
selves under the title of the " Church in the 
Confederate States," and in the General Con- 
vention of 1862, which met in the midst of 
the war, none of them were represented. 
But in 1865, at the close of the war, two 
Southern Bishops presented themselves at 
the General Convention, and the reunion 
of the once politically-divided Church was 
happily and thoroughly effected. All signs 
of that division have long passed awav, and 
no others appear to disturb us or to hinder 
our progress. 

At the Convention of 1880 the new ar- 
rangement went into operation, by which 
the Convention is made the Board of Mis- 
sions, and the session was marked by a new 
interest in the subject of* missions. Three 
new missionary jurisdictions were set off* and 
Bishops elected. The special work of tho 
Convention of 1888 was dealing with the 
report of the committee on enrichment of 
the Prayer- Book. To some this work, and 
that of missions, seem to partake of the same 
character of catholicity with the final action 
upon doctrine and ritual in former Conven- 
tions, and either are a far more worthy sub- 
ject of the attention of the Convention than 
the length of a cassock, or the conversation 
in a seminary student's room. It it believed 
that the development of the missionary work 
of the Church and the work of enrichment 
of the Prayer-Book will make the Conveiv- 

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tions of 1880 and 1888, in the future judg- 
ment of the Church, among the most im- 
portant Conventions that have been held. 

The American Church is not without weak 
points in her constitution, some of which 
she inherited, and for some of which the 
neglect and exposure of her early existence 
arc responsible. 

The pew-system, which makes it a possible 
and not improbable thing that the poor shall 
be excluded from the house of the Lord ; the 
vestry sybtem and delegate system of most 
Dioceses, which makes it not impossible that 
the body on which depends the calling and 
supporting of a rector, and the lay portion 
of that body which elects the Bishop, may 
be composed of unbaptized unbelievers; the 
want of endowments, which makes the living 
of the clergy a precarious hire; the small 
salaries which hinder young men from en- 
tering the ministry, and which produce fre- 
quent changes of parishes; the disposition 
of the lay-power and the purse-power to 
tyrannize over the clergy ; — these are some 
of the special forms of evil in our consti- 
tution, though not one of them is peculiar 
to us. On the other hand, there are some ad- 
vantages which are the result of the inde- 
pendence of Church and State in this country 
which it would be difficult to overestimate. 
The Church in America is absolutely free 
from state control. She has only to "speak 
the word to be absolutely free from tho con- 
trol of official world liness. She is free to 
carry on her own affairs in her own way. 
Her failures and successes are her own. She 
has a fair field and no favor. Uer relation 
to the state is that of the primitive Church, 
with the added advantage of being respected 
instead of persecuted. She is in the midst 
of a hundred different religious bodies, and 
in the eye of the state she is one among the 
hundred. But her real position in, her own 
eyes is that she offers a centre of union for 
them all, and occupies the ground of apos- 
tolic order and evangelic truth, towards 
which all of them are tending, and where 
all can stand together. Her past history 
furnishes no ground for boasting, but much 
for gratitude and encouragement. The days 
of doubt and darkness have passed away; 
she no longer apologizes for existence or 
hesitates to assert her claims. Let us hope 
that the days of division and doubting each 
other have passed away also. The present 
is full of encouragement. The future is in 
the hands of them that believe and lay hold 
of it. 

Authorities: "Wilber force's American 
Church, S. P. G. Documents, Bp. Perry's 
Hand-book of Gen. Conv., Bp. "White's 
Memoirs, Bp. Meade's Churches of Vir- 
ginia, Life of Bp. Hopkins, Sermon of Bp. 
Morris. Rkv. L. W. Gibson. 

Amice. A vestment worn on the shoul- 
ders over the cassock and covering tho neck. 
Apparently it was a sort of cape which 
could be drawn over the head. It was in 
use in pagan times, but the earliest use of it 

mentioned in England was in the tenth cen- 
tury. It was later a sort of fur cape. If, 
as is now held, the vestments were varieties 
of the usual dress which, being made of 
richer material and with more costly orna- 
mentation, were used in the services, the 
amice was evidently used as a protection 
from the cold. When it was used as a dis- 
tinct and sacred vestment, the mystical 
meaning of it was that it denoted the Hel- 
met of Salvation, and a short prayer was 
recited when it was put on, imploring tho 
overshadowing of the Holy Spirit. 

Amos, whose name signifies " burden, 11 
was of the herdsmen of Tekoah, a village 
not far from Bethlehem, and probably, 
though nowhere so recorded, a native of tho 
pluce, as his 11 tomb was shown there in the 
time of St. Jerome. It. was in the days of 
Uzziah, King of Judah, and of Jeroboam 
11., King of Israel, that he was called to 
deliver God's message against the nations 
neighboring to Israel and Judah, and espe- 
cially asrainst the northern kingdom of Is- 
rael. The date of his prophecy is variously 
assigned to the years between 808 B.c. and 
784 b.c, during which period these kings 
were contemporary. 

Amos declares of himself that he was not 
the son of a prophet, nor trained in any 
school of prophets (chap. vii. 14), but that 
it was from feeding his flocks and gather- 
ing the fruits of the sycamore (Ficua &ye~ 
amorua) that the Lord took him and said, 
" Go, prophesy unto my people Israel." 

This statement of his occupation and man- 
ner of life is corroborated by many expres- 
sions in the prophecy, which show the author 
to be a man accustomed to out-door life, ob- 
servant of nature and familiar with the care 
of cattle (see chap. ii« 9, 18 ; iii. 4, 5, 12 ; 
iv. 1, 2, 9; v. 8; vii. 1 ; ix. 9, 18). Yet 
this prophet's language is not that of an un- 
lettered or ignorant man, as it exhibits great 
natural powers of thought, of observation, 
and experience, and further presupposes a 
popular acquaintance with the Pentateuch, 
and implies ceremonies of religion (though 
corrupted by Jeroboam) in accordance with 
the law of Moses. The prophecy displays a 
remarkable unity throughout, and was prob- 
ably put into its present form by the author 
himself; it may be analyzed into four prin- 
cipal parts, viz. : I. Chap. i. to ii. 3. A 
general denunciation against various nations 
connected with Judah and Israel ; 11. Chap, 
ii. 4, to vi. 14. Prophecies against Judah, 
and especially against Israel ; III. Chap. vii. 
to ix. 10. An account of the prophet's 
visit to Bethel, and a series of visions or 
prophetical symbols ; IV. Chap. ix. 10 to end. 
An evangelical prophecy foretelling the day 
when the fallen tabernacle of David shall be 
raised up again, and the hope of the Mes- 
siah's kingdom shall be fulfilled. The 
vigor, beauty, and freshness of the proph- 
et's style have been acknowledged from the 
earliest times. It is true St. Jerome calls 
him " rude in speech, but not in knowledge, 11 

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but tbe opinion of Bitbop Low b is far oth- 
erwise, as follows : " Let any person who 
has candor and perspicacity enough to 
judge, not from the man, but l'rom his writ- 
ings, open the volume of his predictions, 
and he will, I think, agree with me that our 
shepherd 'is not a whit behind the very 
chief of the prophets.' He will agree that as 
in sublimity and magnificence he is almost 
equal to the greatest, so in splendor of dic- 
tion and elegance of expression he is scarcely 
inferior to any." (Lowth's Lectures on He- 
brew Poetry.) 

There is a tradition that Amos suffered 
martyrdom at the hands of his offended 
countrymen, but there is no sure founda- 
tion for tbo assertion, which might easily 
have been a development of Amaziah's 
complaint to Jeroboam, "Amos hath con- 
spired against thee in the midst of the House 
of Israel ; the land is not able to bear all his 

Authorities: Bible Commentary, Smith's 
Dictionary of Bible, Pusey's Minor Proph- 

Amphibalum. A name for a part of the 
ecclesiastical dress used in Gaul. Its Greek 
derivation is one of the minor proofs that 
the Gallican Church received so much of its 
details as well as its foundation from the 
East. The word was synonymous with 
casula, or chasuble, and was probably a 
heavy outer garment worn in bad weather j 
but as its texture and use were modified in 
course of time it passed into ecclesiastical 
use, and became a part of the vestments in 
the service. It was seamless, or rather 
united from top to bottom without any slit 
for tbe hands, without sleeves. It is prob- 
ably identical with the phenoleon worn by 
the Eastern Bishops. 

Analogy of Faith (Rom. xii. 6. A. V. 
" proportion of the faith"). It is evident that 
faith here is not the act of the mind, whether 
as a «« saving faith" or merely belief. It must 
be compared (Eph. iv.) " with One Faith," 
and, Jude v. 3, " the Faith once delivered to 
the saints." It must therefore stand for the 
body of the doctrines whose contents are the 
object of faith. If so, it will be necessary 
to compare it with 2 Tim. i. 13, " the form 
of sound words." Now reverting to Rom. xii. 
6, " Having therefore gifts differing accord- 
ing to the grace that is given us, whether 
prophecy, let us prophesy according to the 
proportion [analogy] of the Faith," the 
only fair conclusion that can be drawn is 
that there was a distinct body of doctrinal 
statements universally received, for St. Paul 
had no authority over the Christians at Rome, 
and therefore spoke of not what he might 
have ordained, but of what all received to- 
gether, and to which the teacher was to con- 
form his public teaching. It points to an 
apostolic form of the Creed; but without 
pressing this so far, this phrase of the Apos- 
tle's shows that already tnere was a criterion 
by which all teachers should be guided, and 
which was received as authoritative. It is 

as clear that at that date, 58 a.d., there was 
no body of Christian literature such as the 
■New Testament now is that could claim that 
position. Therefore if it was not a Creed, 
as we now mean by this word, it was some- 
thing equivalent to it. Again, there follows 
the necessity for us now to use the same re- 
straint, not selecting such texts as suit our 
views, but using them all fairly, i.e., ac- 
cording to theproportion of the Faith. Com- 
pare Article XX. in the XXXIX. Articles : 
*' The Church hath power to decree Rites or 
Ceremonies and authority in Controversies 
of Faith ; and yet it is not lawful for the 
Church to ordain anything that is contrary to 
God's Word, written: neither may it so ex- 
pound one place of Scripture that it be repug- 
nant to anotfier. Wherefore, although the 
Church be a Witness and a Keeper of Holy 
Writ, yet as it ought not to decree anything 
against the same, so besides the same it ought 
not to enforce anything to be believed for 
necessity of salvation." 

Anaphora. (Or. lifting up; offering; cf. 
Heb. vii. 27, offering sacrifices ; thence the 
oblation at the Holy Communion.) The 
term Anaphora is, then, equivalent to our 
Lift up your hearts. The whole subject 
will come up under the word Liturgy, but 
it may be well here to compare the Eastern 
Liturgy with our own. Omitting the prep 
a ration, we have- 


Prayer of tbe Triumphal 

Triumphal Hymn. 
Commemoration of our 

Lord's Life. 
ComniemoraUon of institu- 
Word* of institution for the 

Words of Institution for the 

Oblation of the Body and 

Prayer for the Descent of 1 

the Holt Ghost. I 

Prayer for the change of [ 

the Elements J 

General intercession for 

Quick and Dead. 

Prayer before the Loan's 1 
Prayer. | 

Loan's Prayer. \ 

Emboiismos. Prayerafter I 
Loan's Prayer. J 

Prayer of inclination 

Holy thiugs to Holy Per- 




Antidoro, or ThanksfiTing. 

Lift np your hearts. 

San etna. 

AU glory be to Thee, etc. 

And did institute, etc 

He took bread. 


Wherefore, Loan, etc 

And we most humbly, ete. 

Cf. Prayer for Caaisr, 
Church Militant, 
Here we oiler and present. 

Nothing directly parallel 
in our Prayer-book. 

Almighty Goo Maker of 

Almighty and erer Ltring 


But this, though the general order, was not 
invariable. The preceding; preparation (pro- 
anaphora) was far less changed than this 
which we now would shrink from changing. 
Our own Prayer- Book has, in the placing the 
Invocation in the office, drawn more nearly 
to the Eastern rule than have any other of 
the Western Churches 

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Anathema. (Or. a devoted thing or offer- 
ing. A cutting off from the offices and priv- 
ileges of the Church of an obstinate offender.) 
Anathema was the greater, as Aphorismos or 
Separation was the lesser, excommunication. 
It is the extremest act of discipline that can 
be inflicted. It was based upon the words 
of our Lord, " If he will not hear the 
Church, let him be as an heathen man and 
a publican.' 1 " He must be a grievous and 
scandalous sinner, notorious, under accusa- 
tion and conviction.' 1 St. Paul used the 
term five times, and always to express 
strong feeling of condemnation. It was 
derived from the Septuagint translation by 
the New Testament writers, and was un- 
derstood by them in its deepest spiritual 
sense, not merely formal exclusion from the 
Church's privileges, but a most serious, nay, 
fatal loss to the soul. " If any man love 
not the Lord Jesus Christ let him .be 
anathema." The anathema was directed 
against heresies, as they were the preaching 
of another Gospel. The form occurs in the 
declaration appended to the Nicene Creed. 
(Vide Nicene Creed.) "But those who 
say, 'Once He was not,' and, ' Before He 
was begotten He was not,' and, * He came 
into existence out of nothing ;' or who say 
that ' The Son of God is of another sub- 
stance, or essence, or is created or mutable 
or changeable,' the Catholic and Apostolic 
Church anathematizes." The consent or the 
refusal to subscribe to this formed the test. 
The anathema was afterwards used in sev- 
eral enactments by succeeding Councils, but 
the most notable were the twelve anathemas 
launched by Cyril of Alexandria against 
Nestorius at the'Council of Ephesus, 430 A. d. , 
and the Canon then passed, and re-enacted at 
Chalcedon, 451 a.d., threatening the anath- 
ema against the layman who should issue a 
Creed in place of the Nicene, also the anath- 
ema against all past heresies enacted by the 
fifth General Council of Constantinople 
(563 a.d.). 

But later It became fearfully abused. Of 
course its binding power is only as the anath- 
ema defends a truth of Holy Writ, or cuts 
off an offender against it. But the terror it 
inspired was so great that many times it was 
utterly perverted. It was launched against 
the offender with solemn tolling of bells. Its 
terms were recited by the Bishop sitting 
before the altar in full vestments, with 
twelve priests in attendance holding each a 
lighted candle, which, as the last terrible 
words of the curse were uttered, were dashed 
upon the pavement. Hence the phrase 
" Cursed with Bell, Book, and Candle." Its 
misuse, while it wrought great and often 
irreparable mischief, overreached itself, and 
it was often set at naught at later times. 

But the English Church has been singu- 
larly cautious in pronouncing any anath- 
ema. It occurs once in the Article (XIII.) 
upon obtaining eternal salvation only by the 
name of Christ, following closely in tem- 
per the example of St. Paul. 

Anchoret. A person who lives apart ; a 
hermit. (Vide Hermit.) 

Ancyra. In the year 814 a. d. a Council was 
held at Ancyra by some eighteen Bishops, 
among whom were Vital is of An tioch, Mar- 
coll us of Ancyra, Lupus of Tarsus, and Ara- 
phion of Epiphania. Their consultations 
were embodied in 24 Canons, chiefly relating 
to the treatment of such as had fallen in 
times of persecution. Canon 10 allows those 
to marry who, on receiving Deacons' orders, 
declare their purpose to do so ; but forbids 
marriage, under pain of deposition, to those 
who are ordained professing continence; 
Canon 13 forbids Chorepiscopi to ordain 
without permission in writing, from the 

Another Council was held at Ancyra in 
358 a.d. by Basil of Ancyra and George of 
Laodicea, with a party of Semi-Arian Bish- 
ops. This Council condemned the doctrine 
of the pure Arians, and put forth an exposi- 
tion of their faith, in which they affirmed 
that the Son was of like substance with the 
Father; meaning it to be inferred that Ho 
whs not of the same substance ; they con- 
demned the term consubstantial, and, on the 
other hand, they also condemned, the Arian 
formulary of faith called the Second Creed 
of Sirmium. 

Andrew, St., sur named Protolectos, or 
first-called, was a native of Galilee. He 
was the son of Jona, and, together with his 
brother Simon, be followed the occupation 
of fishing. Bethsaida, a small town on the 
Sea of Galilee, was their birthplace. Little 
mention is made of St. Andrew individually 
in the Gospels, yet a good judgment of his 
character may be formed from that little. 
He was probably older than his brother 
Simon, since he first attended the preaching 
of John the Baptist. When he heard the 
declaration of John, "Behold the Lamb of 
God" as he saw Jesus approaching, An- 
drew (after his interview with Christ, in 
company with St. John) went first to his 
brother, to whom he told of his finding 
the Messiah, and whom as a brotherly 
duty he brought to Jesus. He was of a 
devotional turn of mind, seeking earnestly 
for the truth himself, and desiring to bring 
others to the knowledge of it After this 
first interview with nis future Lord it 
is conjectured that more than a year passed 
before the formal call to the two brothers 
took place, which was after the miraculous 
draught of fishes on the Sea of Galilee, 
when, with their partners, James and John, 
"they forsook all and followed Him" (St. 
Luke v. 11). 

There are but two other circumstances in 
St. Andrew's life mentioned in the Gospels, 
the first in St. John's Gospel, ch. xii. 21, 
where he brings the inquiring Greeks to 
Jesus, and the other in St. Mark, ch. xiii. 
9, when Peter, James, John, and Andrew 
inquire privately of their Lord concerning 
the destruction of Jerusalem. 
Ecclesiastical history, however, gives an 

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account of the labors of St. Andrew. He 
went, after the dispersion of the Apostles, 
to Scythia, Cappadocia, and Bithynia, con- 
verting many to the faith and establishing 
Churches. From thence he went to Sarmatia, 
a portion of Russia that borders on the Black 
Sea, and for this he is called the Founder 
of the Russian Church, and is honored as 
their titular saint. Si nope and Sebastopol 
are both connected with the name of St. An- 
drew. Having suffered many persecutions 
he returned to Jerusalem. On his way he 
tarried at Byzantium, where he instructed 
the inhabitants in tho religion of Ciirist 
and founded a Church, over which he con- 
secrated "the beloved Stacbys" as first 

He traveled after this into Thrace, Mace- 
donia, and Achaia, where for many years 
he preached the faith, and at last gave his 

treat testimony to its truth by laying down 
is life in its defense. 

The account of his martyrdom is very af- 
fecting. At an advanced age he was called 
before the proconsul, at Patras, a city of 
Achaia, on tneGulf of Lepanto, and required 
to cease from preaching the Christian doc- 
trine. Instead of complying he proclaimed 
Christ even before tne judgment-seat of 
AZgeus, the proconsul, who was so enraged 
that he commanded the aged Apostle to be 
imprisoned and scourged seven times on his 
naked back, and then to be fastened to a 
cross with cords, that his sufferings might 
be prolonged. This cross differed from the 
upright cross, and was called the cross de- 
cussate, from the Roman numeral X. 

When the suffering Apostle came near to 
this instrument of torture, he fell on his 
knees and addressed to it this famous invo- 
cation, " Hail, precious cross I thou hast 
been consecrated by the Body of my Lord 
and adorned with His limbs as with rich 
jewels. I come to thee exulting and glad; 
receive me into thine arms. Oh, good cross, 
I have ardently loved thee; long have I 
desired thee and sought thee ; now thou art 
found by me and art made ready for my 
longing soul ; receive me into thine arms, 
taking me from among men, and present 
me to my Master, that He wfco redeemed 
me on thee may receive me by thee." For 
two days the dying martyr preached to the 
people from the cross, at the end of which 
time the people importuned the proconsul 
that he might be taken down; but the 
blessed Apostle prayed earnestly to the 
Lord that be might at this time seal the 
truth with his blood, when he instantly 
expired, November 80, in the year 70 a.d. 

The feast of St. Andrew, on which the 
beginning of Advent depends, is considered 
the beginning of the Christian year, and is 
of very ancient date, being one of those for 
which an Epistle and Gospel are provided 
in the Lectionary of St. Jerome, and which 
has also prayers provided for it in the Sac- 
ramentary of St. Gregory. The relics of 
8t Andrew, which had been preserved in 

Constantinople for thirteen centuries, on 
the taking of that city by the Turks were 
dispersed throughout Christendom. He is 
called the patron saint of Scotland and 
Russia, and three orders of knighthood hear 
hi* emblem (the Crux decussata), the Scotch 
order of the Thistle, the Bun*undian order 
of the Golden Fleece, and the Russian ordei 
of the Cross of St. Andrew, and for nearly 
three centuries this cross has been borne on 
the national banner of Great Britain. 

Angels. " Which are spirits, immaterial 
and intellectual, the glorious inhabitants 
of those sacred palaces where nothing but 
light and blessed immortality, no shadow 
of matter for tears, discontentments, griefs, 
and uncomfortable passions to work upon, 
but all joy, tranquillity, and peace, even for 
ever and ever, doth dwell. As in num- 
ber they are huge, mighty, and royal 
armies, so likewise in perfection of obe- 
dience unto that law which the Highest, 
whom they adore, love, and imitate, hath 
imposed upon them, such observants they 
are thereof, that our Saviour Himself, 
b»ing to set down the perfect idea of that 
which we are to pray and wish for on earth, 
did not teach to pray or wish for more, 
than only that here it might be with us, as 
with them it is in heaven. Beholding the 
face of God, they adore Him : being rapt 
with love of His* beauty, they cleave unto 
Him : desiring to resemble Him, they long 
to do good unto all His creatures, and espe- 
cially unto the children of men. " (Hooker.) 

** How oft do they their silver bowera leave 
To come to succor us, that succor want I 
How oft do they with golden pinions cleave 
The flitting skies, like flyiug pursuivant. 
Against foul fiends to aid us militant! 
They for us fight, they watch and duly war, 
And their bright squadrons round about us plant, 
And all for love, and nothing for reward,— 

why should heavenly God to men have such regard I* 


It certainly does not lessen the wonder, 
while perhaps it leads towards an answer to 
the question, if we believe that the appear- 
ances which are ascribed in the Old Testa- 
ment to the Angel Jehovah (" the angel of 
the Lord") were Theophanies, — manifesta- 
tions of God, — and that "the angel of the 
Lord" is the Lord of the angels, and not 
one of the angelic host. It is very evident 
that He who appears to Abraham in the 
plains of Mamre and in the land of Moriah, 
to Lot in Sodom, to Hagar in the Wilder- 
ness, to Jacob in Haran (Gen. xvi. 7 ; xviii. 
I ; xix. 1 ; xxii. 11 ; xxxi. 11, 18), to Moses in 
the bush, to Balaam, at Bochim to the peo- 

Ele, to Gideon, to Manoah, to Elijah the Tish- 
ite, is one who assumes the authority, exer- 
cises the power, and is called by the name of 
Jehovah and God (Num. xxii. 85; Judges 
ii. 1 ; Vi. 11 ; xiii. 18 ; 2 Kings i. 8, 15). Other 
later oases there are where the angel is plainly 
the minister and messenger of Jehovah, 
as in the vision of David at the threshing 
floor, and at the destruction of the Assyrians 
and in the vision of Zachariah (2 Sam. xxiv. 

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16; 2 Kings xix. 85; Zecb. i. 12). But in 
the instances which have been cited, even 
where a distinction seems to he made, He 
whom Jehovah calls " Mine angel" is 
named by Isaiah " the angel of His presence" 
(Ex. xxiii. 20; xxxii. 84; Is. lxiii. 9), and 
by Jkhovah Himself it is said "my pres- 
ence shall go with thee, and I will give thee 
rest" (Ex. xxxiii. 14). And whether we 
understand with the earlier Fathers that " the 
angel of the Father is the Lord and God," 
or, with St. Augustine, that the Theophanies 
were " self- manifestations of God through a 
* created being" (Liddon, Bamp. Lee), the 
fact of those divine manifestations is the 
same. The Angel Jkhovah is the Lord of 
the angels. 

And they are His creatures and servants. 
"We need not pause to consider the reason- 
ableness of a belief, which all races and gen- 
erations of men share, in the existence of 
orders of beings higher than man and be- 
tween man and God, nearer to God than 
man is, holier and wiser, and, on the other 
hand, having relations of duty towards 
men, — the fact that all men do share it 
proves its reasonableness. What we have 
to consider, as servants of the same Lord, 
who has set them before us as our exam- 
ples of obedience to His will, is, what He 
has revealed to us in His Word concerning 
them. And the instruction which He has 
given us is by no means so meagre as is 
sometimes supposed. 

In the Old Testament, aside from those 
instances which have been cited, and which 
were with few exceptions evident manifesta- 
tions of the Divine presence, the instances 
in which the angels are named are not many, 
but they are pregnant with meaning. Abra- 
ham saw three (Gen. xviii. 2, 3), of whom 
One was pre-eminent; Lot, two (ch. xix. 1). 
But He whom Joshua saw is Captain of the 
Lord's host (Josh. v. 4). The Psalmist 
names " the chariots of God, thousands of 
angels" (Ps. lxviii. 17), "whom He maketh 
spirits" (Fa. civ.), " whom He givoth charge 
concerning" His people, who "excel in 
strength" (Ps. xci 11 ; ciii. 20). Jacob saw 
them ascending and descending on the lad- 
der from earth to heaven (Gen. xxviii. 12). 
Isaiah " saw the Lord high and lifted up, 
and His train filled the temple, and above it 
j»tood the seraphim, crying one to another, 
« Holy, Holy, Holy' " (Is. vi. 1). Ezekiel 
saw "the cherubims of God," "the living 
creatures," " in the visions of God by the 
river of Chebar" (Ezek. x. 20). In Daniel's 
vision the angel Gabriel — " man of God" — 
is his teacher, and angels are the princes 
of the kingdoms, of whom Michael is one of 
the chief,— Michael, " who like God ?" (Dan. 
ix. 16 ; x. 13). 

In 2 Esdras the angel, who is sent to in- 
struct the prophet, is named Uriel, "the 
flame of God" ( E*d. iv. 1), one of " the in- 
numerable multitude of angels gathered 
together" (ch. vi. 8), whose hosts stand trem- 
bling before the Lord (2 Esd. viii. 21). The 

angel's name in Tobit is Raphael, " one of 
the seven holy angels which present the 
prayers of the saints, and which go in and 
out before the Holy One" (ch. xii. 15), one 
not to be feared, but who served men " not 
of any favor of mine, but by the will of our 
God," as the angel who talked with St. 
John forbade his worship, "for I am thy 
fellow-servant" (Rev. xxii. 9). 

But it is in the Christian Scriptures in the 
light of the " manifestation of God in the 
flesh" that we have the fullest evidence and 
doctrine of the angels of God. We can be- 
lieve, we can almost understand, that His 
coming from heaven must have opened the 
way and brought the atmosphere and the 
angelic attendance of heaven with Him to 
the earth. An angel announced the birth 
of His forerunner (St. Luke i. 1,27; ii. 
10). The angel Gabriel saluted His virgin 
mother with the promise of His conception 
and birth. A multitude of the heavenly 
host attended the angel that announced His 
birth to the shepherds. An angel warned 
and guided Joseph (Matt. i. 20, 24). Angels 
delivered Him from the hand of Herod. 
Angels ministered to Him in His tempta- 
tion (Matt. iv. 11). An angel comforted 
Him in Gethsemane (St. Luke xxii. 48). 
Legions of angels were at His bidding when 
He was betrayed (St. Matt. xxii. 63). An- 
gels announced His resurrection (St. John 
xx. 14). Angels accompanied His ascension 
(Acts i. 10). Far above all angels He sitteth 
now. Before Him angels bow and veil their 
faces as they worshi p ( Heb. i . 7 ) . The voice 
of the archangel shall herald His coming to 
judgment (St. Luke iv. 16). With all holy 
angels He shall come (St. Matt.xxv. 31). 
Angels shall summon quick and dead before 
His throne (St. Luke xii. 8). Before angels 
He shall confess them that have confessed 
Him, and deny them that have denied Him. 
Angels shall be His ministers of reward and 
punishment (St. Matt. xiii. 39). 

They differ from us and excel us, these 
glorious creatures of God, in many things, 
but most of all in holiness and obedience. 
They are wonderful in knowledge, in ap- 
pearance glorious, great in power, in dig- 
nity exalted, in number " an innumerable 
company," " thousand thousands and ten 
thousand times ten thousand." These are 
they whom we understand by " the elect 
angels" (1 Tim. v. 21), who have passed 
the ordeal before which others fall, have 
"kept their first estate" (Jude 6), and will 
keep it forever. And yet these glorious and 
immortal beings are but creatures, and finite 
creatures. They are so far beyond us that 
the " worshiping of angels" (Col. ii. 18) 
would be the natural impulse of humility 
and of reverence for the infinite God. But 
they themselves forbid such worship. "Stand 
up," said St. Peter ; " I also am a man" 
(Acts x. 26). And in the same spirit lh«i 
angel forbade St. John, "I am thy fel- 
low-servant, worship God" (Rev. xxii. 8). 
But, " let all the angels of God worship 

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Him," fop "by Him, the Sox, were all 
things created, that are in Heaven, and that 
are in earth, visible and invisible, whether 
they be thrones, or dominions, or principali- 
ties, or powers : all things were created by 
Him and for Him, and by Him all things 
consist" (Col. i. 16). Finite, therefore, in 
power, for they were created ; finite in 
magnitude, for space contains them; finite 
in knowledge, "desiring to look into 1 ' (1 
Pet. i. 12) the mysteries of Christ, so that 
the Apostles of the Lord are " a spectacle 
to them" (I Cor. iv. 9), and "even to the 
principalities and powers in heavenly places 
is made known by the Church the manifold 
wisdom of God" (Eph. iii. 11), and of the 
future ignorant. As compared with us 
wise ; but " He chargeth His angels with 
folly" (Job iv. 18). As compared with us 
Holy, but a great host of them has fallen. 
The great leader of that fallen host, so great 
that he could make " war in Heaven" (Rev. 
xii. 7-9), and on earth so divide the king- 
dom of God that in the very presence of 
the Son of God he could offer Him all the 
kingdoms of the earth and the glories of 
them, is a fallen angel (St Matt, i v. 9; 2 
Cor. iv. 4). 

Of that glorious host of the elect Heaven 
is the home. Of them alone, there they 
alone — the judgment is not yet, and all men 
wait for it — worship and adore and do the 
will of their God. There they worship 
and adore Him that sitteth upon the throne 
and the Lamb. " When He bringeth the 
first- begotten into the world He saith, Let 
all the angels of God worship Him" (Heb. 
i. 6). And angels worship Him who sitteth 
upon the throne in human form, who " took 
not on Him the nature of angels, but He 
took on Him the seed of Abraham" (Heb. 
ii. 16), "the Man Christ Jesus" (1 Tim. 
iii. 6), " the Son of whom He saith Thy 
Throne, O God, is for ever and ever" (Heb. 

But their work is not all done in Heaven. 
"Are they not all ministering spirits, sent 
forth to minister to them that shall be heirs 
of salvation?" (Heb. i. 14 ) The existence 
of them that do the will of God in Heaven 
is no life of idleness. They are the fellow- 
servants of Him who is the Lord and the 
Saviour of men. They are the agents of 
God and the means of intercourse oetween 
earth and Heaven. It is no novel interpreta- 
tion to read, "He maketh His angels to be 
winds, and His ministers a flame of fire." 
The fires on Mount Sinai were the work of 
angels. An angel troubled the waters of 
Bethesda. In the Apocalypse we read of 
angels restraining the four winds. Works of 
vengeance, the destruction of Sodom and 
Gomorrah by the fiery lava of volcanoes, 
the destruction of Sennecharib's hosts by 
means, it is supposed, of a suffocating wind, 
the pestilence in Israel when David num- 
bered the people, the smiting of the earth 
in the Apocalypse, are ascribed to angels 
Nature is not inanimate. Its toils are du- 


ties. " For all things serve Thee." " And 
every breath of air, and every ray of heat 
and ' light, overy beautiful prospect, is, as 
it were, the skirts of their garments, the 
waving of the robes of those gracious and 
holy beings, whose faces see God in Heaven. 
And I put it to any one whether it is not at 
philosophical, and as full of intellectual en- 
joyment, to refer the movements of the na- 
tural world to tbem as to attempt to explain 
them by certain theories of science, useful as 
these are, and capable of a religious applica- 
tion." (Newman.) 

They guarded, led, and fed His Church in 
the wilderness (Ps. lxxviii. 26). They watch 
over nations. They watch over men. " The 
angel of the Lord campeth round about" 
(Ps. xxxiv. 7); "and lol the whole moun- 
tain round about was full of horses and 
chariots of fire round about the prophet" 
(2 Kings vi. 17). They are the instruments 
of mercies and punishments (2 Sam. xxiv. 
16). They bear the prayers of men up to 
God (Rev. viii. &). They watch over little 
children (cb. xxvi.). " Of such is the king- 
dom of Heaven," and "their angels do al- 
ways behold the face of my Father which 
is in Heaven" (St. Matt, xviii. 10). They are 
present in the assemblies of Christians ; the 
reason for their decency and order is " be- 
cause of the angels" (Eccl. v. 6; 1 Cor. xi. 
10). They are God's messengers to men 
(Acts viii. 26 ; x. 4), and under the guise of 
strangers and needy " some have entertained 
angels unawares" (Heb. xiii. 2). Thev watch 
over the living, and there is joy in tne pres- 
ence of the angels of God over one sinner that 
repenteth." And when Lazarus, the beggar, 
dies, they "carry his soul to Abraham's 
bosom" (St. Luke vii. 39; xv. 10). 

Their work is of a kind that to our pride 
and envy (the devil's own sins) seem irksome 
and unworthy (1 Tim. iii. 6; Wis. ii. 24). 
But "the angelic life is passed between 
Heaven and earth" (Leigh ton), and in their 
eyes it is "Glory to God on high" where 
there is "peace on earth, good- will towards 
men," and nothing which is worthy of the 
care and love of God is beneath their atten- 
tion. What we learn about tbem shows us 
that there is close connection between these 
two portions of the one kingdom, — the visible 
and the invisible. It is not without mean- 
ing that the Apostolic Liturgies repeat the 
very forms of words and of worship which 
the shepherds heard, and which were re- 
vealed to Isaiah and St. John (St. Luke ii. 
14; Is. vi. 8; Rev. iv. 4-11). So Moses was 
bidden to " make all things according to the 
pattern showed to thee in the mount" (Heb. 
viii. 6). May it not be for a like reason that 
as the name of Malacbi signifies "my 
Angel," and his prophecy of John the Bap- 
tist is " Behold, I send my angel before Thy 
face" (Mai. iii. 1), so in the letters to the 
Church 08 of Asia the Lord chooses to name 
the Chief Pastors not Apostles or Bishops, 
but by the very name of those ministering 
spirits which were about His throne? The 

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men on earth officer* in the Church visible, 
and the Spirits in Heaven officers of the 
Church invisible, are knit together in the 
tame Communion of Saints, set to do the 
tame will of God, and called by the same 
name of "Angels" (Rev. i. 20). 

What St. John saw in Heaven it is for 
the Church to reflect on earth, and so to do 
the will of our Father. In their worship, 
its order, harmony, beauty, constancy, they 
show us who, and who alone, is the object 
of our worship, — not spirits of the dead and 
41 souls yet under the altar" (Rev. vi. 9), 
not even their glorious selves, but " the Lord 
God Almighty, which was, aud is, and is 
to come" (Rev. iv. 8), and how He is to 
be worshiped. And in their ministrations, 
making His will theirs, caring for what He 
cares for, seeking His glory because they are 
Holy and His, they show us what is to be 
the spirit and the manner of our work. The 
Lord tells us who they shall be that in 
the resurrection shall inherit the kingdom 
and be " as the angels" (St. Luke xx. 36), 
those who have like them ministered to 
" these his brethren" (St Matt. xxv. 40). 
They have confessed Him here, and lie shad 
confess them before the angels. They have 
followed and worshiped Him here, and 
there as here, *' with angels and archangels 
and all the company of Heaven, they shall 
laud and magnify His glorious name, ever- 
more praising Him and saying, Holy, Holy, 
Holy, Lord God of Hosts. Heaven and 
earth are full of Thy Glory. Glory be to 
Thee, O Lord, Most High." 

Rkv. L. W. Gibson. 

Anglican. The Angles were one of the 
tribes of Teutonic sea-robbers that descended 
upon the coasts of England, drove the an- 
cient Britons back to the mountains of 
Cornwall and Wales, and established them- 
selves as permanent residents on the soil. 
For some occult reason, perhaps for its 
euphony, their name has been perpetuated 
in English and England. 

The term Anglican is now commonly ap- 
plied to the National Church of England, as 
the term Gallican is to the National Church 
of France, — the ancient Gaul, — Coptic to 
the Church of the Copts, or Russian to the 
Oriental Church in Russia. 

These are national terms. They evince 
the important fact that while the Catholic 
Church is one over all Christendom and re- 
mains one and the same into whatever land 
her missionaries penetrate, still she conforms 
herself to national peculiarities. The cus- 
toms, the tastes and ha hits, with the mode 
of thought and action, which distinguish the 
nations from each other, enter even into 
tlte national forms of religion. While the 
Anglican is, as she claims to be, the One, 
Holy, Catholic Church in England, she has 
her own English modes of Liturgical wor- 
ship, and her special terms and ways of the- 
ological teaching. The Anglican Church 
was originated among the Britons in Apos- 
tolic times and was revived among the 

Anglo-Saxons, 598 aj>., by Augustine and 
his companion monks, who was induced by 
Gregory the Great, a Bishop of Rome, to 
enter upon a mission at Canterbury. The 
Roman Bishop pursued the same policy to- 
wards England that was so successful towards 
the other nations of Western Europe. His 
claim of supremacy was rejected at first by 
the British Christians, and was never tamely 
submitted to by the English Church or peo- 
ple. Even Hildebrand (Gregory VII.), 
while grinding under his heel the crown of 
the Holy Roman Empire in the person of 
Henry IV. of Germany, was carelul not to 
turn the screws of his usurpations too 
tightly upon William of Normandy, con- 
queror of England. John was the first of 
the kings of England to acknowledge the 
temporal and spiritual lordship of the Pope, 
but even then the barons, who were the rep- 
resentative English people, wrung from him 
the Magna Charts, in which the phrase 
" our Church of England" shows that the 
nation itself rejected the uncatholic claims 
of the Roman Pontiff. At last, after many 
vicissitudes, the English Convocation, 1537 
A.D., finally resisted successfully the Roman 
usurpations, and the National Church of 
England became, as she still remains, free 
from foreign control. She became only the 
more distinctly Catholic by rejecting the 
uncatholic assumptions of the Pope. The 
Gallican Church was at least equally rest- 
ive under the Papal grip, but she now, like 
other National Churches of Western Eu- 
rope, has been forced to succumb. The 
Anglican Church, however, maintains suc- 
cessfully her national autonomy. While 
recognizing the authority of the whole 
Church Catholic, and remaining ready to 
obey it should it ever be clearly and legiti- 
mately exercised, she supports the right of 
National Churches to conduct their peculi- 
arly national affairs without foreign inter- 

What the Anglican Church claims for 
herself she allows to others. Both the Scot- 
tish and Irish Churches have their own Lit- 
urgies, canons of discipline, and general 
self-rule, while they keep up reciprocal 
communion with England. The English 
colonies being essentially parts of England, 
their Churches are branching outgrowths 
that still retain not only organic union with 
the " Church of England," but canonical 
conjunction with her. 

The Church in America, though descend- 
ing through both the English and Scottish 
lines of the Apostolic Episcopacy, is prop- 
erly not Anglican. Here, as in England, in 
France, and in other countries, the Catholic 
Church is one in organic union with the 
universal Body of Christ, holding to the 
one succession under the one Lord, with 
the one faith and the one baptism, but she 
is already, and is more and more manifest- 
ing herself to be a distinctively national 
Church. She feels the current of progress, 
aud while doing all she can to purify it and 

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keep in the ways of truth and holiness, she 
does not madly and foolishly throw herself 
athwart it. Her mission is primarily and 
chiefly to the American people, and she is 
fust developing an American type of Cath- 
olic doctrine and practice. 

The Anglican Church ha9 no authority in 
the Church in the United 8tates. She has 
rightfully great influence through the writ- 
ings of her scholars living and dead, as well 
as through her noble example; but the 
daughter has a domain and household of 
her own which she holds directly under the 
one Lord, and by the grace of His presence 
she is bearing her witness to His name, win- 
ning souls to His glory, constructing forms 
of worship adapted to her time and sphere, 
and learning fast so to teach the one Faith 
that it shall take up into itself, after Ameri- 
can methods, the best thought and purest 
lite of the American people. 

Rxv. B. Franklin, D.D. 

Annates. The revenues or profits of one 
year, and so far synonymous with first 
fruits. They were the revenues of the 
Bishopric for the first year after the conse- 
cration of the Bishop to his See. They were 
a tribute paid to the Papacy. They arose 
from the disposal made of the accruing 
rents, tithes, and payments due, though the 
Bishopric were vacant. Who was to enjoy 
them ? The temptation to the Bishop over 
vacant benefices, and to the Metropolitan in 
the case of the vacant See, was to keep the 
See vacant and to appropriate the revenues, 
or else to require from the Bishop-elect the 
payment of the first year's incomes. This 
right, or rather, usurpation, passed on to 
the Pope. The beginning of the practice is 
said to have begun with Pope Oregory (600 
a.d. ), but it did not finally take the bur- 
densome shape it attained till about 1268 
a.d., when Innocent III., by granting to 
Henry III. the Episcopal revenues for three 
years, obtained the royal aid in fixing the 
claim upon the clergy for the Papacy. It 
formed part of the complaints made for cen- 
turies before the Reformation. It is esti- 
mated that in the forty-five years between 
1486 and 1681 the equivalent of $226,000 a 
vear was paid to the Popes by English 
Bishops in the form of annates alone. In 
1631 the Convocation of Canterbury applied 
to the crown for relief, and a conditional 
act was passed, by which a compromise was 
offered to the Pope. As no notice was taken 
of it, the act was confirmed by letters 
patent two years later. Annates in a less 
ourdensome shape have ever since been paid 
to the crown by every Bishop and every 
priest holding a benefice above a certain 
amount of annual value. But this revenue 
was applied to the benefit of the clergy by 
Queen Anne's Bounty Act, and is now 
chiefly used for building parsonages. 

Annotine Easter. The meaning of the 
word is doubtful, but the most probable 
explanation is that it was the anniversary 
Sunday of those who had been baptized the 

previous years, as this was usually adminis- 
tered at Easter-tide ; yet, if observed on the 
actual Sunday the year following, it might 
fall very much later, or before the Easter of 
that year. This will explain why it could 
fall on such varying dates. It does not 
appear to have been kept up, as it was obso- 
lete (antiquus) in 1100 a.d., when Micro- 
logus mentioned it in his treatise. 

Annunciation. The Feast of the Annun- 
ciation of the Angel Gabriel to the Virgin 
Mary. The feast commemorating this even*, 
is said to date earlier than 492 a.d., for in thi 
Sacramentary of Gelasius there is an Kpis> 
tie, Gospel, and Collect, but the actual daj 
observed varied. However, the Sacrament- 
ary has had interpolations, and no un- 
doubted proof for the observance of the 
feast can be traced higher than the Spanish 
Council of Toledo (666 a.d.), which ordered 
that, as the feast day would fall in Lent, it 
should be observed in December, in accord- 
ance with the Laodicean Canon (61st), order- 
ing that no festivals of Martyrs, i.e., Holy 
Days, should be observed in Lent. But the 
Trullan Council (692 a.d.) ordered that this 
feast should be excepted from the prohibition 
and restored to its right place, — the 26th of 
March. The purpose of the festival is to 
commemorate the announcement made by 
the Angel Gabriel to the Virgin, that she 
should conceive and bring forth the prom- 
ised Messiah, and the conception of our 
Lord, which followed that announcement. 

Antelucan. (Before dawn.) In the prim- 
itive Church in time of persecution the 
Christians were wont to meet before dawn 
to escape detection. The eustom was con- 
tinued after persecution had ceased, but it 
was broken up later, as it led to some irrever- 
ence and disorder. In dangerous times, of 
course, the Holy Communion was then most 
safely and readily celebrated ; but in times of 
quiet this was not necessary, and the custom 
was no longer imperative. Also there were 
irregularities connected with the celebrations 
at that hour, so that it was ordered that the 
Holy Communion should not be celebrated 
at night. 

Antependium. A frontal vesting the 
front of the altar. The color of the ante- 
pendium should vary with the season and 
the special day. The Holy Table in the 
Greek Church is always vested with special 
care, with altar-cloths which were conse- 
crated at the time the altar or the church 
was consecrated. 

Anthem. Vide Antiphon. 

Anthropomorphism. (The likeness or 
form of man.) The gross error of somo here- 
tics, — Audeans, — who held that God had 
a human form. It was and is probably a 
natural hasty error which some may find it 
difficult to put away. At any rate, it has 
been supposed that many held it whose lan- 
guage, following the accommodations of 
Holy Scripture, has seemed to justify the 
charge. One of the earliest, Tertullian ( 180- 
202 a.d), taught that God had a body, but 

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being self-existent, was bound by very dif- 
ferent and to us incomprehensible, laws of 
existence. The language, His Eye, His 
Hand, His creating man in His own Image, 
is only suited to our powers of comprehen- 
sion, for we are distinctly and authori- 
tatively taught (Is. xl. 18; Acts xvii. 20, 
et al.) that He is everywhere present, a 
Spirit whom no man nath seen nor can 
see, who cannot be delineated by man's 
art or device, or, as the Article hath it (Art. 
I.)i " There is but one living and true God, 
everlasting, without body, -parts, or passions, 
of infinite power, wisdom, and goodness." 
As we can only use Scripture language upon 
such lofty and insoluble subjects, it is well 
to use great care and devout thought in 
forming such conceptions. Anthropomor- 
phism does not necessarily exclude a person 
from the Church Communion, though, as 
St. Augustine says of those who were mis- 
led in his own times, they are carnal and 

Antichrist. A word compounded from 
the Greek anti and Christoa t and meaning 
" opposed to," or, " instead of Christ." 
There is probably no theological subject 
involved in greater obscurity, and from the 
earliest times the explanatory theories have 
been almost innumerable. The idea of An- 
tichrist may be traced back almost as far as 
the Messianic idea, and is undoubtedly the 
Christian* analogue of that dualism which 
characterizes all Oriental religious systems, 
and which is most familiar in the Persian 
Ormuzd and Ahriman, the personal op- 
posing powers of Good and Evil. The sim- 
plest solution of these striking analogies is 
that the great truths of Christianity were 
foreshadowed in the primeval or patriarchal 
revelation and retained in purity only in the 
Old Testament prophecies, but lived on in 
one or other corrupted form in all the cog- 
nate heathen systems. The term Antichrist 
is found in the New Testament only in 
the 1st and 2d Epistles of St. John, al- 
though the idea is very clearly taught in 
St. Matthew xxiv. and St. Mark xiii. St. 
Paul, also, in 2 Thess. ii., speaks of " The 
man of sin," by whom it is generally be- 
lieved he means Antichrist. Certainly St. 
John states positively that the coming of 
Antichrist was a doctrine well known to 
those to whom he wrote. The greatest di- 
versity of opinion has prevailed as to whether 
is meant by Antichrist a person, or a system, 
or a corrupted Church, or a persecuting anti- 
Christian power; as to whether Antichrist 
has already come, or is yet to be expected, oris 
typical of a constant opposition of the world- 
power to that of Christ. In the Roman 
Church Antichrist is generally believed to 
mean heathen imperial Home, though many 
interpret the prophecies in Revelation ais 
pointing to a personal opponent of Christi- 
anity who is to appear immediately prior to 
the second coming of Christ. In the Greek 
Church Gregory VI I. was called Antichrist 
by some, as Boniface III. had already been by 

Phncaa ; but the prevailing belief has pointed 
to Mohammed, as might naturally be ex- 
pected. Among Protestants the almost 
universally accepted solution has been 
found either in the Pope or in the Church 
of Rome; while individual rulers, from 
Caligula to Napoleon III., have been claimed 
as meeting the most minute requirements of 
prophecy. It would be as unprofitable as 
impossible to allude, evon, to all these beliefs 
and fancies. The sad divisions of Chris- 
tianity have caused almost every Christian 
system to be regarded as Antichrist by some 
opposing system. The contusion has largely 
resulted from the many unsuccessful at- 
tempts to solve the mysterious prophecies 
of Daniel and the Revelation, especially 
those which concern " the number of the 
beast," and the " time, and times, and divid- 
ing of time," which are supposed to point 
to the name of the individual Antichrist 
and the duration of the anti-Christian power. 
This immense diversity of belief, together 
with the mystery in which the whole subject 
is involved, would seem to suggest that the 
matter, outside of the general principles 
taught by our Lord Himself, is of far less 
practical importance than has been assigned 
to it. The one essential point is that Chris- 
tianity is in constant conflict with "the 
prince of this world," "the evil one" from 
whom the Lord has taught us to pray for 
daily deliverance, and that Antichrist is to be 
found in every concrete development or i near- 
nation of his power. A close examination 
of St. Paul's language in 2 Thessalonians 
will show conclusively that the Roman em- 
perors, of whom Nero was the type, fulfilled 
every particular of his description of the 
" Man of sin." They were in all respects 
personal Antichrists. They were " Christoi," 
" anointed" sovereigns ; they were worshiped 
as God and declared themselves to be incar- 
nations of the Supreme God, assuming the 
title "Divine;" they claimed "lying won- 
ders" in support of their assumed divinity ; 
they were monsters of iniquity such as the 
world has never seen before or since, and 
they were the relentless persecutors of all who 
confessed Christ, demanding the abjuration 
of His faith and the substitution for it of 
their own worship as the price of life from 
every apprehended Christian ; and, finally, 
the great Arian apostasy immediately pre- 
ceded the final destruction of Roman heathen 
imperialism by "the breath," or "spirit" — 
" pneuma"— of the Lord's mouth, for the 
death of the half-converted Constantino 
ended forever the great centralization of the 
world-power which had been the uncompro- 
mising opponent of the kingdom of Christ, 
and thenceforth Christianity became the 
dominant power in the world. This view 
is greatly strengthened by St. Paul's refer- 
ence to our Lord as having predicted the 
events which, for obvious reasons of safety 
to the Church as well as to Himself, He 
could mention only in figurative and ob- 
scure language. It was, doubtless, to this 

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language of St. Paul, and other and mora 
secret teachings to the same effect, that 
St. John alludes in bis First Epistle, and his 
declaration that there were then " already 
many Antichrists" is most significant, as ap- 
parently designed to draw attention from 
the prevailing expectation of a personal 
Antichrist, and the immediate occurrence 
of the Second Advent, and fix it upon the 
doctrinal defection which had even then 
arisen, and which embodied the most im- 
portant features of the prophecy. In regard 
to the bearing of the Revelation upon the 
subject, that book is yet too much an un- 
solved mystery to permit any definite con- 
clusion to be drawn. How much of it is 
prophecy and how much the mystical de- 
scription of even to already past or then pass- 
ing we cannot y«*t decide. Nor is the theory 
above advanced in any way inconsistent 
with the doctrine of a personal Antichrist, 
immediately to precede the final coming of 
the Lord in glory. Almost all prophecy 
is manifold in its fulfillment, having gen- 
eral and special significations, the teach- 
ing of some general truth being always the 
more important, and the prediction of events 
in most cases secondary. This is undoubt- 
edly true of the prophecies of Antichrist. 
What we need to know and remember may 
be summed up in a very few words. No 
orthodox development of Christianity can 
possibly be meant as being a power hostile 
to Christ. But the world-power is always 
opposing the Christ-power and striving to 
set itself in its place, and the world-power 
is always assuming some concrete form to 
make its opposition tangible and effective. 
As faithful Christians we must be constant 
in maintaining the Lord's side in this cease- 
less conflict, and in enduring the trials which 
that faithfulness involves, and doing so we 
need not to disturb our minds with looking 
for a personal Antichrist, but rather direct 
them in watchful hone to the coming of the 
Lord Himself in the full assurance that 
every opposing power will be destroyed be- 
fore Him and every faithful watcher be re- 

Ray. Robert Wilson, D.D. 

Antidoron. The remaining unconse- 
erated bread which had been blessed in the 
service of the preparation of the Elements. 
Prothesis. Its name signifies " instead of 
the gift" (i.e., the consecrated bread), given 
to non-communicants instead of the conse- 
crated bread. There is, doubtless, a historic 
bond, though not very distinct, connecting 
the old love-feasts (1 Cor. xi. 20, 89), this 
Antidoron, the Eulogies of the Western 
Church, the " pain beni" of the Gallican, 
and the blessed bread of the older English 
Church, together. 

Antinomianism. (Opposed to Law; in 
Church History, those opposed to the moral 
Law of God.) The earliest Antinomians 
were the Gnostics, whose wild speculations 
and gross imaginations led them into such 
a conclusion. Their profligate lives and ab- 

surd doctrines and high pretensions to Wis* 
dom and inner Knowledge naturally led to 
the denial of any moral obligations at all. 
But in this they sought Sot some support 
from the strong and decided language of St. 
Paul upon Faith, and so misled those will- 
ing to be misled by their want of self- 
control. There is always an Antinomian 
principle in mere human nature, and this 
reappears in some form or other along the 
line of Church history, some leader in each 
age not being entirely free from some form 
of the error. But it reappeared with vio- 
lence at the Reformation. In that age and 
in the whirl of that terrible breaking up it 
is not at all surprising that some were 
tempted to use more violent language than 
the truth would bear (as did Luther), and 
that others would fall into this heresy. John 
Agricola, at Wittenberg (1588 a.d.), became 
the leader of the sect. His tenets were re- 
pudiated by Luther and Melancthon, and it 
is said that be himself recanted his error 
afterwards. It sprang up again under Crom- 
well in England, among the innumerable 
sectaries which swarmed in that country 
during the Great Rebellion (1640-56 a.d.). 
In every age, however, some sectaries have 
held it, though in a repressed way. The 
Holy Scriptures present, as is their wont, 
both sides, both Faith and Works, most 
strongly, and the Church's duty is to do the 
same. Logical consequences in such cases 
are to be measured by practical conse- 
quences. The true line is to fill out works 
with the Life of Faith and to clothe faith 
with the body of works. "Show me thy 
Faith without thy Works, and I will show 
thee my Faith by my Works" (ef. iii. 18 j 
Jas. ii. 18). 

Antioch. There were two Antiochs, the 
best known in Syria, where the disciples 
were first called Christians, where St. Peter 
labored so much, where St. Ignatius after- 
wards ruled ; the other a large town in Pi- 
sidia, where St. Paul preached and suffered 
for the Gospel's sake. But the first Antioch 
deserves a longer notice, from the important 
events which took place there, and from the 
influence its School exercised at one time. 

It was founded by Seleucus Nicator (800 
B.C.), and a part of* its population was Jew- 
ish. It grew apace, as its position was ex- 
cellent both in a political and in a commer- 
cial sense. It was adorned by the Seleucid 
kings, the Romans favored it, and Herod 
the Great contributed to its adornment. Its 
population, like that of Alexandria, was 
witty, gay, and licentious, easily roused, and 
often (as in the famous case of the Statues) 
proceeding to excesses. Its fondness for 
giving nicknames possibly is noted in the 
fact that the disciples received there their 
future designation as Christians. Ignatius, 
upon the death of Evodius in a riot, became 
the Bishop of the Jewish, as he already was 
of the Gentile, congregations, and, having 
safely brought his flock through the perse- 
cution under Domitian (95-96 a.d.), bravely 

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tet the example of a good confession before 
Trajan. His letters are a precious result of 
his devotion, and the journey to Rome was 
unintentionally a better way of proclaim- 
ing the Gospel than if he had remained in- 
humed at home. Antioch became famous 
for its Catechetical School, under Lucian, 
who was martyred (811 a.d.). He was a 
clear, cool man, with a great aeal of insight 
and originality. But he was hardly ortho- 
dox in his teaching. His pupils were nearly 
all afterwards Arians, under the lead of 
Arius, who was himself trained in this An- 
tiochean school. Lucian's teaching seems 
to have been of a disputatious turn. He 
combated the Syrian mysticism and gnosti- 
cism, and in the effort brought out the plan 
of proposing problems on the Faith for de- 
bate. The sophistical style of argument 
was in vogue, and to his training in dialec- 
tics in such a school Arius owed much of his 
first successes. In this the school of Lucian 
did much more harm to Christian Truth 
than all the fancies of Origen. Lucian re- 
deemed his own good name afterwards by a 
good confession at his martyrdom (311 a.d.), 
but he sowed seeds that bore poisoned fruit 
in the next twenty years. Tne history of 
Arianism belongs 'to another article, but 
here in Antioch were held some of its strong- 
est Councils. Lucian's school soon died out, 
but his influence in urging more practical 
and grammatical criticism of the Bible long 
continued. From him really came the tone 
which influenced Diodorus of Tarsus in his 
exegesis, and through him Theodore. 

A Council was held at Antioch in the 
year 840 or 841 a.d. Some historians affirm 
that there were two Councils, one in each 
year, but whether or not that was so, it will 
suffice to consider the things done as the 
acts of one Council. The Emperor Con- 
stant ne had laid the foundations of a mag- 
nificent church at Antioch, which was fin- 
ished about this time by his son Constantius ; 
and Eusebius of Nicomedia gathered to- 
gether a large number of Bishops (as many 
as 97, of whom 40 were Eusebians) to dedi- 
cate it; these organized themselves into a 
Council, which is often called the Council 
of the Dedication, and is the second Council 
of Antioch, if, as some think, another was 
held in 840 a.d. The Bishops assembled 
were from the East alone, no one from the 
Western Empire being present, nor any rep- 
resentative oi the Pope ; and Eusebian opin- 
ions seem to have prevailed, either through 
the retirement of the orthodox Bishops, or 
through the influence of Constantius, who 
was present in person. The charges against 
St. Athanasius, formerly preferred at the 
Synod of Tyre (of murder, sacrilege, and 
impurity), were renewed, in spite of having 
been plainly confuted; and he was con- 
demned without a hearing. The Council 
then proceeded to elect and consecrate a 
Bishop of Alexandria in his place, — one 
Gregory of Cappadocia, a coarse and vio- 
lent man, who presently took possession of 

his See by military force with many out- 
rages and cruelties. They then drew up 
three or four creeds, which under ordinary 
circumstances would have been unobjection- 
able, but were suspicious from the careful 
omission of the term bpoo6owc (co-esscntial, 
consubstantial), which had become the test 
of orthodoxy. The second of these creeds 
is sometimes styled the Formulary of Antioch, 
or the Creed of the Dedication, but is ascribed 
to an earlier date than the Council. Besides 
these Creeds twenty-five Canons were passed, 
which, though technically rejected as the 
work of heretics, have actually been re- 
ceived into the Code of Church Canons, 
being confirmed by the Council of Chalce- 
don. Those of most interest now are the 
following: The 1st Canon establishes the 
decree of Nice concerning Easter ; the 6th 
prescribes a rule for dealing with those who 
assemble private independent congrega- 
tions ; the 7th enjoins the use of letters of 
peace, or dismissary letters ; the 12th (which 
was directed against Athanasius) deprives 
of all hope of restoration any one who being 
deposed shall carry his complaint to the em- 
peror instead of to a Synod of Bishops ; the 
15th forbids appeal from the unanimous de- 
cision of a provincial Synod ; the 21st for- 
bids translations; and the 22d forbids one 
Bishop interfering in the Church of another. 
Other Councils or Synods were held at An- 
tioch, as follows : in 845 a.d., when the Con- 
fession of faith called the ftoKpoartxpc was 
drawn up; in 860 a.d., when Meletius was 
elected Patriarch of Antioch, who, warmly 
espousing the defense of the Catholic faith, 
so provoked the Arians that they procured 
his banishment as a Sabellian; in 868 a.d., 
when the Creed of Nice was received as the 
exposition of the true faith ; in 880 a.d., of 
which no records are preserved, though the 
Council is said to have received, unani- 
mously, the Epistle of Pope Damasus; in 
891 a.d., when the errors of the Massalians 
were condemned ; in 417 a.d., against Pela- 
gius; in 488 a.d., against Nestorius; and 
in 485 a.d., when the memory of Theodoras 
of Mopsuestia was defended. 

Rkv. !R. A. Bknton. 
Antiphon (English form, Anthem). An- 
tiphonal chanting, i.e., responsive, as when 
two choirs respond to each other. An tiph- 
onal reading, as in our reading the Psalter 
in the service, minister and congregation 
replying the one to the other. It was the 
Jewish mode. Indeed (Is. vi. 8, " this 
cried to this," Heb.), the Seraphim respond 
the one to the other. The arrangements of 
the choirs (I Chron. vi. 81, «?., and xxv.) 
necessarily involved an tiphonal singing. 
Many of the Ptalms (e.g. xxiv., cxviii., 
exxxiv.) must have been so used : Miriam's 
Sons at the Red Sea was choral and antiph- 
onal. The dedication of the rebuilt walls 
of Jerusalem was evidently with antiphonal 
singing, as was also thus celebrated the 
founding of the second Temple (Neh. xii. 
27, sq. ; Ezra iii. 10, 16). 

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Pliny's famous letter to Trajan about the 
Christian implies in the phrase u aeeum t*- 
vicem," by turns among themselves, antinh- 
onal singing. It is a very old tradition 
that Ignatius of Antioch introduced an- 
tiphonal singing into the Gentile Church 
because of a vision of an ti phonal chanting 
in heaven. Most probably, as he united the 
Jewish and Gentile congregations under 
his jurisdiction, it may be a way of record- 
ing his argument from Isaiah to the Gen- 
tiles for such singing. East and West took 
it up, and it spread with great rapidity. 
The custom once taken up was not laid 
aside. But the term antiphon came later 
to have various meanings, springing out of 
the one central use of the Psalms : (a) The 
Psalm 8 were so called from their use. (6) 
It came to mean later a section of a Psalm, 
or a compilation of several Psalms, or other 
selections from Scriptures. The use was in 
this case for one choir to sing each verse, 
and at its close the other choir responded 
with an unvarying versicle. Such arrange- 
ments are frequent in the old office-books. 
The Canticles used in English state services 
instead of the Venite are of this nature, 
(c) A further change took place in its 
meaning when it was the name for a single 
sentence from the Psalm, originally sung 
between the verses, but later only at the 
beginning and the close, (d) The last step 
was to make it mean the sentence taken by 
itself and sung alone. This antiphon might 
be from Scripture or from some other source. 
These antiphons are very common in the 
Greek services. The word anthem (anti- 
phona, O. E. antefn, antem), found in Chau- 
cer (Mod. E. anthem), means in English 
music such a verso most usually from Scrip- 
ture, though often the composer made a 
single anthem out of two separate texts or 
passages from the Holy Writ The anti- 
phon forms a very notable part of the Litur- 
gical services, especially in the Mozarabie 
and Eastern rites. (For the use of the An- 
them in the service, see Anthjcm and 

Antiphonal. (Antiphonar.) The book 
which contains the invitatories, responso- 
ries, verses, collects, and whatever is sung in 
the choir, but not including the hymns pe- 
culiar to the Communion service, which are 
contained in the Graduale. It is a book 
that belongs to the Roman rite. The antiph- 
onal was also used in the English service 
till tne compilation of the Prayer-Book did 
away with its use. 

Antipope. Rival Popes were called anti- 
popes. They were pretenders to the Papal 
throne, elected by partisans upon some pre- 
text or claim. But several of them were 
elected under such circumstances that, had 
they been successful in their claims, they 
would have been acknowledged as legiti- 
mately chosen. The number of rival claim- 
ants has been variously stated, and probably 
cannot be completely given. But it has 
been estimated at about forty. Many be- I 

gan an opposition which maintained itself 
too short a time to require notice. Others 
•gain surrendered their claims by com- 
promise. From the date 261 a.d. there was 
out one century (the thirteenth) which was 
not marked by an antipope. For over a cen- 
tury, from 1016 a.d. to 1180 a.d., there was 
a continuous series of antipopes; and at the 
outset (1046 a.d.) there were as many as four 
in the field. The Council of Pisa (1 409 a j>. ) 
deposed both the legitimate and the anti pope 
and elected a third. This but introduced 
three rivals. The Council of Constance 
(1414-18 a.d.) deposed two, the third abdi- 
cated, and a fourth was elected, who re- 
mained possessor of the See ; but before he 
died there were two rival claimants (1425- 
26 a.d.). This, together with other histori- 
•cal facts, make a very significant commen- 
tary upon the doctrine of Papal infallibility. 

Antitype. This word can be used in two 
distinct and opposing senses: (a) as op- 
posed to mere representations of a reality, 
as the substance is opposed to the shadow. 
Christ was the antitype; Moses, David, 
Solomon, were the types. It is also used 
(6) in a reverse sense," as twice in the New 
Testament (Heb. ix. 24] : "For Christ is 
not entered unto the holy places made with 
hands, which are the figures (the antitypes) 
of the true ; but unto heaven itself, now to 
appear in the presence of God for us," 
where the antitype means the shadow, 
while the type, as St. Chrysostom says, has 
the power of the reality. And again in 1 
Pet. iii. 21, where the word antitype led to 
its use in the Liturgies: "The like figure 
whereunto (the antitype) baptism doth also 
now save us.' 1 The Fatners then used this 
word in the same way. Irenteus: "The Holy 
Spirit is then invoked that the bread may 
be the body and the cup may be the blood 
of Christ, that they who receive these 
antitypes may obtain remission of sins and 
everlasting life." St. Basil uses this term 
antitype in reference to the human body. 
As at first glance the body would be 
called a simple substance, but subsequent 
reasoning would show that it was a complex 
thing, having color and shape, and antitype 
and magnitude, when, if the text be correct, 
it is difficult to translate it unless it be a 
reference to its prototype— God's Image. 
It can be compared, therefore, with the 
phrase in his Liturgy: "We offering' the 
antitypes of the Holy Body and Blood of 
Christ, beseech Thee that Thy Holt Spirit 
may descend upon us and upon these gifts." 

Apocrypha. This Greek word means 
" hidden, secret." It seems to be used fot 
"spurious" in the latter part of the second 
century. Perhaps the name indicates a secret 
knowledge made known only to the initiated. 
The names of distinguished men, as Solo- 
mon and Ezra, Daniel and Jeremiah, were 
falsely given as authors of the various books. 
The introducing of Apocryphal books into 
the Septuagint gave tnem a certain weight,* 
though Jerome speaks strongly against an 

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undue valuation of them. The Church of 
Rome, at the Council of Trent, included the 
doubtful books in its definition of Canonical 
Scripture, excepting the two books of Esdras 
and the Prayer of Manasseh. The German 
and English Reformers followed the opinion 
of Jerome. In Luther's German Bible the 
title "Apocrypha" had this addition : "t.e., 
Books which are not of like worth with Holy 
Scripture, yet are good and useful to be 
read.' 1 Wiclif used the term Apocrypha 
for the un canonical books, and the judgment 
of St Jerome is given in the VI. Article 
of the English Church. He admits them 
to be " read for example of life and instruc- 
tion of manners," but not " to establish any 
doctrine." The Apocryphal books are in- 
teresting in their connection with the litera- 
ture and history of. the Jews. "They repre- 
sent the period of transition and decay which 
followed on the return from Babylon, when 
the prophets, who were then the teachers of 
the people, had passed away and the age of 
scribes succeeded!." " The alterations of the 
Jewish character, the different phases which 
Judaism presented in Palestine and Alexan- 
dria, the good and the evil which were called 
forth by contact with idolatry in Egypt, and 
by the struggle against it in Syria, all these 
present themselves to the reader of the Apoc- 
rypha with greater or less distinctness." 
These books lack the prophetic element, 
though there is some attempt to feign it. 
The Song of the Three Children is the only 
poetry in the Apocrypha. Where the writ- 
ers are affected by Greek culture there is 
"the taste for rhetorical ornament which 
characterized the literature of Alexandria." 
In the Apocrypha works of fiction appear, 
which rest, or purport to rest, on " an his- 
torical foundation." The Jewish exiles had 
a reputation for music, and were asked to 
sing the "songs of Zion " (Ps. cxxxvii.). 
The trial of skill in wise sayings given in 
1 Esdras iii. and iv. " implies a traditional 
belief that the Persian kings honored 
those who possessed such gifts. The transi- 
tion to story-telling was natural. The cap- 
tivity, with its remoteness of scene and 
strange adventures, gave a wide field to the 
imagination. In Bel and the Dragon there 
is a love of the marvelous, and a scorn of 
the idolater. In Tobit and in Susanna there 
is a moral tendency. Jeremiah has a promi- 
nent place in the hopes of the Jews, and so 
in 2 Mace. xv. 13-16, he is represented as 
appearing to Judas Haccabssus and giving 
him "a sword as a gift from God." This 
may help to explain the rumor of the 
people in Christ's day, that "Jeremias, 
or one of the prophets," had appeared on 
earth (Matt. xvi. 14). With regard to the 
false names given to Apocryphal writers, it 
is difficult at this day to know how much 
deception existed, if any was intended. Sol- 
omon's name may have been used to draw 
attention by personation. Later Jewish his- 
tory shows this, however, to be a danger- 
ous practice. There are inaccuracies in the 

history contained in the Apocrypha. This 
may be partly due to a want of " power to 
distinguish truth from falsehood." The in- 
fluence against idolatry is strong, as in the 
story of the noble Maccabees, and in the 
books of Judith, Baruch, and Wisdom. The 
heroic death by martyrdom of the mother 
and her seven sons in 2 Mace. vii. is a won- 
derful narrative. A high idea of almsgiv- 
ing appears in Tobit iv. 7-9, which form a 
Krt of the sentences used in the Offertory. 
Tobit xii. 8, prayer, fasting, and alms are 
named as characteristics of a holy life. Our 
Lord explains their relation to true relig- 
ion in St. Matt vi. 1-18. The Wisdom of 
Solomon is a book of a very elevated tone of 
thought. Wisdom is beautifully styled " the 
brightness of the everlasting light, the un- 
spotted mirror of the power of God, and the 
image of His goodness" (ch. vii. 26). " In 
all ages, entering into holy souls, she maketh 
them friends of God" (v. 27]. This resem- 
bles Pbilo's teaching, and foreshadows St 
John's description of Christ as the Word 
of God and " the true Light, which lighteth 
every man that cometh into the world" 
(John i. 1, 9). Eternal blessedness shines out 
in this book. How magnificently the fol- 
lowing words sound in days of heathen dark- 
ness : " The souls of the righteous are in the 
hand of God" (Wisdom iii. 1), and, " In 
the sight of the unwise they seemed to die" 
(v. 2J ; " But they are in peace" (v. 8). See 
the final triumph of the righteous in ch. vi., 
with its figures of rapidly passing life, in 
the ship, the bird, and the arrow. In such 
a fleeting life the wicked cry, " We in like 
manner, as soon as we were born, began to 
draw to our end" (v. 13). The wide love 
of God is described in ch. xi. 23-26 : " Thou 
lovest all the things that are, and abhorrest 
nothing which Thou hast made" (v. 24); 
"O Lord, Thou lover of souls" (v. 26). 
The second book of Esdras, from the " allu- 
sions to Jesus Christ and to the phrase- 
ology of the New Testament," is supposed to 
be the work of a Jewish Christian. Ecclesi- 
asticus is believed to be written by the son of 
Sirach, as it claims to be. Josephus excludes 
the Apocryphal books from the Canon of 
Scripture, and " Philo never quotes them as 
he does the Sacred Scriptures. By the Jews 
they were never viewed as part of the 
Canon." Still they form an "important 
link" in Jewish history, and narrate " the 
fulfillment of many of the Old Testament 
prophecies, especially those in the book of 
Daniel." They give accounts of customs 
and circumstances alluded to in the New 
Testament, and so help us to understand it. 
They contain, also, " pious reflections, writ- 
ten by devout men, who were waiting for 
the consolation of Israel." The Fathers 
often appealed to them and quoted them. In 
very early times " they were read in most 
Churches, at least in the West," not as 
Canonical Scripture, but as ancient and val- 
uable for instruction, as a homily or sermon 
might be read. The Belgic Confession al» 

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lowed them to be read in Churches. This 
passage occurs in Cecil's " Remains' 1 : " Man 
is a creature of extremes, The middle path is 
generally the wise path ; but there are few 
wise enough to find it. Because Papists 
have made too much of some things, Prot- 
estants have made too little of them. . . • 
The Papist puts the Apocrypha into his 
Canon ; the Protestant will scarcely regard 
it as an ancient record. 11 While the Eng- 
lish Church reads the Apocrypha in the 
public service, it is not read as Scripture. 
The Episcopal Church wisely takes the mid- 
dle ground of which Cecil speaks. While 
she, with the Jews themselves, excludes the 
Apocryphal books from Canonical Scrip- 
ture, she is ready to draw from them such 
information as may be of benefit to her chil- 
dren. Bishop Ch. Wordsworth contends 
that if the early Church had claimed canon- 
icity for them she would have impeded the 
entrance of the Jews into her fold ; but all 
the Apostles were Jews, "the first fifteen 
Bishops of Jerusalem were of Hebrew ex- 
traction" (Euseb. H. E., iv. 6). The Greek 
Church, though not considering the Apoc- 
rypha inspired, venerates it, and by a proper 
use of it we keep in concord thus far with 
that ancient body. While the Apocrypha 
was allowed to be read for instruction in an- 
cient Churches*, Cyril's Catechetical Lectures 
show that the Church of Jerusalem was an 
exception, and the Council of Laodicea de- 
termined the case for some other Churches 
by forbidding all but the Canonical books 
to be read in the Church. The author of 
the Apostolic Constitutions, giving orders 
about the reading of Old Testament books, 
omits the Apocrypha. 

Authorities: E. H. Plumptre in Wm. 
Smith's Dictionary of the Bible; Home's 
Introduction; Bible Lore, by J. Comper 
Gray ; Browne on the Articles ; Wordsworth 
on the Canon ; Bingham's Antiquities. For 
a list of works on the Apocrypha, see In- 
troduction to the Old Testament in Lange's 
Genesis, Third Division, p. 64 

Rev. S. P. Hotchkin. 

Apollinarianism. Apollinaris, Bishop of 
Laodicea (d. 390 a.d.), a very learned and in- 
fluential Bishop, promulgated certain erro- 
neous teachings concerning our Lord's 
nature. The Nicene Council had deter- 
mined Holy Scripture to teach that He was 
perfect man as well as Eternal Son of God. 
As perfect man His human nature must 
subsist of body and soul, or He would not 
be perfect man. But this Apollinaris denied. 
He did not deny the true body, but he did 
deny the soul in our Lord's human nature. 
He was refuted by Athanasius (who, how- 
ever, did not mention his name, for they were 
personal friends), by Gregory Nazianzen, 
Gregory of Nyssa, and others, and was con- 
demned by a Council at Alexandria (362 
A.D.), and by the second General Council at 
Constantinople (3S1 a.d.). His error led him 
to leave the Church and create a sect. Greg- 
ory Nazianzen states firmly the true doctrine 

of the Church (Ep. ad Cled.) : " Let not men 
deceive nor be deceived," supposing "the 
lordly nature" (using this term instead of our 
Lord and God) u to be soulless. For we 
do not separate the manhood from His Di- 
vinity ; but we confess that it is one and the 
same ; not that the manhood was first, but, 
that He was God, the only Sox, before all 
worlds, without a human body or its attri- 
butes. But in the fullness of time He took 
upon Him flesh for our salvation. He was 
capable of suffering according to the flesh. 
He was incapable of suffering according to 
His divinity, circumscribed according to His 
body ; not to be circumscribed according to 
His divinity ; at once earthly and heavenly, 
He was seen ; he was known ; He was in 
space (as to His human body) ; He was no* 
bounded by space (as to His divinity, com- 
pare St. John iii. 13). That our whole man- 
hood having fallen under sin might be re- 
formed by Him who was wholly man as well 
as God." 

Apostasy. (A falling away; a desertion 
from a cause or from a general.) A defection 
from the true faith of Christ. In times of 
persecution this sin was rife among Christians 
from fear of bodily peril especially, as gen- 
erally the act itself was often proposed in 
the mildest way: a few grains of incense 
offered to an idol, or to the image of the 
emperor, or a renunciation easily ambigu- 
ously made, and certified to by a magistrate. 
But there have been other apostates, such as 
was the Emperor Julian, or renegades to the 
Mohammedan Faith. It was legislated upon 
by the Church, and the penitents had to un- 
dergo a long discipline of probation, in some 
places for twelve years, before they could 
be restored. But when the state took up 
apostasy into its Civil Code, its enactments 
were intolerant. The apostate to paganism 
was not allowed to bequeath by will or to 
inherit. At one time he was to be dismissed 
from all posts of civil dignity. And if the 
apostasy of a testator could be established 
within five years after his death, his will was 
null and void. 

Apostle. One who is sent ; a title given 
to the Twelve disciples by our blessed 
Lord when He chose them to be His 
messengers to all the world. As for the 
special traits of the individual Apostles we 
must turn to the short sketches under their 
names. Here their office is dwelt upon. 
They are called Apostles by St. Matthew, 
only when their appointment is recorded, 
and by St. Mark, when they return from 
their mission. But St. Luke gives them 
this title, from their appointment, in six 
places, evidently showing that the full 
value of their title was appreciated later. 
In St. John's Gospel the name is not given 
at all, but the Twelve are called disciples. 
Our Lord considered them as one body. 
He gave them the practical training His 
presence and mission work afforded. He 
seems rather to have trusted to His having 
them with Him, and to His personal influ- 

Digitized by 



©nee, than to His many instructions (St. 
John xiv. 9). His words, His parables, 
His works, His example, were His instruc- 
tion more than the imparting of doctrine. 
Indeed, His doctrine being so much the 
expansion and the enforcement of the Old 
Testament, except the prediction concern- 
ing Himself and His Atonement and Resur- 
rection He gave them no secret doctrines. 
Out of the Twelve there appear to have 
been chosen to serve Him more closely SS. 
Peter, James, and John. These were taken 
up into the Mount of Transfiguration, 
were with Him in the Garden, 'as well as 
selected at other special occasions. Still, 
He made no further distinctions between 
them, and it would seem that the Three 
stood so closely to Him, because of their 
own love to Him. They all, however, were 
dull to see what His purposes were, and, 
with all their training and their zeal and 
perseverance, still failed to comprehend 
Him aright. It was not till after His 
resurrection, and then by a special gift 
from Him, that they understood all the 
Scripture about Him. But their office 
began properly after His Resurrection. The 
commission that had been given (St. Matt, 
xvi. 18, 19 ; xviii. 18, 21) was by anticipa- 
tion, but now it was given fully and finally, 
yet not at once, but during the forty days 
previous to His Ascension. The first part 
given was on that evening, in the upper 
chamber, when he met them : (a) " Peace 
be unto you. As mv Father hath sent 
me, even so send (Apostleize) I you." 
It was a plenary commission, with equal 
but delegated powers. Then follows: (6) 
" He breathed on them, and said, Receive 
ye the Holt Ghost : whose soever sins ye 
remit, they are remitted unto them; and 
whose soever sins ye retain, they are re- 
tained." This is recorded in St. John's 
Gospel xx. 21-23. There appears to have been 
a pause in the conveyance of their commis- 
sion. For the forty days that He was going 
in and out among them He was " speaking 
of the things pertaining to the Kingdom of 
God" (Acts i. 8). But here we must place 
the giving of the second part of the com- 
mission in His appearing to the Eleven as 
they sat at meat (St. Mark xvi. 14-18). 
The mission is now given : (c) •« Go ye into 
all the world, and preach the Gospel to 
every creature. He that believeth and is 
baptized shall be saved ; and he that believ- 
eth not shall be damned." At this point, 
too, we may add St Luke's record as par- 
allel and explanatory of St. Mark's : " And 
that repentance and remission of sins should 
be preached in His Name among all nations, 
beginning at Jerusalem. And ye are wit- 
nesses of these things" (St. Luke xxiv. 47, 
48). In obedience to His command they 
meet Him in a mountain in Galilee, and 
then He claims His royal authority: "All 
power is given to Me in Heaven and in 
earth. Go ye, therefore, and mako disciples 
of all nations, baptizing them in the Name 


of the Fathkr, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost; teaching them to observe 
all things whatsoever 1 have commanded 
you." And then He gives that solemn 
promise, now so strangely denied as possible, 
"And, lo, I am with you alway, even unto 
the end of the world. Amen" (St. Matt, 
xxviii. 19, 20). We see that the command 
to baptize is given twice, and the commis- 
sion to absolve, which involves the effects of 
baptism, is given once with plenary and co- 
equal power as His own, and that this dele- 
gation rests upon the power given to Him, 
and He seals it with the gift of the Holy 
GB08T for their official acts. St. Luke 
gives a note, too, in the Apostolic office, 
"And ye are witnesses of these things." 
The whole commission is given in perpe- 
tuity : "I am with you alway, even to the 
end of the world." We ascertain, then, that 
the Apostolic office was never to fail, and 
was to be a witness of Him and His Resur- 
rection ; that it was to convey to the re- 
pentant sinner the effect of His atonement, 
i.e., pardon, and forgiveness by baptism, 
and it was to use discipline ; that its mis- 
sion-field was the world. 

The continuity of the office was shown by 
the election of Matthew (Acts i. 15-26), the 
condition being that the persoji elected must 
have been with the Lord Jesus from the 
beginning, that he might be a competent 
witness of the Resurrection. The co-equal- 
ity in the office was shown by the co-equal 
gift of the Holy Ghost to the Twelve, 
and in the fact that the College of the Apos- 
tles sent SS. Peter and John down to Sama- 
ria (Acts viii.), and that St. James presided 
at the Council of Jerusalem (Acts xv .), and 
that St. Paul admitted no superior to him- 
self (Gal. i. 1). The perpetuity of the of- 
fice was shown by the fact that Silvanus 
and Timothy and Epaphroditus and Titus 
were Apostles as well as Barnabas and 
Paul. Indeed, there were some who were 
false Apostles (2 Cor. xi. 13; Rev. ii. 2), 
which could not have been unless the office 
was widely spread. This we note was within 
Apostolic time. But as Timothy was an 
Apostle (com p. 1 Thcss. i. 1 with ii. 6), he 
was led (2 Tim.' ii. 1, 2) to commit to faith- 
ful men the commission that they might 
teach others also, a very direct command on 
the succession, which was of course implied 
in the directions about Bishops or Elders 
and Deacons. What, then, were the func- 
tions of the Apostle ? He was primarily to 
Preach, and to Baptize, and to Confirm (Acts 
viii. and xix. ; Hcb. vi.), and to Discipline 
(ef. St. John xx. 28, with Acts viii. 20-23 ; 
1 Cor. v. 1-6; 1 Tim. i. 18-20). Again, it 
is to be noted that not only did our Lord 
promise a perpetual presence with the hold- 
ers of the office, but it was the only office 
He ordained, prayed for, and gave the Holy 
Ghost to Himself, and sent it for them to use 
for the Church. They selected Elders in 
every Church, they ordained Deacons, but 
they alone were in the original sacred corn- 

Digitized by 





mission. This would be alone sufficient to 
prove its continuity did the New Testament 
give us no other facts. But in truth the 
whole work presupposes Apostolic author- 
ity. And continuance in the unity of the 
Apostles was from the first a proof of ortho- 
doxy (Acts ii. 42 ; 2 Thess. ii. 15, iii. 4-9; 1 
Cor. iv. 16-21 ; xi. ; Gal. i. ; Phil. iii. 17 ; 1 
John i. 8; ii. 19; Rev. ii. 2, 3). In fact, 
Apostolic authority is so constantly presup- 
posed that to quote any texts in proof is 
needless. AH commands and directions are 
founded upon it. Now, the Apostolic of- 
fice was to give real and true spiritual gifts, 
and to be the only appointed channel by 
which they were conveyed. Prophets and 
Teachers might be multipled, but since Bap- 
tism and Absolution, and the Confirmation, 
ind the Lords Supper, and the Blessing of 
Peace are real and true gifts to be received 
and lived in, and are not conferred by merely 
preaching which opens the mind, or teach- 
ing which trains the disciples to receive ; 
and since these gifts are onlv to be received 
by these officers, the Apostolic office must be 

Eerpetual. It was and it must continue to 
e the witness of the Incarnation and Res- 
urrection (1 John throughout), and it is a 
sad fact, but one which follows from the 
principles inherent in the commission, that 
wherever it has been dropped by any sect, 
and there has been no continuing Apostolic 
Church near it to enforce these doctrines, 
the body so rejecting the Apostolic office 
has also rejected the Divinity of Christ. 

Apostolic Fathers. Clement, the com pan- 
ion of St. Paul, and later Bishop of Rome 
{97 a.d.), Ignatius (116 a.d.), and Polycarp 
(167 a.d.), companions of St. John, wrote 
certain letters which have come down to us, 
and are of great value. Clement's letter to 
the Corinthians is valuable not only for its 
own merits, but chiefly for its quotations from 
the New Testament, being an unconscious 
witness of the authenticity and general recep- 
tion of the books he cites. Ignatius wrote 
six Epistles to tho Churches of Ephesus, 
Tralles, Rome, Magnesia, Philadelphia, and 
Smyrna, and one to Polycarp, which give 
incidental but positive information on Epis- 
copacy, and upon Church government, and 
which quote the New Testament very freely, 
enabling us to establish the early circulation 
of parts of the New Testamen t. There is also 
a cotemporary account of his martyrdom. 
Polycarp wrote a letter to the Philadefphians, 
and there is also a cotemporary narrative of 
his martyrdom. These are most valuable 
records from those who were trained by the 
Apostles. There are, besides, the Shepherd 
of Hermas (identified by some with the Her- 
mas of Rom. xvi. 14, but very doubtful), 
which was at one time very popular, the 
very doubtful (but very early written) Epis- 
tle of St. Barnabas, and some fragments of 
the works of Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis, 
and a disciple of St. John. These had been 
taught by the Apostles St. John and St Paul ; 
and their writings, especially since their tes- 

timony cannot be doubted as true, are val- 
uable not so much on the subjects they dis- 
cussed as upon the facts of Church govern- 
ment they assumed or alluded to, and of the 
genuineness of such of the New Testament 
Scriptures as they quoted incidentally, doing 
so without hesitation, as if appealing to an 
inspired authority equal to the Old Testa- 
ment Scripture. 

Apostolic Succession. The real mean- 
ing of this term is but little appreciated even 
by many otherwise well-informed Church- 
men. It is supposed to be, as it really is, a 
consecration of a person to Episcopal author- 
ity and office by those who have themselves 
received it from others tracing their author- 
ity by successive ascent back to some one of 
the Apostles. But harsh deductions are 
drawn from it, and the Church is accused of 
judging and " unchurching" those who from 
some prejudice or other reject it. She docs 
not do this. She has a duty to do in assert- 
ing her right to be a part of the Holy Cath- 
olic Church, and this is one of the visible 
elements of her divine organization. She 
judges none. That is God's prerogative. If 
they reject her claims to their fealty, it is 
not her fault. If there is any unchurching, 
they do it themselves. But this Law of 
Apostolic Succession in the Church is only 
what she must have as a self-perpetuating 
Body. Its principle underlies all acknowl- 
edged government. Unless the exercise of 
supreme authority be received from some 
acknowledged ana revered source, this au- 
thority is but usurpation. And the formal 
admission to wield this authority by the 
proper persons thereto appointed constitutes 
the person so admitted an officer clothed with 
this authority. The President of the United 
States is elected, but he is not President and 
cannot assume the authority of his office till 
the oath of office is administered to him by 
the officer appointed by the Constitution. It 
must be so in every organization. The 
Church is Christ's organized kingdom. It 
cannot break a law which He has put as 
fundamental to all government. It must 
derive its authority from Him. Spiritually 
He is present. The Holy Ghost abides in 
it, and it is sustained and fed by Him. As 
He withdraws His visible Presence it must 
have a self-perpetuating government. As it 
is divine and miraculous it must be founded 
in miracles. Our Lord took not His offico 
upon Himself, but was. sent (Apostleized), 
even as Aaron was called of God. It was 
founded in miracles. In fact, it is a proper law 
in God's dealings with men, that every dis- 
pensation or covenant He makes is founded 
in miracles, rests upon them. For the 
Patriarclws, the* miracles to Abraham were 
vouchers. For the Jew, from Moses' time 
forth, the wonders in the land of Ham, in 
the field of Zoan, at the Rod Sea, and in the 
Wilderness were enough. And the author- 
ity#f the High-Priest rested upon the mira- 
culous call and the wonderful power given 
to Aaron. So our Lord had a public corn- 

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mission given Him, and was endowed by His 
Father (as well aft by inherent right as 
God'* Son) to prove His doctrine by His mir- 
acles. And He sent His officers forth with 
that power. It was superadded, not essential. 
It was for proof, not for authority. The last 
High-Priest that entered within the veil was 
as much a High-Priest as was Aaron. But our 
Lord was sent, was His Father's " Apos- 
tle" (Ueb. iii. 1). He chose twelve, whom 
He called Apostles (St. Luke vi. 13), and 
when He commissioned them anew after His 
Resurrection He admitted them to His own 
rank. " As my Father has made me an 
apostle, even so I send you" (St. John xx. 
21). For this reason the distinction between 
the A postdate and the Presby terate is clearly 
preserved throughout the New Testament. 
Again, as this office involves our Lord's own 
office, He has promised an abiding perpetuat- 
ing presence in it to the end of the world 
(St. Matt, xxviii. 20). He has Himself 
made unity with Him and His Father de- 
pend upon it. (I.) It is noticeable that He 
does not pray for unity till interceding first 
for the Apostles. He pleads, " Neither pray I 
for these alone, but for them also that be- 
lieve on me through their word ; that they 
all may be one, as Thou, Father, art in Me, 
and I in Thee, that they also may be one in 
us" (St. John xvii. 20, 21). "When we remem- 
ber the time of this prayer, the High-Priest 
sanctifying Himself as the one perfect victim, 
the unutterably solemn power of it will be 
felt. (II.) The Apostles claimed that fel- 
> lowship with themselves was essential to the 
continuance of the members in the Church 
(Acts ii. 42; 1 John i. 1-7 ; ii. 19; 2 Thess. 
iii. 6, as in other like places). This author- 
ity resided in them to admit to their own 
rank upon the Lord's own commission. In- 
deed, they admitted several, — St. Matthias, 
St. Barnabas, St. Paul. We know that St. 
Paul numbered with himself in rank St. 
Timothy, and Titus, and Siivanus (vide 1 
Thess. ii.; comp. with ii. 6). Indeed, if 
these steps of the transmission can be proven 
it is useless to deny the fact or to explain 
away the principle. But we see our Lord, 
our Apostle, from His Father ; the Twelve, 
the Apostles, from our Lord ; St. Matthias, 
and Barnabas, and Paul (Acts xiii. 1, 2) from 
the Twelve ; St. Timothy, and Titus, and Sii- 
vanus from St. Paul. The question of the 
Angels of the Churches (Rev. ii. and iii.) 
needs no discussion here, since the acceptance 
of the principle in the New Testament is 
sufficiently established. It is absurd to sup- 
pose that St. Timothy or St. Titus would 
break the commandment they had received 
so solemnly from St. Paul. The question 
is authoritatively decided by the Ignatian 
Epistles, since they accept and carry forward 
this line of succession. 

It is absurd to claim that the line has been 
broken. For (a) the earliest Canon of post- 
Apostolic times orders that the consec^tors 
shall be three. The purpose being that the 
consecration shall be most public and notor- 

ious, (b) The intercommunion of the dif- 
ferent Churches kept any one Church from 
being imposed upon. It is significant that 
this was tried in the times of the Apostles. 
False Apostles, cried St. Paul. Our Lord 
commends the Angel of the Church in 
Ephesus, " and hast tried them which say 
they are Apostles and are not, and hast 
found them liars" (Kev. ii. 2). The chain 
can no more be broken than the descents of 
an ever-increasing family be denied. We 
ask no Jew to prove his descent from Abra- 
ham. The principle of the succession is 
well shown by the following occurrence, 
which shall be set down in the words of the 
venerated narrator : 

" A doctrine is sometimes better illustra- 
ted by a story than by a dogmatic treatise. 
The character of true repentance, and the 
possibility of free pardon for transgressions 
against Heaven, are better exhibited by the 
parable of the Prodigal Son than they would 
be by a homiletical treatise. Bearing this 
in mind, we are inclined to believe that an 
anecdote of parochial experience will satisfy, 
if not convince, multitudes, better than more 
formal statements respecting Apostolical suc- 

"A rector, who had gone to a railroad 
depot to see a clerical brother start upon a 
journey, encountered a lady who, though a 
Presbyterian, had for years belonged to his 
church-choir. She was much pleased to see 
him, for she was going from home perma- 
nently and was glad to bid him farewell. 
She thanked him for his ministrations, 
and confessed that her mind had become 
softened about many Episcopal peculiari- 
ties ; but one she had never been able to 
admit or tolerate. Of course, the natural 
question was, to what do you allude? Oh, 
to the well-known theory of an Apostolic 
succession in the ministry. Why, the an- 
swer was, you yourself believe in a whole 
family of Apostolic successions, and surely 
a single specimen in the ministry ought not 
to give you any trouble. Oh, no ; she had 
no faith in anything of the kind. Well, let 
us see. Do you, or do you not, believe in the 
Apostolic succession of the Christian relig- 
ion ? Why, she had never heard of such an 
idea before. But, it was pressed upon her, 
if you do not, then you must admit the 
charge of infidels that Christianity is an in- 
vention or an imposture, for it must be 
traced to its sources to be true to its own 
protensions. So she admitted the point and 
consented to the most comprehensive of all 
Apostolic successions whatever. 

" Then she was asked about the Apostolic 
succession of the Christian Churcn, — the 
grand outward institution of Christianity. 
Was there ever a time, since the days of 
Christ and His Apostles, when there was 
not a Christian Church upon the earth? 
Had this Church ever died out and vanished ? 
Oh, no; she could allow nothing of the 
kind. Then you believe in the Apostolic 
succession of the Christian Church ? Bather 

Digitized by 





timorously (for she began to have an inkling 
of the journey she was traveling) she ad- 
mitted that she did. 

" Now, exclaimed her somewhat amused 
querist, here comes a formidable matter : 
Do you, or do you not, believe in the Apos- 
tolic succession of tho Christian Scriptures? 
Remember, and remcmW well, here con- 
fronts us one of those awful gaps with which 
your friends so often threaten us. We have 
no manuscripts of such Scriptures which go 
back of about the middle of ^ie fourth cen- 
tury, that is, sav 850 a.d. And the last 
writer of Christian Scripture may be dated 
at 100 a.d. Here, then, is a prodigious gap 
of two hundred and fifty years to be bridged 
over, and unless you will cross it under the 
guidance of history and ancient authors, 
unless you will take the testimony of that 
institution whose continuity you have ac- 
knowledged, you have no Bible. You have 
lost it in that dark abyss which has swal- 
lowed up (as you affirm) our pretensions to a 
ministry whose line has never been broken. 
It was an awful alternative, and she surren- 
dered without conditions. 

" Then the question was followed up by 
one about visible sacraments. If such things 
had no Apostolic succession we must aban- 
don the celebration of old-fashioned sacra- 
ments and join the Quakers. Infant bap- 
tism came next; and if this could not be 
traced by its Apostolic succession, we must 
march for the camping-ground of Anabap- 

"Prom outward institutions the ques- 
tioner went on to doctrines. If the doctrine 
of the Trinity had no Apostolic succession, 
we must acknowledge this doctrino a failuse 
or a misconception, make fellowship witn 
actual heretics, and adopt Socinianism. If 
the doctrine of the fall and original sin had 
no Apostolic succession, we must justify 
Pelagianism and avow ourselves our own 
redeemers. She now foresaw her destiny 
quite plainly, and bowed to tho rector's 
postulate, that with him she believed in 
a family of successions which were truly 

44 But now, said he, comes the crux of this 
debated matter. You believe in the Apos- 
tolic succession of a Christian ministry. 
Was there ever a time when there wns not 
such a ministry upon earth? when its 

continuity was broken and its existence 
was to be again begun ? Oh, no ; by 
no means. Then at last you believe with 
me in the steady existence of an Apostolic 
ministry, be its inward constitution what it 
might, and the difference between us is 
about the nature of an exceedingly long 
chain, — whether it has three strands in it or 
only one. Take Solomon's assurance about 
the reliability of a threefold cord, and you 
will come over to my side cordially. The 
difference between us has dwindled down to 
an affair so small that for safety's sake you 
should capitulate without a qualm. And to 
help you do so gracefully, let me beg you to 
remember that there is almost the same 
unanimity in Christendom about Episcopacy 
which even Gibbon was constrained to admit 
there is about the doctrine of the Trinity, 
which, of course, as a governing doctrine 
concerning tho Godhead, is the pivot on 
which doctrinal orthodoxy has for ages 
turned. 'The consubstuntiality of the 
Father and the Son, 1 says the skeptical 
historian, * was established by the Council 
of Nice, and has been unanimously received 
as a fundamental article of the Christian 
Faith, by the consent of the Greek, the 
Latin, the Oriental, and the Protestant 
Churches.' (Dec. and Fall, en. xvii. 12mo. 
ed., vol. ii. p. 317, 318; and comp. p. 812 at 
top.) The unanimity of Christendom about 
Episcopacy is nearly as complete as its una- 
nimity about the Trinity; and with the 
Trinity for doctrine and Episcopacy for dis- 
cipline, Christendom might begin to be, as 
in the primitive ages, a united whole, an 
unbroken communion of Saints." (Rev. T. 
W. Coit, D.D.) 

The succession of the English Church 
from St. Polycarp, from the unknown 
founder of the Roman line, and from St. 
James, the first Bishop of Jerusalem, is here 
given. As this must have been an inter 
lacing of the Churches in the East, which 
were founded by St. Peter at Antioch, and 
St. Paul at Ephesus, as well as by St. John 
in Asia Minor, doubtless the direct line of 
the Patriarchs of Jerusalem was bound up 
with these successions by acting upon the 
Canon requiring the three consecrators. So 
the English Episcopate has probably twined 
into one "cord" more of the separate suc- 
cessions than any other communion.* 

After his exile 
8t. Jon* 96 

resides at Ephesus, and 
his pupil at Smyrna is 
Polycabp.. 107 to 169 

From Smyrna he sends 


6S. Paul and Peter 65 

Linos 68 

Anacletos. 78 

Clement 93 

Evaristus 100 

Alexander 109 



St. James 35 

Simeon 65 

Justus I. 107 

Zachkus Ill 

Tobias 112 

Benjamin 117 

• This list is much more folly treoed la larger works, ee in Dr. A B. Chapin's Primitive Church. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 





Potbtnub, Sbxtub I., 

who mrriTBd tilU......... 177 


Htginus , 




A.D. A.D. 

119 Job* ^ 119 

Matthew J 21 

Philip 122 

Seneca 126 

Justus II «. 127 

Levi 128 

..... 129 Epbraim 129 


Judas M 132 

188 Marcus 1 134 

142 Cassianus 140 

Publius M 154 

167 Maxwus M 159 

Julia* 1 03 

Caius 1 105 

108 Stxmacbub 108 


Catob II. 170 

Julian *. M 1 73 

.............. 177 

Eleutbertus .... ••• 


Zepbebibub ~. ... 

Calixtus.... •• 

. 177 

. 192 

. 201 

. 219 
. 224 
. 231 
. 235 
. 230 
. 260 
. 252 
, 253 
. 257 
. 258 

. 271 


. 283 

. 290 

. 809 
. 311 
. 313 
. 335 
. 830 


. 800 

, 885 
. 893 
. 402 
. 417 
. 418 
. 423 

. 432 
. 440 
. 401 
. 407 
. 483 
. 492 
. 498 



.... 177 to 202 

Anton ius 





.... 874 












Qordius and NABCissuf 

Alexander — . ... 


Htvee JRJB. ••••••~m...... 

Zavbdab ~.... 

u»... 211 








pontianus.. — 

Antrrus » 

Fabianub ~ 



Stephen M 

Bbxtub IL. * 


...... 237 

...... 261 


JTELIX ••■*........ ................ 

Eutycbianus M 

Caius « 

...... 206 

Mabcelinus M . ........ 

AARCBLLUB*. ........ •*.....«*.. 

Eusebius • • 

...... 298 


...... 300 

Macarius I 

...... 310 

Maxtmus III 

Ctril (expelled 




Melcbiades ~ 


Mark.... • •••• 

...... 815 


Julius... •••••.••• 


Dababub ~ 

SiRicius .......... 



Ctril (restored, and again 

expelled) 381 

ITilart 304 

Ctril (again). .... 




......••••—• 461 

Jobn II ....^ 

Praqltub •••• 









Consecrated Palladiu 
for the Irish. 
Be xt us III 

..... 424 

Patiens ............ 

Leo L. 



...... 458 

SlMPLICIUS ....••• 


Salutis • 


Felix II 


Gelasius • 



Btephanus. ....... 


Digitized by VjOCK 







Euchbrius II 624 

Lupus 538 

Licontius 542 

Bacbrdob «. 549 

Nicetub ................ 652 

Priscus 673 





Hormisdab^ 514 

John 1 523 

Fblix III 528 

Bon ir ace II 630 

John IL 532 

AGAPETD8..... 536 

Sylveriub* 538 

Vioilius „ 540 

Pblaoius IL. 555 

John III 560 

Benedict 1 574 

Pelagius III 578 

Gregory 590 



John III 513 

Consecrated David of 
Wales, who therefore 
carried the succession 
of the Church of Je- 
rusalem to Britain, 
whence it passed to 
the English succession. 

Etherius, with Virgilius of Aries, conse- 
crated the Monk Augustine (whom Gregory 
had sent out to the Saxons in Britain) as 

Canterbury. a.d. 

1. Augustine 597 

2. Laurbntus 804' 

3. Melitub. 


4. Tustus 822 

5. Honorius ~ 828 

8. Adeodatus., 


Vitalian being asked to aid the Saxons in 
selecting an Archbishop, selected Theodorus, 
a Greek of Tarsus, and consecrated him, and 

7. Theodore 888 

8. 'Brithwald - 893 

9. Tatwin 73 1 

10. Nothelm 735 

11. Cdthbert 736 

12. Bregwin .' 759 

13. Lambert 764 

14. Athelard 793 

15. Wulprbd 805 

16. Theogild 832 

17. Ceolnoth 833 

18. Ethblred 870 

19. Plegmund « 890 

20. Athei.m '. 914 

21. Wclfhelm 923 

22. Odo 942 

23. Dunstan 960 

24. Ethelgar 988 

25. Siricius 990 

26. Elfric ......... 995 

27. Elphegb 1005 

28. Livingus 1013 

29. Ethelnoth 1020 

30. Eadsinus 1083 

31. Robert 1051 

32. Stigand 1052 

33. Lanpranc 1070 

34. Anselm 1093 

35. Ralph 1114 


37. Theobald 1139 

38. Thomas a Becket 1162 

39. Richard 1174 

40. Baldwin 1185 

41. Reginald Fitz-Jocblin 1191 

Archbishop of Canterbury. The English 
succession is by Augustine, through Etherius 
and Virgilius to St. John. It runs on thus : 

Sabianus 604 

Boniface III 606 

Bonipacb IV „ 607 

Deusdedit M 615 

Bonipacb V 618 

Honorius > 824 

Sevbrinus 640 

John IV 640 

Th eodorb 642 

Martin 649 

Eugenius M 654 

Vitauan 657 

sent him to England. At this late point the 
Roman succession enters into the English 
line, which traced first to St. John. 

42. Hubert Walter 1193 

43. Stephen Langton M 1207 

44. Richard Wethbrshed 1229 

45. Edmund Rich 1234 

46. Boniface of Savoy 1245 

47. Robert Kilwarby 1273 

48. John Peckham 1279 

49. Robert Winchelset 1294 

50. Walter Reynolds^ 1313 

51. Sinon Mepeham 1328 

52. John Stratford 1332 

53. John de Ufford 1348 

54. Thomas Bradwardine ..., 1349 

55. Simon Islip 1349 

56. Simon Langham 1366 

57. William Whittlesey 1368 

58. Simon Sudbury 1375 

59. William Courtenay 1381 

60. Thomas Arundel 1397 

61. Roger Walden..., 1398 

62. Thomas Arundel 1399 

63. Hrnry Chichelby 1414 

64. John Stafford 1443 

65. John Kemps 1452 

66. Thomas Bourchier 1454 

67. John Morton 1486 

68. Henry Deane 1501 

69. William Wareham 1503 

70. Thomas Cranmer 1533 

71. Cardinal Pole « 1556 

72. Matthew Parker 1559 

73. Edmund Grindal 1576 

74. John Whitgift 158S 

75. Richard Bancroft 1604 

76. George Abbot 1611 

Digitized by 





77. William Lato 1638 

78. William J uxon... 1660 

79. Gilbbrt Sheldon 1663 

80. William 8ancroft 1678 

81. John Tillotson 1601 

82. Thomas Tbnison 1696 

83. William Wake 1716 

84. John Potter M 1737 

86. Thomas Herri kg M 1747 

86. Matthew Hutton M 1767 

87. Thomas Secker M 1758 

88. Frederick Cornwallis 1768 

89. John Moore 1783 

Archbishop Moore, assisted by tho Arch- 
bishop of York, and by the Bishops of Bath 
and Wells and of Peterborough, conse- 
crated William White and SamuelProvoost, 
on February 4, 1787. Three years later ho, 

with the Bishops of London and of Roches- 
ter, consecrated James Madison, on Septem- 
ber 19, 1790. Already, Samuel Seabury had 
received consecration from the Bishops of 
Scotland, Robert Kilgour, Bishop of Aber- 
deen ; Arthur Petrie, Bishop of Moray ; and 
John Skinner, of Aberdeen, Primus of the 
Church of Scotland, on November 14, 1784. 

The Scotch succession springs from the 
English succession, as Archbishop Sheldon, 
assisted by the Bishops of Carlisle, Worces- 
ter, and Llandaff, consecrated James Sharpe 
Archbishop of St. Andrew's ; from them tne 
consecrators of Bishop Seabury drew their 

The number of American Bishops from 
this beginning has become a total of one 
hundred and thirty-four. 

Nam* or Bishop. 

Name or 8m. 

Date or Conse- 

Date or 



Samuel Seabury (Presiding Bp.).., 
William White " " ... 

8amuel Provoost " " .., 

James Madison 

Thomas John Claooett 

Robert Smith M 

Edward Bass 

Abraham Jarvis 

Benjamin Moore 

Samuel Parker M 

John Henry Hobart 

Alexander Vibts GriswoldP. Bp. 

Theodore Dbhon 

Richard Channing Moore 

Jambs Kemp 

John Cross. 

Nathaniel Bowen , 

Philander Chase (Presiding Bp.)* 
Thomas Church Brownbll " 

John Stark Ravenscroft 

Henry Ustick Ondbrdonk 

William Meade 

William Murray-Stone , 

Benjamin Trbdwbll Onderdonk... 

Levi 8illiman IvEsf 

John Henry Hopkins (Pres. Bp.).. 
Benjamin B. Smith " " .. 

Charles Pbttit McIlvaine 

George Washington Doane 

James Hbrvet Otet« 

Jackson Kemper! , 

Samuel Allen McCoskry} 

Leonidas Polk I 

William Hbathoote Db Lancet. 
Christopher Edwards Gadsden.... 
William Rollinson Whittinoham. 

Stephen Elliott 

Alfred Lee (Presiding Bp.) 

John Johns 

Manton EA8TBURN m 

John Prentiss Kewly Henshaw.. 

Carlton Chase 

Nicholas Hammer Cobbs^ , 

Cicero Stephens JIawks , 



New York 


Mary In nd 

South Carolina 



New York (Attittant) ...... 


New York (Assistant)...... 

Eastern Diocese 

South Carolina 


Maryland (Suffragan) 

New Jersey 

South Carolina 



North Carolina 

Pennsylvania (Attittant).. 

Virginia (Attittant)„ 


New York 

North Carolina......... 

Vermont. M 



New Jersey 


Mo. and Ind. (Mitt,) 


Arkansas (Mittiouary).... 

Western New York 

South Carolina , 


Georgia • 


Virginia (Attittant) 

Massachusetts (Attittant) 

Rhode Island 

New Hampshire. 

Alabama ■ 

Missouri.. • 













































14, 1784 
4, 1787 
4, 1787 

19, 1790 

17, 1792 

13, 1795 
7, 1796 

18, 1797 
11, 1801 

14, 1804 
29, 1811 

15, 1812 
18, 1814 

1, 1814 

8, 1818 

27, 1819 
22, 1823 
25, 1827 
19, 1829 

21, 1830 

20, 1830 

22, 1831 
31, 1832 
31, 1832 
31, 1832 
31, 1832 
14, 1834 
25, 1835 

7, 1836 
9, 1838 
9 f 1839 

21, 1840 

17. 1840 

28, 1841 

12. 1841 
13, 1842 

29, 1842 
11, 1843 
20, 1844 
20, 1844 
20, 1844 


Feb. 25,1796 
July 17, 1836 
Sept 6, 1815 
Mar. 6, 1812 
Aug. 2, 1816 
Oot 28, 1801 
Sept 10, 1803 
May 3, 1813 
Feb. 27, 1816 
Deo. 6, 1804 
Sept. 12, 1830 
Feb. 15, 1843 
6, 1817 
11, 1841 
28, 1827 
July 30, 1832 
Aug. 25, 1839 
Sept 20, 1852 
Jan. 13, 1865 
Mar. 5, 1830 
Deo. 6, 1858 
Mar. 14, 1862 
Feb. 26,1838 
April 30, 1861 
Oct 13, 1867 
Jan. 9, 1868 
May 31, 1884 
Mar. 12. 1873 
April 27, 1859 
April 23, 1863 
May 24,1870 

June 14, 1864 
April 4,1865 
June 23, 1852 
Oct 17, 1879 
Deo. 21,1866 

April 4,1866 
Sept 11, 1872 
July 20, 1852 
Jan. 18, 1870 
Jan. 11,1861 
April 19, 1868 

• Translated to Illinois, 1833. 

1 Accepted Blehfcpric of Wiecondn In 1854. 

I Translated to Itouisiaua Oct. 16, 1841. 

{Deposed Oct. 14, 1853. 
Deposed Sept 3, 1878. 

Digitized by 





Hams Of Bmor. 

Hams or 8m. 

Date or Coasa- 

Datb or 

William Jones Boons , 

George Washington Freeman... 

iioratio soutboate* , 

Alonzo Potter M , 

Georob Bougssc , 

Gborqb U proLD.- , 

William Mercer Green.. 

John Pavne|.~ ~ « 

Francis Uuobr Rutlcdgk*. , 

John Williams 

Henry Jobn Whitbhousk*. , 

Jonathan Mathew Wainwriobt. 

Thomas Frederick Davis. 

Thomas Atkinson 

William Inorabam Kip 

Thomas Fielding 8oott , 

Hbnrt Washington Leb 

Horatio Potter.. 

Thomas Marcb Clark 

Samuel Bowman.. 

Alexander Gregg...... , 

William Henrt Odbnbbimer^.... 

Gregory Thurston Bedeli*. 

Henrt Benjamin Whipple, , 

Uenrt Champlin LavJ 

Josepb Cruicesbank Talbot| 

William Bacon Stevens 

Richard Hooker Wilmer 

Thomas Hubbard Vail~ 

Arthur Cleveland Coxb 

Charles Todd Quintard.. , 

Robert Harper Clark*)*.. 

Georob Maxwell Randall 

John Barret Kerpoot 

Cbannino Moore Williams 

Joseph Pbre Bell Wilmbr m 

Georob David Cummins^.. 

William Edmomd Armitaob.. 

Henry Adams Nebly 

Daniel Sylvester Tuttlb**......, 

Jobn Freeman Young 

Jobn Watrous Bbckwitb ...... 

Francis McNbecb Wbittlb 

William Henry Augustus Bissell. 
Charles Franklin Robertson... 

Benjamin Wistar Morris 

Abram Neweirk Littlbjobn...... 

William Croswbll Doanb... 

Frederic Dan Huntington.. 

Oxi William WHirAKBRff 

Henry Niles Pierce 

William Woodruff Niles 

William Pinkney 

William Bell Whitb Howb 

Mark Antony DeWolfb Howb... 

William Hobart Hare 

John Gottlieb Aubr 

Benjamin Henry Paddock M 

Theodore Benedict Lyman.. 

John Franklin 8paldino 

Edward Randolph Welles. 

Robert W. B. Elliott 

John Henry DocacbetWingfibld. 
Alexander Cbarles Garrett.,. 

Chins. (Jftsstonary) 

Arkansas " 

Turkey « 





Africa (MUtiomary) 


Connecticut (AtUtant) 

Illinois (Anitant) 

New York ( Provisional) . . , 

South Carolina 

North Carolina. 

California (MUriomary)... 

Or. and Wash. (Jfiss.) 

Iowa. ~ 

New York (Provisional)... 

Rhode Island- 

Pennsylvania (Aittitaut).. 


New Jersey- 

Ohio (iisnsfaMi)- 


Arkansas (Misrionary) 

Northwest « 
Pennsylvania (iissisfoal)- 

Alabama -, 

Kansas « 

West New York (AmUi.)„ 


Nebraska (Jftsstonary)...., 
Colorado M 

Pittsburg-.- , 

China and Japan ( Jftss.). 

Louisiana , 

Kentucky (A$n9tant) , 

Wisconsin « 

Maine -. 

Montana (ifisstoMary)— .. 



Virginia (.AstittaNf)- , 

Vermont - , 

Missouri -.., 

Or. and Wash. (Iftss.) 

Long Island 


Central New York 

Nev. and Arts. (Jfiss.)..... 
Ark. and Ind. Ter. ( Jftss.), 

New Hampshire- 

Maryland (iiest'stoat) 

South Carolina (Anitt.).., 

Central Pennsylvania 

Niobrara (Jfttsionary)!!- 
Africa « 


North Carolina (Asst**.).. 

Colorado (Jfttttottary) 


Western Texas (Jftss.).... 
North California " -.. 
Northern Texas " -.. 

Oct. 26, 1844 
Oct 26, 1844 
Oct. 28, 1844 
Sept 23, 1846 
Oct 31, 1847 
Deo. 18, 184$ 
Feb. 24,1850 
July 11, 1851 
Oct 15, 1851 
Oct 29, 1861 
Not. 20, 1851 
Nor. 10, 1852 
Oct. 17, 1853 
Oct. 17, 1853 
Oct 28. 1853 
Jan. 8, 1854 
Oct 18, 1854 
Nov. 22, 1854 
Deo. 8, 1854 
Aug. 26, 1858 
Oct 13, 1859 
Oct 13, 1859 
Oot 13, 1859 
Oct 13, 1859 
Oct 23, 1859 
Feb. 16, 1880 
Jan. 2, 1862 
Mar. 6, 1862 
Dec. 16,1864 
Jan. 4, 1865 
Oct 11, 1865 
Not. 15, 1865 
Deo. 28, 1865 
Jan. 25, 1866 
Oct 3, 1866 
Nov. 7, 1866 
Nov. 15, 1866 
Dee. 6, 1866 
Jan. 25, 1867 
May 1, 1867 
July 25,1867 
April 2, 1868 
April 30, 1868 
June 3, 1868 
Oct 25, 1868 
Dec 3, 1868 
Jan. 27, 1869 
Feb. 2, 1869 
April 8, 1869 
Oot 13, 1869 
Jan. 25, 1870 
Sept 21, 1870 
Oot 6, 1870 
Oot 8, 1871 
Deo. 28,1871 
Jan. 9, 1873 
April 17, 1873 
Sept 17, 1873 
Deo. 11, 1873 
Dec 31, 1873 
Oct 25, 1874 
Nov. 15,1874 
Deo. 2, 1874 
Deo. 20, 1874 

July 17, 1864 
April 29, 1863 

July 4,1866 
April 23, 1866 
Aug. 26, 1872 
Feb. 13, 1887 
Oct 23, 1874 
Nov. 6,1866 

Aug. 10, 1874 
Sept 21, 1864 
Dec 2, 1871 
Jan. 4, 1881 

July 14, 1867 
8ept 26, 1874 
Jan. 2, 1887 

Aug. 3,1861 

Aug. 14, 1879 

Sep. 17,1885 
Jan. 16,1883 

Mar. 10, 1884 
Sept 28, 1873 
July 10, 1881 

Dec 2, 1878 
June 26, 1876 
Dec 7, 1873 

Nov. 15, 1886 

May 1, 1886 

July 4,1883 

Feb. 16,1874 

• Besignatloo accepted by the House of Dfabops, Oct 12. I860. 

f Rfeijcnatioo accepted by the House or Bishops, Oct 21, 1871. 

1 Kectrd the Dloraee of Northern New Jereey Nov. 12, 1874. 

I Traaslat-d to Jbstnn, 1869. | Translated to Indiana, 186B. 

f Depoe-d June 94, 1874. 

•* Timnelat 4 to Mtesonrl, 1886. ff Translated to Pennsylvania, 1886. 

XX Jurisdiction enlarged and title changed to Southern Dakota by the General Convention of 1888. 

Digitized by 





Nams or Bishop. 

Kami op Sul 

Date op Conse- 

Date op 

J 36 

i io 


William Forbes Adams* 

Thomas Underwood Dudley 

John Scarborough 

George DeNormandib Gillespie... 

Thomas Augurtus Jagger 

William Edward McLaren , 

John Henry Hobart Brown , 

William Stevens Perry 

Charles Clipton Penick 

Samuel I. J. ScHBRBSCHEWsKYf. 

Alexander Burgess 

George William Peterkin 

George Franklin Seymour 

Samuel Smith Harris 

Thomas Alpred Starkby 

John Nicholas Galleher 

George K. Dunlop 

Leigh Richmond Brewer 

John Adams Paddock 

Cortlandt Whitehead 

Hugh Miller Thompson 

David Buel Knickerbocker...., 

Henry Codman Potter 

Alpred Magill Randolph 

William D. Walker 

A. A. Watson, 

William Jones Boone 

Nelson S. Rulison, D.D 

William Paret, D.D 

George Worthington, D.D 

Samuel D. Ferguson, D.D 

E. Gardner Weed, D.D 

Mahlon N. Gilbert, D.D. 

New Mexico (MU*ionary) 

Kentucky (Annuitant) 

New Jersey 

Western Michigan 

Southern Ohio 


Fondu Lao 


Africa (Mittionary) 

Shanghai " 


West Virginia. 



Northern New Jersey 


New Mexico (Mitaioiiary) 
Montana " 

Washington Ter. " 


Mississippi (Aaaiatant) 


New York (iifif(a»<) 

Virginia " 

North Dnkota (AT/m.) 

East Carolina. 

Shanghai (Missionary).... 
Central Penna. (A#*»W.)... 



Cape Palmas (Mitt.) 


Minnesota (Assistant) 

Jan. 17, 1875 
Jan. 27, 1875 
Feb. 2, 1875 
Feb. 24, 1875 
April 28, 1875 
Deo. 8, 1875 
Deo. 15, 1875 
Sept. 10, 1876 
Feb. 13, 1877 
Oct. 31, 1877 
May 15, 1878 
May 30,1878 
June 11, 1878 
Sept. 17, 1879 
Jan. 8, 1880 
Feb. 5, 1880 
Nor. 21,1880 
Dec. 8, 1880 
Deo. 15, 1880 
Jan. 25, 1882 
Feb. 24, 1883 
Oct. ]4, 1883 
Oct. 20, 1883 
Oct. 21, 1883 
Dec. 20, 1883 
April 17, 1884 
Oct 28, 1884 
Oct. 28, 1884 
Jan. 8, 1885 
Feb. 24, 1885 
June 24, 1885 
Aug. 11, 1886 
Oct. 17, 1886 

* Resignation accepted by the House of Bishops, Oct. 16, 1877. 
f Resignation accepted by the House of Bishops, Oct. 24, 1883. 

The discussion on the Apostolic Succession 
has occupied so man y pens there is no need to 
mention the many works that are easily acces- 
sible. The lists of the succession above given 
have been compiled from Chapin's " Primi- 
tive Church "and Bishop Seymour's List in 
the "Churchman's Calendar" for 1866. 

Appellate Court. In all our Dioceses, 
except the three in Illinois, the system of 
Church courts, for the trial of priests, dea- 
cons, and laymen, is incomplete, providing, 
for the most part, for only one formal trial. 
In nearly all, no trial can he entered upon 
unless the Bishop consents. In nearly all, 
the Bishop has so large an agency in the 
formation of the Court, — which is a Court 
appointed for the special case, — that it is pos- 
sible to organize it to convict or to acquit, as 
he may prefer. In some Dioceses the Court 
is a permanent body, elected annually by the 
Convention. Where there is a definite party 
predominance in any such Diocesan Con- 
vention, it will naturally be embodied in 
the personnel of the Court, and any trial 
marked with the slightest partisan tinsre 
would merely be decided like any other 
party vote. In neither case is any appeal 
provided. If injustice were done, there could 
do no possible remedy. Even if a Bishop 
should be so extreme as tp lay himself open 
to trial and conviction for the mode in which 

he might have secured the deposition of an 
obnoxious clergyman, still, the punishment 
of the Bishop would not operate to restore 
the poor clergyman. For him there is no 
remedy. His oppressor might bo deposed, 
but he himself would not be in the slightest 
degree relieved from the consequences of 
that oppression. 

Several attempts to establish an Appellate 
Court by General Convention have failed, for 
various reasons. Every such attempt has 
shown the cumbrousness and practical diffi- 
culty of constructing any one Appellate 
Court, which can receive appeals from the 
whole American Church ; and it is as well 
that they have failed, for they were not rea- 
sonably workable. In the Canon for the 
trial of a Bishop we find an important recog- 
nition of the true principle, in the establish- 
ment of a Board of Inquiry, whose members 
are taken from the Diocese concerned and 
the three adjoining Dioceses. The grouping 
of Dioceses conveniently situated is the true 
solution of the difficulty. The other prin- 
ciple involved is, that 'whereas the proba- 
bility of injustice in the first instance it 
due to the predominance of the will of one 
man, the appeal should be to the judgment 
of more tnan one. Individual prejudice 
is more likely to be remedied by collective 

Digitized by 





The " grouping of Dioceses conveniently 
situated" is only another description of 
what is known in Ecclesiastical languago as 
a Province. And the first Province to be 
fully organized in this country is also the 
first to give us a reasonable Court of Appeal. 
We refer to Illinois, whose three Dioceses 
of "Chicago," "Quincy," and "Spring- 
field" are united in the " Province of Illi- 
nois." The scrupulous obstructiveness of 
the General Convention had decided that a 
Court of Appeals, under Article VI. of the 
Constitution, could be established onlv by 
the action of the Dioceses as such, and not 
by the action of the Province as a Province. 
Accordingly, the Federate Council acted 
only as an informal committee in preparing 
the draft of a Canon, which, with substan- 
tial identity, was afterwards adopted by each 
of the three Diocesan Conventions. The 
leading principles of this Canon are as fol- 
lows : 

1. The Bishops of the Province are the 
judges of the Court of Appeal. As the pos- 
sible prejudice or passion of the Bishop of 
the Diocese from which the appeal conies 
may be the leading feature in the case, it 
would be manifestly a departure from our 
established ideas for the offi ial action of 
one Bishop to be officially reviewed and cor- 
rected, except by his peers, — his brethren in 
the same order. Moreover, this is the prim- 
itive rule, — the Bishops of the Province 
being the universal Court of Appeal in the 
earlier ages. It is wisely provided, how- 
ever, that the Bishop whose judgment is 
appealed from shall not preside in the Court 
during the trial of that case. In all other 
cases, the Bishop who presides in the Fed- 
erate Council (the Metropolitan, as he was 
called in ancient days) presides also in the 
Appellate Court. 

2. But there are few of our Bishops who 
have been trained as lawyers; and to one 
who has not had that training, there are 
many legal points which may fail to be ap- 
preciated by the unlcgal mind. The Ilflnois 
Canon, therefore, provides that there shall 
be Assessors in the Court of Appeal, — each 
Diocesan Convention shall elect one Clerical 
and one Lay Assessor. It may be taken 
for granted that each Convention will select 
a clergyman who is known for his familiar- 
ity with the Canons, and a layman who is 
learned in the law of the land. As occasions 
may arise when there will not be entire har- 
mony between a Bishop and the majority in 
his Convention, and as it is his right that he 
should have the advice of those in whom 
he has confidence, it is properly added that, 
besides the elected Assessors, — who may be 
depended upon to protect the rights of clergy 
and laity,— each Bishop may, if he see tit, 
appoint one clerical or lay Assessor, or both. 
This power will, doubtless, be very seldom 
exercised ; but it is quite proper that it 
should be secured. 

8. In other Courts of Appeal, with As- 
sessors, it has been a contested point whether 

the members of the Court should be bound 
to decide in accordance with the advice of 
the Assessors, or should have power to decide 
otherwise. In Illinois, the responsibility is 
accurately divided in the Canon itself. As 
the Assessors are supposed to be superior iQ 
the knowledge to be expected of experts, 
t/tey are to decide all interlocutory questions, 
— all those questions of historical or pro- 
fessional interpretation, admissibility of evi- 
dence, etc., in which men without special 
training are most likely to make mistakes. 
In this way they protect the dignity of the 
Bishops from the danger of making an un- 
happy exhibit of insufficient information. 
But when all preliminary questions are thus 
settled, and nothing remains but the final 
decision as to whether the appeal shall be 
granted, or refused, or a new trial ordered, 
then the dignity of the Bishops is further 
secured by givinc to them alone the right to 
vote. But a further safeguard for the rights 
of clergy and laity is secured in the pro- 
vision that each Bishopshall ei ve, in writing, 
seriatim, the reasons for his decision. When 
it is known beforehand that every such 
opinion must run the gauntlet of open and 
public criticism, it is the more likely to be 

4. The Illinois Canon is seriously defec- 
tive in one point, It allows of no appeal 
except from an adverse decision in a Diocesan 
Court. This would limit the usefulness of 
the Court to the lowest possible minimum. 
Not one-tenth part of the grievances that 
arise ever come before an Ecclesiastical 
Court at all : and thus nine-tenths of our 
practical troubles would be left just where 
they are now, — with no remedy whatsoever. 
An appeal should be allowed to every per- 
son claiming to be aggrieved by any action 
on the part of any of the constituted 
authorities of the Church in any Diocese of 
the Province. In the primitive Church, 
this was carried so far as to include every 
case of suspension from the communion or 
of excommunication. The principle was, 
indeed, early recognized that an act of dis- 
cipline by one Bishop could not be revoked 
by another Bishop. The one under discipline 
could be restored only by his own Bishop. 
But every such act was open to revision by 
the Bishops of the Province. For instance, 
the 5th Canon of the great Council of Nica&a 
provides as follows : 

" Concerning those, whether of the Clergy 
or of the Laity, who have been excommuni- 
cated by the Bishops in the several Provinces, 
let the provision of that Canon prevail which 
provides that persons who have been cast 
out by one Bishop are not to be readmitted 
by another. Nevertheless, inquiry should 
be made whether they have been excom- 
municated through captiousness, or conten- 
tiousness, or any such like ungracious dis- 
position, in the Bishop. And, that this 
matter may have due investigation, it is 
decreed that, in every Province, Synods 
shall be held twice every year ; in order that, 

Digitized by 





mil the Bishops of the Province being assem- 
bled together, such questions may by them 
be thoroughly examined ; so that those who 
have . confessedly offended against their 
Bishop may be seen to be, for just cause, 
excommunicated by all, until it shall seem 
fit to the common assembly of the Bishops 
to pronounce a milder sentence upon them, 1 ' 

And the 6th. Canon of Antioch (afterwards 
made oecumenical) provides in like manner : 

" If any one has been excommunicated by 
his own Bishop, let him not be received by 
others until he has either been restored by 
his own Bishop, or until, when a Synod is 
held, be shall have appeared and made his 
defense, and, having convinced the Synod, 
shall have received a different sentence. 
And let this decree apply to the Laity, and 
to Presbyters and Deacons, and all who are 
in the Canon" (*.«., on the Sacerdotal List). 

It is clear that if the exercise of the power 
of the keys — specifically given to each Bishop 
at his consecration — was thus open to appeal, 
and revision by other Bishops, there can be 
no official action of a Bishop secure from such 
revision. And if all the official acts of a 
Bishop are liable to revision and correction 
by bis brethren, there are no inferior officers 
or organizations in the Church who can have 
the face to claim exemption. 

The good example set by Illinois will, in 
course of time, it is to be hoped, be followed 
in other States of the Union, only with its 
imperfections remedied, so as to bring it 
into closer agreement with the example of 
the primitive Church, and with the require- 
ments of justice and common sense. The 
true idea of the Episcopate is, not that each 
Bishop may be an irresponsible despot within 
his own territorial limits, liable to no cor- 
rection until be is bad enough to be deposed, 
but that the entire order is One (Episco- 
pates est unus), in such wise that there is no 
official act of any Bishop which may not be 
submitted to the revision of his brethren. 
The strength of the whole order will thus 
rest in each act: while, on the other plan, 
the authority of the entire order will suffer 
from any manifestation of arbitrary caprice 
or infirmity on the part of any individual 
Bishop. Nothing short of the true system 
will realize St. Cyprian's description of the 
One Episcopate, — " cujus a singulis in soli- 
DUM pars tenetur." 

Ret. J. H. Hopkins, D.D. 

Archbishop. It at first probably meant 
what it now signifies, — Bishops over prov- 
inces, but themselves under Metropolitans 
or Patriarchs. About the time of the Coun- 
cil of Chalcedon, however, it came to mean 
the Patriarchs themselves. But later again 
it fell back to its original use, i.e., the Bishop 
over other Bishops in a Province. The co- 
equality of spiritual power of his suffragans, 
and the superiority position for the disci- 
pline of the Church in the Archbishop, were 
Doth strenuously set forth. The Arch- 
bishops of the Western Church for centu- 

ries were independent, but. about 614 a.d. 
the Popes began giving the pall (vide 
Pall), and from that in about two hundred 
and fifty years succeeded in enforcing that 
the gift of the pall was imperative, and that 
the Archbishop should swear fealty to the 
Pope on receiving it. This was thrown off 
by the Anglican Communion. In the 
English Communion there are four Arch- 
bishops, — Canterbury, York, Armagh, and 
Dublin. In the American Church the pre- 
siding Bishop, who is the eldest consecrated 
Bishop, has many Archepiscopal functions 
to perform. Through him must bo made 
all official communications from foreign 
Churches. He presides in the House of 
Bishops, or convenes it for special meetings; 
either consecrates in person or appoints con- 
secrators for a Bishop-elect; appoints the 
council of five Bishops to settle differences 
between a parish and the Diocesan ; receives 
the resignation of a Bishop and communi- 
cates it to each of the Bishops having juris- 
diction in the Church, and upon their advice 
accepts or refuses such resignation; and 
receives charges against, and arranges for 
the trial of, an accused Bishop. 

Archdeacon. The Archdeacon was orig- 
inally the presiding Deacon over the body 
of Deacons, either in a city or a Deanery, or 
a Diocese. Later, in the ninth century, 
the Archdeacon was in priests' orders. His 
functions were to look after the finances 
of the Church and the distribution of funds 
to the poor. He exercised a discipline 
over the Deacons and Presbyters under him 
in the Bishop's behalf, and he had a care 
over the property of the Church. He was 
the Bishop's business man, so to speak. In 
the East, when a See was vacant, he was 
one of the guardians of its rights and its 
property. The Diocese usually had several 
Archdeacons. In the English Church the 
Archdeacon looks after the condition of the 
church and of the parsonage, and is the 

f roper person to order or to permit repairs, 
t i *there an office of great weight, since 
the Archdeacon holds a court, at which 
cases of discipline of the laity are presented. 
The rights of the office vary much in the 
several Dioceses, but usually the Archdea- 
con visits for the Bishop the clergy, in- 
spects the property, inducts parsons, receives 
tne presentments of the Church-wardens, 
and holds a minor court. 

The title has been revived in two of the 
Dioceses of the American Church, — Albany 
and Connecticut, but the office is probably 
identical with the title Dean of Convocation. 
Archimandrite. (Or. the leader of the 
fold.) The title of the ruler over several 
monasteries. It does not necessarily imply 
that the Archimandrite had several monas- 
teries under him, but this was usually the 
case. The Hegumen was the chief over a 
single monastery, and consequently when 
several monasteries were under one rule he 
was subject to the Archimandrite. The 
I Archimandrite was, of course, under the 

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authority of the Bishop. It was a title which 
soon came into use after monastic bodies 
obtained some cohesion and. lived by some 
acknowledged rule. 

Architecture, Church. Prefatory, — Un- 
der this head an endeavor will be made to 
inquire into the nature and structure of 
the places of worship of the early Chris- 
tians, their development from the upper 
room of the days of the Apostles, through the 
intervening centuries, to the magnificent 
structures of the Middle Ages, continuing 
thence to our own times. But a cursory 
glance can be given to the history of this 
subject in the limited space here allotted, the 
idea of this article being mainly to show 
what may be done in the way of improving 
the architecture and arrangement of our 
parish churches, adapting them not only to 
the wants of the congregation, but making 
them more houses of God, monuments and 
offerings of a grateful people to the great 
and unseen Creator of all things. 

Early History.— What little is known of 
the places of worship of the early Christians 
is found in the patristic writings and among 
the writings of the early Christian histori- 
ans, while much information is also obtain- 
able from the early heathen writers of the 
age. In the earliest times, doubtless, there 
were no fixed edifices, services being held in 
the houses of Christians, sometimes, as we 
read in the Scriptures, in an upper room, 
as when Paul was stopping at Troas: 
" Upon the first day of the week, when the 
disciples came together to break bread (that 
is, to celebrate the Eucharist), Paul preached 
unto them, ready to depart on the morrow, 
and continued his speech until midnight. 
And there were many lights in the upper 
chamber, where they were gathered together. 
Now there sat in a window a certain young 
man named Eutychus, being fallen into a 
deep sleep, and as Paul was long preaching, 
he sunk down with sleep and fell down from 
the third loft and was taken up dead." 

This is the most particular description of 
a house of worship that we find in the 
Scriptures. It will be noticed that this is 
an upper room, as was also that in which 
our Saviour celebrated the Last Supper. 
These out-of-the-way places were doubtless 
selected because in those early days it was 
as much as a man's life was worth to pro- 
claim himself a Christian. In Rome we 
find them worshiping in the houses of 
wealthy Christians, in underground chapels, 
and in other places where they were least 
liable to be disturbed. 

Owing to the cruel persecutions to which 
the early Christians were subjected, both 
under the tyrant Nero, 64 a.d., and then 
under the Roman Emperor Domitian, 94 
a.d., many have held that there were no 
structures set apart for the worship of God. 
Yet St. Paul says, " Have ye not houses to 
eat and drink in ? or despise ye the Church 
of God ?" Now it is shown that the an- 
cient writers, St. Austin, St. Basil, St.Chrys- 

ostom, and St. Jerome, took this to mean the 
place set apart for Christian worship, and 
not the assembly of people. Then we 
know that the disciples often met together 
for prayer and worship after the death of 
our Saviour. 

In the second century, when the persecu- 
tions were still active against the Christians 
and it became necessary for them to band 
together, Ignatius writes to exhort them to 
meet together in one place, and in his Epis- 
tle to the Philadelphians says that at this 
time there was one altar in every church, 
and one Apostolic Bishop, or head, ap- 
pointed with his Presbytery and Deacons. 
Some of the later Greek readings omit the 
word Church, but speak of the one altar, thus 
showing that there was a stated place of wor- 
ship. Then history tells us of people turning 
their houses over to the Church in which to 
celebrate the divine offices of worship. We 
have record of forty churches in Rome at 
the date of the last persecution, and there 
were many in Africa. 

As early as the middle of the third century 
Gregory of Neo Ctesarea writes describing 
the degrees of admission of penitents, ac- 
cording to the discipline of those days : 

1st. Weepers (the first degree of penance) 
were without the porch of the oratory. There 
the mournful sinners stood and begged of 
all the faithful, as they went in, to pray for 

2d. Hearers (the second degree) were with- 
in the porch, in the place called Narthex, 
where the penitent sinners might stand near 
the catechumens and hear the Scripture read 
and expounded, but were to go out before 

8d. Prostnantes, — lying down along the 
church-pavement. These prostrate ones 
were admitted somewhat farther into the 
church and went out with the catechu- 

4th. Stantes, — staying with the people or 
congregation. These consistencies did not 
go out with the catechumens, but after they 
and the other penitents had left remained, 
and joined in prayer with the faithful. 

6. Participators in the Sacraments. 

About the beginning of the fourth cen- 
tury Constantino ascended the throne, and 
becoming fully convinced of the truth of 
the Christian religion, set about establish- 
ing it throughout his dominions, erecting 
churches everywhere. For some time before 
his reign, and even into it for twenty-five 
years, heathen temples were used to some 
extent for Christian*worship, how much has 
never been determined. At this time, how- 
ever (888 A.D.), Constantino ordered all the 
temples, altars, and images of the heathen 
to be destroyed, and in many instances these 
temples were demolished and their revenues 
confiscated. Some of the later emperors, 
however, instead of pulling down the tem- 
ples, converted them to Christian uses. 
Honorius published in the Western Empire 
two laws forbidding the destruction of any 

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more temples in the cities, as they might 
serve for ornament or public use, being once 
purged of their idols and altars. There can be 
no doubt of the antipathy of the Christians 
to the fine arts, because defiled by idolatrous 
uses, and that they destroyed everything that 
was beautiful that came in their way. Not- 
withstanding the later imperial decrees for 
the preservation of the heathen temples, 
nothing could induce the people to tolerate 
them or their contents, and it was only in a 
few out-of-the-way places, as at Palestine, 
they were allowed to remain. At Rome the 
only example that owes its preservation dis- 
tinctively to the Christians is the Pantheon. 
They destroyed everything that they could 
lay their hands on, the more beautiful the 
quickest destroyed, it mattered not so long 
as it savored of the rites of the heathen 
Church. They worked, even as in later 
times the Puritans worked in England : 
whatever was beautiful, whatever pleased 
the eye, if it belonged to the earlier religion, 
must give way to the new. 

We know that the Emperor Constantino 
gave orders, after a long search by the Em- 
press Helena, which resulted in finding the 
Holy Sepulchre, that a church be erected over 
its site. The place had been desecrated by 
the pagans ; they even had erected a statue 
of Venus over the place, and dedicated the 
spot to the heathen goddess. Constantino 
orders how the church shall be built, of 
what form, of what materials, and sets forth 
as to the decoration, etc. All in a most 
elaborate manner. There is even a plan of 
this Holy Sepulchre Church handed down 
by the Abbot Adamnan of Iona on his tab- 
lets, as he took it down from the description 
of Arculphus, a Gallican Bishop, who had 
visited the East. It was of " wonderful ro- 
tundity," entered by four doors; it con- 
tained three aisles, and was surrounded by 
twelve columns; hanging in it were twelve 
lamps, burning day and night, emblems of 
the twelve Apostles. 

Although the Church of the Holy Sepul- 
chre was evidently round, it had other parts 
attached, and there is little evidence of this 
form being employed elsewhere to any great 
extent, the usual form being that of a paral- 
lelogram Baptisteries, however, were gen- 
erally built either round or polygonal. It 
is evident that the churches, of whatever 
form, had other buildings attached, both for 
secular and religious purposes, — such as li- 
braries, houses for the clergy, schools, etc., 
much the same as in the later cathedrals 
and in many of the mission churches of to- 
day in London, and occasionally in Amer- 
ica. The entrance was at the west end, the 
church being placed east and west, with 
the altar at the east. There are exceptions 
to this custom ; no more, however, than to 
prove the rule, the habit being to face to 
the east, so in this way it became natural to 
orientate the churches. Entering the west- 
ern door, and passing through the porch, a 
large open court was reached, surrounded 

by a colonnade. In the centre, this court 
contained a fountain, used to wash the 
hands and face, sometimes the feet. This, 
perhaps, is the origin of the custom now 
in vogue in Roman churches, though per- 
verted, of having a stoup of holy water at 
the door. This open court, or atrium, was 
used for penitents of the first order, those 
who were not allowed to enter the church ; 
later it was used as a place of burial, par- 
ticularly for the wealthy and those of dis- 
tinction. Passing through this quadrangle 
the narthex was reached. Entrance to this 
was had through three gates, the central 
usually the larger. There were, sometimes, 
several narthexes to a church, even as many 
as four. The narthex formed the first di- 
vision of the church, and contained the cate- 
chumens and the hearers. Jews, infidels, 
and heretics were admitted here. In front 
came the third class of penitents. 

The narthex was separated from the nave 
or church proper by a wooden screen, or 
railing. The nave was entered through 
several gates, often called royal or beautiful 
gates. Here were congregated the main 
body of worshipers, those in fulK com- 
munion and under no censure. 

The sexes were usually separated during 
service, a practice that is yet in use in some 
of the modern ritualistic Churches. St. 
Cyril says, " Let men be with men and 
women with women in the church." Then 
in the Apostolical constitutions, "Let the 
door-keepers stand at the gate of the 
men, and the deaconesses at the gate of the 
women." The women were usually placed 
on the north side of the church. The 
Greeks now put them in the galleries. 

Not only was this order observed, but the 
virgins, matrons, and widows were given dis- 
tinct places ; then came the order of peni- 
tents not allowed to partake of the Holy 
Eucharist, but permitted to stay in tbe 
church and witness the celebration. East 
of the nave came the choir, the place for 
the singers. This was separated from the 
former by a screen or low wall. Here was 
placed the am bo, or pulpit, from which the 
gospel and epistle were read. The sermon, as 
a rule, was preached by the Bishop from the 
altar-steps, although St. Chrysostom, the 
better to be heard of the people, preached 
from the ambo. 

Extending from the choir eastward, was 
the sanctuary, corresponding to the holy of 
holies of Jews. The Latins called it the sa- 
crarium. Here were celebrated the Church's 
most sacred offices. The sacrarium was al- 
ways elevated above the choir, and was often 
separated from it by a rail or low screen called 
cancelli, hence the word chancel. This was 
to keep out the multitude. The Council of 
Laodicea forbade lay persons entering the 
sanctuary, while the Council of Trullo says, 
u That no layman whatsoever be permitted to 
enter the place of the altar, excepting only 
the Emperor, When he makes his oblation to 
the Creator, according to ancient custom." 

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The sacrarium was usually semicircular 
in plan. In the centre was placed the altar, 
raised on several steps, and surmounted by a 
canopv supported by twelve columns, sym- 
bolical of the twelve Apostles. On the top 
of the canopy was a cross, while behind the 
altar was the Bishop's chair raised and facing 
west. Around the circumference of the 
apse were placed the seats for the priests. 
The early altars were of wood, but this ma- 
terial was not used long, as is evident from 
the decree of the Council of Epone, that no 
altars should be consecrated exeopt such as 
be of stone. Gregory Nyssen says, '* This 
altar whereat we stand is by nature only 
common stone, nothing different from other 
stones, whereof our walls are made and 
pavements formed; but after it is conse- 
crated, and dedicated to the services of God, 
it becomes a holy table, an immaculate altar, 
which may not promiscuously be touched by 
all, but only by the priests in the' time of 
divine service." All of which goes to show 
the sacred feeling for the church, and espe- 
cially its more sacred altar, held ev«n in the 
very early days of the Church. The spaces 
between the columns of the canopy to the 
altar were bung with curtains or veils to 
conceal the altar. St. Chrysostom says, 
" When you see the veils undrawn, then 
think you see heaven opened, and the angels 
descending from above." Hangings were 
placed in other parts of the church, some- 
times richly worked in gold. They were 
§ laced between nave and chancel, and before 
oors, etc. The altar was covered with a 
linen cloth, emblem of purity. The sacred 
vessels were of various substances, usually of 
gold and silver, yet glass was used in the 
earlier times for chalices. 

Often beside the altar in a recess on one 
side was a shelf to contain the offerings of 
bread and wine. On the opposite side from 
this was the priest's vestry. 

Outside the main body of the church, and 
within an outer inclosure, were the various 
buildings connected with the church, such 
as the baptistery, which in those days was 
always a separate structure, the library, 
priests' houses, etc. 

The interiors of these churches of the 
early * Christians were, according to the 
writers of the time, quite elaborately deco- 
rated. The walls were often lined with 
marble, while the roofs were of mosaic or 
paneled, and covered with gold and color. 
The altars were inlaid with precious stones 
and gold and silver, while gates were set 
with silver and ivory, and columns were of 
rare marbles with capitals of bright gold. 

It has been thought by some that the 
ancient Roman basilica, the seat of public 
justice of the time, suggested the form and 
arrangement of the Christian church. 
However true this may be, they certainly 
bore a close resemblance, and there are num- 
erous instances of basilica) being converted 
into churches. This plan of Trajan's Basil- 
ica will show how far the basilica was imi- 

tated in tho arrangement of the Christian 
church (Fig. 1). The basilica was of the 
shape of a parallelogram, with a semicircu- 
lar apse at one — sometimes at either — end. 

Fio. I. 


m a 

Trajan's Basilica or Justice Hall, Borne, 98 a.d. 

In the centre of the apse was the seat of the 
praetor, and below ana about him those of 
the assessors and other officers. These were 
separated from the main body of the build- 
ing by a screen of lattice-work called can- 
celli. In the main body sat the people, 
while between them and the higher offic« rs 
of the court sat the advocates and notaries. 
The main building was divided by two rows 
of columns into three aisles. These columns 
supported an arcade carrying a wall con- 
taining windows, forming a clear-story, the 
side aisles being lower. A better arrange- 
ment could not have been devised for a 
Christian church, and it is the form, with 
slight modifications, that is in use to this 
day throughout Western Christendom. 
However well adapted these heathen basilica 
were to the exigencies of Christian worship, 
they did not continue long in use. There 
is only one example remaining to us of a 
heathen basilica converted to a Christian 
church. A veneration for the graves of the 
martyrs and a distaste for edifices con 
structed for pagan uses caused, under Chris- 
tian rule, the demolition of these ancient 
structures and their re-erection in other 
places made sacred by containing the re- 
mains of the martyrs. Here they were 
built again on much the same plan and on a 
yet grander scale. The martyrs were usu- 
ally put to death outside the city walls, and 
were supposed to be buried on the spot of 
their execution, so that when the churches 
came to be erected on these spots they were 
very inconvenient of access, being so far 
from the centre of population. 

A custom had grown up of worshiping 
underground in the catacombs among the 

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graves of the martyrs, and this custom un- 
doubtedly was the reason, when Christian- 
ity became legalized by Constantino, of the 
churches being set up in the same places, as 
instanced in Rome by Santa Agnese and 
San Lorenzo, and also at St. Peter's, which 
Constantino had placed near to the Circus of 
Nero, and whose altar was set over the re- 
mains of the Apostles. This custom of plac- 
ing the churches without the city walls 
caused great inconvenience and was a matter 
of much moment in later times, when the 
incursions of northern barbarians prevented 
an attendance upon the churches and finally 
caused their desecration, and, in many in- 
stances, entire demolition. 

The Basilica of St. Peter, however, con- 
tained certain additions and variations from 
the civil basilica. (Fig. 2.) It consisted of a 

Fio. 2. 

rian of ancient Basilica of St. Peter, Borne, 330 a.d. 

five-aisled church, extending east and west. 
At the end of the five aisles was an aisle 
running north and south ; east of this came 
the apse, giving the plan the form of a cross. 
There were forty-eight columns of precious 
marbles inclosing the large aisle, and the 
lateral aisles contained forty-eight columns 
likewise. There were an hundred other col- 
umns surrounding the various chapels and 
shrines. The walls were covered with paint- 
ings of religious subjects. The flat wooden 
ceiling was covered with gilt metal and 
Corinthian brass taken from the temples of 
Romulus and Jupiter Capitolinus. In this 
magnificent structure was one candelabrum 
that alone contained 1360 lights. Beside 
this there were more than a thousand other 
lights. All this magnificence in less than 
three centuries after the death of Christ 1 
This structure withstood the varied fortunes 
of Rome for twelve hundred years, being re- 
spected by all its invaders, finally falling 
away with age. On its site rose another 
basilica, grander and more beautiful still, 

that glory of modern times. When the seat 
of the Roman Empire was removed to By- 
zantium, Constantino set' about erecting a 
grand church there, probably modeled oo 
St. Peter's. This did not last long. Another 
was built on its site and partially destroyed, 
rebuilt and destroyed again, meeting with 
many disasters in the mean time. Finally, 
the most famous architects were called from 
all parts of the known world by Justinian, 
and the erection began of the great Church 
of St. Sophia. This church, unlike those 
of Rome, formed a Greek cross in plan, each 
arm being alike, while the Western churches 
had a Latin cross for a plan. At the inter- 
section of the arms of the cross rose a great 
dome of peculiar construction. During the 
revival of learning, communication was 
established between Greece and Italy, and 
this last and most magnificent basilica of 
the Eastern Empire greatly influenced the 
form and architecture of the new buildings. 
The Church of St. Mark, at Venice, of the 
tenth century, was copied in many partic- 
ulars from St. Sophia, and this influence 
extended throughout Italy. The modern 
Church of St. Peter at Rome owes much to 
this importation of the dome from the East. 
As did the ancient Basilica of St. Peter's 
furnish the form for the ancient St. Sophia, 
so did the later St. Sophia supply much that 
influenced the modern St. Peter's. 

Some writers have held that Constantino 
removed his seat of empire from Rome to 
the East to have more freedom in the estab- 
lishment of his new religion, to throw off all 
the trammel 8 of an earlier paganism, to start 
anew and fresh. One of his first objects, of 
course, was the erection of churches, and 
having no example anywhere about, the 
architects were left to their own resources. 
They undoubtedly drew some from Rome, — 
the idea of the round arch, maybe, and a 
partial use of the basilica plan. The East- 
ern architecture developed from these 
efforts, however, is a distinct style of its own 
and essentially a Christian architecture, .not- 
withstanding its early Roman influence. It 
grew out of the exigencies of the time, hav- 
ing no contact with the earlier pagan styles, 
and spread over the entire Eastern Empire. 
This is the style generally known as Byzan- 
tine. Its plan is usually the shape of a 
Greek cross, the eastern end terminating in 
a semicircular apse : a plan that might be 
effectually used in the present day, and of 
which more will be said farther on. 

Many say that this work at Byzantium 
was but a debasement of the Romanesque, 
itself debased from the Roman and the clas- 

It may have been so ; allow it so, and yet 
still we have much to admire; perhaps more 
in the utilities, than in the beauties, of this 
style, a style which spread throughout the 
East, and in the 'fifth and sixth centuries 
even to North Italy, where, at Ravenna, 
are several types. These, and the much 
later examples at Venice, made mention of 

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above, are the purest types of the style in the 
West. The Lombards, however, were great- 
ly influenced in their building by Byzan- 
tium j and through the trade with tho East 
this style crept into France, where a whole 
line of unmistakably Byxantine churches 
stretch across the southwestern corner of 
the country. Its correlative, the Roman- 
esque, abounds throughout Southern and 
Central France, running into Normandy 
. and England, where it is represented by what 
is called the Norman style. 

Both the Romanesque and Byzantine are 
distinguishable by the round arch, the latter 
also by the dome. To show the potency of 
the influence of the dome, essentially a By- 
zantine production, we have only to be re- 
minded of the name given to the cathedral, 
even to our day, in many European coun- 
tries. In Germany we have the Dom, in 
Italy the. Duomo, and, although now the 
terms are indiscriminately applied to the 
principal church of a city, they came from 
the habit of this church being domical. 
Running from Italy north, and down 
through the Rhine towns, is a line of round- 
arched domical churches, evidently owing 
their inspiration to the East, where the By- 
zantine maintained its sway until the supre- 
macy of the Ottomans summarily checked 
its farther spread. 

The other essentially Christian style is 
that now usually denominated Gothic. It 
may be said to have sprung up simultane- 
ously throughout Europe, while it is certain 
that no one nation can claim any priority of 
introduction. Its main characteristic, as 
now generally understood, is the pointed 
arch, although many writers have held, 
that the term Gothic included all styles in 
use after the debasement of the classics and 
the decline of Roman architecture, including 
the Lombardic, Romanesque, Byzantine, 
and Norman. 

But the word has now, generally, come to 
be confined to the pointed arch of the Mid- 
dle Ages, and in general use throughout 
Christendom. To be sure, there is the Sara- 
cenic, also pointed, but this style is easily 
distinguished from the Gothic. There are 
many theories as to the origin of the pointed 
arch, yet, the divergence of opinion being so 
great, scarcely any two writers agreeing on 
any one theory, it will be sufficient here 
to instance a few of the theories put forth, 
and a favorite one is that of the form pre- 
sented by the overhanging boughs of an 
avenue of trees. Then we have interlaced 
wicker-work, and the bending of two twigs 
or wands to meet at the top. Still more plaus- 
ible is that of the intersected groin of the 
ceilings of early churches, which formed a 
pointed arch, while the round arch was ob- 
servable elsewhere throughout the structure. 
It is certain, also, that the ancients knew of 
this shape, as is seen in some of their under- 
ground passages and tombs, yet they had 
not arrived at the correct method of con- 
struction of the arch. Although some of 

these theories might account for the origin 
and growth of the pointed arch in a certain 
locality, yet they could not be held to favor 
its general and rapid introduction into so 
many countries at once. Simultaneously, 
on the return, in the twelfth century, of the 
Crusaders from the East, this style began to 
appear, buildings springing up rapidly in all 
directions. This fact of its springing up at 
such a time, and so rapidly, has led to the 
theory of its derivation from the pointed 
Saracenic arch, and some prejudiced writers 
have, in their efforts to prevent its use, 
called it the Saracenic style. Allowing the 
fact of the adoption of the pointed arch of 
the East, how are we to account for the wide 
divergence in the styles ? for, although the 
pointed arch is a principal characteristic of 
the Gothic, it is not the only one. There are 
the great idea of verticality ; the clustered 
columns, with their light and slender shafts ; 
the lofty spires and towers ; the tracery ; 
the mullions ; the cross vaulting. 

Fortunately for this Saracenic theory, it 
has the advantage of chronological correct- 
ness, while the simultaneity of the growth 
of Gothic is the main objection to the adop- 
tion of the other theories. Some derive the 
use of tracery from the perforated fret- work 
of the Arabians. 

The origin of the term Gothic lies shrouded 
in as much mystery as the source of the style. 
That the Goths had nothing to do with the 
introduction of the style which bears their 
name is now generally accepted, and the use 
of this pagan name to designate an essen- 
tially Christian architecture has annoyed 
and puzzled many. Other names have been 
suggested, such as Christian, Pointed, Eng- 
lish ; but all of them are objectionable and 
misleading. The Byzantine and Lombardic 
are as much outgrowths of Christianity as 
the Gothic, while there are other pointed 
styles. As for tho last term, surely England 
cannot lay claim to the architecture of the 
Christian world. 

Many writers used the name Gothic as 
one of reproach, meaning thereby to stigma- 
tize the style as barbarous, outlandish, and 
uncivilized. The style had its growth in, 
and belongs essentially to, those countries 
that had been overrun and inhabited by the 
Goths, and for this reason, perhaps, it is as 
appropriate as any. 

The Gothic with which we in America 
have had most to do is that known as Eng- 
lish, and this is divided into three distinct 
periods, with transitions from one period to 
another, where the character of the work is 
of necessity more or less mixed. These three 
periods are designated Early English, Dec- 
orated, and Perpendicular. This is confin- 
ing the definition of the term Gothic to 
Pointed Gothic. Saxon and Norman are 
often counted in as being Gothic, although 
round-arched. The arch of the Early English 
is quite sharp, the openings being narrow 
and high, a complete subversion of the pre- 
ceding low round-arched Norman, while the 

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character of the work was simpler than in 
the succeeding styles, the wall-spaces greater, . 
and there was little carving or decoration. 
The decorated work is characterized by a 
somewhat flatter arch and wider openings, 
profuse carvings and ornamentations, and, 
in short, is the style in which Gothic reached 
its height of grandeur and magnificence. 
The Perpendicular has quite flat-headed 
openings, very broad, with many divisions 
by vertical bars, called mul lions. In this 
style the windows often are larger than the 
surrounding wall-space. It represents the 
decline of Gothic architecture, and is charac- 
terized bj all kinds of depravities, while 
much of it is very beautiful. 

Most of the prominent cathedrals and 
churches contain examples of all the differ- 
ent styles, from the Norman of William 
the Conqueror down. Sometimes one part 
is Norman, another Early English, and so 
on. Again, one sees the division of styles in 
the different stories, the lower arcade being 
Norman, the blind-story Early English, and 
the clear-story decorated, thus showing 
when the different parts were built or re- 
built. It is not witnin the province of this 
article to say which is the proper style for 
to-day, each having its own merits. Noth- 
ing, however, can be more beautiful than an 
English parish church built in the true spirit 
of Gothic work. And this English parish 
church is where ordinarily we should look 
for our model ; not but what this nation and 
age may be capable of developing a style of 
church architecture of its own, without re- 
verting to the Middle Ages for enlighten- 
ment, yet it has so far been unable to do so. 
Not only the church architecture, but the 
whole architecture of this country has been 
but a continuous series of tentative experi- 
ments in the endeavor to create an American 
style. Each architect and church committee 
has started out on his or its own independent 
line, sometimes copying, in so far as their 
knowledge or ignorance allowed, the archi- 
tecture of an earlier age, sometimes reach- 
ing out in a blind, groping, pitiable way for 
that which they were unable to reach, yet 
thought they had consummated. 

Seemingly the more intelligent solution 
of the problem would be to adapt our 
churches to the wants and needs of tne peo- 
ple, keeping in mind the variations of cli- 
mate and temperature, not letting the utili- 
tarianism of the age run away with us. 
Employing the best talent, using the best 
materials, and building in the most sub- 
stantial, churchly, and beautiful manner. 
"With the thousands of churches built in 
this country since its foundation, there 
stands in the city of New York, at the head 
of Wall Street, a church erected a half- 
century ago, that, to this day, is the best 
example of a thorougftly-appointed, well- 
adapted, and beautiful {parish church that 
we nave. However conventional it may be, 
however unoriginal, however faulty in de- 
tail, designed as it was bjk a man who, when 

he first came to this country from England, 
worked at a carpenter's bench, it yet stands 
to remind us of the beauties of an English 
parish church, and of the folly of striving 
for something new when one simple edifice 
can show us more of beauty and of use in 
its little conventions than all the scores and 
hundreds and thousands of other churches 
strewn over our land, and devoted to the 
worship of God. The main idea of this 
age is to get a large, ugly, ungainly assem- 
bly-room that might be used for a barn, 
skating-rink, or railway-station, with as 
much or more purpose than that for which it 
is built, erected in a spirit and form un- 
known in any age or country but this, with- 
out even the merit of .beauty or originality, 
an unintelligent, illiterate attempt at an 
adaptation of a style once the glory of the 
Christian world, a style yet capable of as 
perfect and beautiful an interpretation and 
exposition as was ever given it in the sum- 
mit of its power. And yet they call this 
style Gothic I Better that architecture had 
been relegated to the master- workman of 
the Middle Age ere it became thus debased. 
One may travel from one end of this great, 
land to the other, from ocean to ocean, from 
gulf to gulf, and see scarce a beggarly 
dozen of churches worthy of the name, 
either as to appropriateness of plan, beauty 
of structure, or simplicity or monumental 
grandeur. For not only should a church 
be arranged for the economies and decen- 
cies of public worship, but it should be 
for a monument, standing through all time 
to the glory of the Triune God. Builded 
as of old, by loving and masterly hands, 
of x the best of the earth, not cheaply nor 
niggardly, but, where poverty will allow 
no more, simply and substantially, then 
grandly, magnificently, and gloriously. It 
must keep in mind the character of the cause 
it is to serve, the name it is to commemorate, 
the God it is to glorify. Then will we have 
a structure worthy its holy name, not crum- 
bling to dust, but serving its purpose through 
generation and generation, through the a«jcs 
and centuries, as have the churches of old, 
and that, with the care of dutiful hands, may 
stand for all time. 

Who can see the work of the ancients 
and say that they built not well nor strong- 
ly ? It is only work done in the times of 
tne debasement of the arts and sciences that 
crumbled and fell away. The simplest form 
of tho parish church in England consisted of 
a nave and chancel, both long and narrow. 
When an enlargement was needed an aisle 
was added, first on one side and then on the 
other. Sometimes, to obtain more room, 
resort was had to transepts, but these, as a 
rule, were confined to cathedrals. The form 
of plan thus obtained was that of a Latin 
cross. Occasionally the aisles were extended 
along the sides of the chancel. The churches 
almost invariably faced the east, as did 
those of the early times. The tower was 
placed in various positions, at the west 

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end ; in the centre, at junction of navo and 
transepts ; on the south sido, in which case 
it was usually near the west end ; and, in 
short, in any place that seemed host adapted 
or, in the opinion of the architect, most be- 
coming.* There was usually a porch on the 
south side, near the west end. Entrances 
were had also at other places, as when tho 
tower was at the west end, an entrance was 
given through it. Then there was the 
priest's door in one side of the chancel, op- 
posite to the vestry. The vestry was usu- 
ally on the north side of the chancel, and 
was the only place in the church in which a 
chimney was permissible. Just inside the 
main door of the church was placed the font, 
the most conspicuous object on entering, 
sometimes almost blocking the way, an all- 
time reminder that the only entrance to 
Christ's Church was through baptism. It 
was invariably large enough for immersion 
of infants, and of a dignified and substantial 
character, not reminding one, as do some of 
the fonts often seen in our churches, of the 
vases of a flower-garden. Running up 
through the church was one wide, central 
alley or passage, with open benches on each 
side, while near the walls, on either side, 
were other alleys, giving easy access to the 
benches. At the head of the central alley, 
at the chancel steps, was the desk or btool 
for saying the Litany at; while the pulpit 
was placed at one side, either at the north 
or south. The chancel was raised several 
steps, and divided from the navo often by a 
screen, called the rood-screen, from its being 
directly under the rood-beam and holy-rood 
placed thereon. This rood-beam was a heavy 
piece of timber extending across the chancel, 
on which was placed a cross or crucifix, with 
figures of St. John and the Virgin on either 
side. Sometimes a stone or wooden gallery 
extended across the chancel to carry the rood, 
and was called a rood-loft. Just within the 
chancel were the seats or stalls for the clergy 
and singers. These stalls ran north and 
south, facing each other, and were equally 
divided on the two sides. The end stalls, at 
the west, were returned and faced the altar. 
Here the service was said or sung, and here 
the lectern stood, on which was placed the 
Bible. A wide passage extended between 
the stalls leading to the sanctuary or sacra- 
rium. This was raised again, above tho 
chancel, by one or more steps, and separated 
from it by a rail. Within this rail, and 
usually against the east wall, was placed the 
altar, which was raised on at least three 
steps ; in a very large church the number 
was increased, that the altar might not be 
obscured. Tho top step, called the" foot-pace, 
was wider than trie others, in order that the 
priest might the better stand to celebrate the 
Eucharist. The altar was usually of stone, 
the top slab of which was incised with five 
crosses, one in the middle and one at each 
end, emblematic of the five wounds of 
Christ. Back of the altar, or on it, and 
raised slightly above it, was a shelf, called 

tho rotable, on which wore placed the cross 
-andottndle^atieks. * 

Tho east end of the churches was usually 
square, although occasionally polygonal or 
round ; the apsidal form, however, being 
confined principally to the Continent. I? 
this apse form was used the altar was not 
placed against the east wall, as then it lost 
its dignity, but was set forward, usually to 
tbo chord of the apse, where it was often left 
exposed on all four sides, with a canopy over 
it, or was placed against an elaborate stone 
screen called the rorodos. Even when it 
came against the wall it usually had this 
screen back of it. Within the chancel-rail 
on one side, generally tho south, were placed 
seats for the clergy, generally three, called 
sedilia. Sometimes on the same side, some- 
times on the other, was set the credence, a 
recessed shelf in the wall to contain the un- 
consecrated bread and wine. Here was often 

E laced the piscina, in which the priest washed 
is hands Wore the celebration. With the 
exception of the latter, the above arrange- 
ment is that now used and generally accepted 
throughout the Anglican and American 
churches ; the universality of the adoption 
»i nd use depending much upon the knowl- 
edge of the clergy or laity having in charge 
tho erection of churches, often upon their 
individual ideas as to the utility or impor- 
tance of such customs, and sometimes, per- 
haps frequently, upon a curious prejudice as 
to the superstitions liable to be engendered 
by their use, and this because they were 
or are used and observed by that branch of 
the Church under the jurisdiction- of the 
Bishop of Rome. The enlightenment of 
this age is a sufficient guard against the 
introduction of the superstitions of a period 
five centuries past. The Church decrees that 
everything be done decently and in order, 
and in pursuance of this the house of worship 
should be arranged decently and orderly. 

In the erection of a church the plan, per- 
haps, is the first thing to consider. The 
simplest and best form for a small church is 
that^of nave -and chafecel, both as narrow 
and long as may be consistent with economy 
of space and practicability of hearing and 
seating. The narrower and higher the 
church the better the effect, both architect- 
urally and ecclesiastically. In the simplest 
and smallest churches the nave and chancel 
may be under one roof, and even of the same 
width, the division being marked by an arch 
or screen of open-work. Often in the coun- 
try a very small church only is needed ; this 
may have low, rough stone walls, and be 
built on the line of picturesqueness of effect, 
rather than that of grandeur and sublimity. 
The outline of all country churches had bet- 
ter be studied on this line of picturesqueness. 

Next to the simple form of nave and chan- 
cel comes the church with the side aisles ; 
these separated from the nave by a row of 
columns on either side. These coluinns or 
piers should be of brick or stone, and carry 
an arcaded masonry wall called the clear 

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■tory wall. This wall should extend higher 
than the outer, or aisle Walls, and be pierced 
with windows to light the nave. Much ob- 
jection is mnde in this country to having 
side aisles, since the columns obstruct a 
clear view of the chancel. This may be 
obviated by making the aisles narrow, or 
by a judicious distribution of the seating, 
so that there need be no trouble on this 
score. Another method of enlarging the 
church is by transepts ; this, however, should 
be resorted to only in large churches, as 
the form really belongs to the cathedral. 
Deep transepts are very objectionable, as 
they throw the people off to one side, often 
entirely out of view of the chancel. The 
better way to do if transepts are needed is 
to adopt the Byzantine plan of a Greek 
cross. Here the nave and transepts may be 
made wide, and the chancel large, and not 
so deep as by the English plan. In this 
way the entire congregation is thrown nearer 
together and nearer the chancel. But never 
use the Greek plan without its inseparable 
great round arch and Byzantine detail. For 
nothing looks more incongruous than to see 
Gothic, which is essentially an architecture 
of height and vertical lines, used where the 
main character of the work must of neces- 
sity be low and broad, and the lines more or 
less horizontal, often on account of the lack 
of sufficient funds to make the building of 
the necessary height. For the effect of all 
ecc esiastical architecture is increased by 
great verticality. Byzantine or Romanesque 
may be made as lofty as you like, but if a 
broad church is needed, the round arch is 
much easier adapted than the pointed. 

Materials. — The materials of the edifice 
should be either brick or stone, or both. 
Avoid the use of wood as much as possible, 
except for temporary structures, or perhaps 
for small mission chapels on the frontier. 
Even then a more substantial material should 
be used if obtainable. Very pretty and in- 
expensive churches may be erected out of 
the round boulders of the fields, such as our 
ancestors in some of the more sterile and 
rocky parts of the country gathered into 
stone walls to fence their lands. The walls 
should always show the rock face, and be 
usually what is called rubble-work, laid in 
mortar, and showing as rough and mossy a 
face as possible. The window-openings may 
be of the same stone, squared and dressed, 
or of a better stone wrought and moulded. 
Buttresses should be placed about the walls 
wherever necessary, but no particular regu- 
larity should be observed in their distribu- 
tion. If the funds will afford it, build a 
tower, or tower and spire. If not, let your 
money be expended in making what you do 
attempt substantial and lasting. If it is de- 
sirable or necessary to use wood, a very pretty 
effect may be got, with an idea of solidity, 
by using rubble-stone for the foundations, 
which, may be extended up to the line of the 
window-sills, the structure above being of 
wood. Instead, however, of battening or 

clapboarding the wooden part, it may be 
covered with shingles, which should be 
stained, not painted, thus showing the natu- 
ral grain of the wood. The inside, even, 
may be treated in this way with wonderful 
effect. Always have everything simple and 
real, not tawdry, sham, or finical, it will 
be found, no matter what the climate, that 
if the church is built of masonry with thick 
walls, the temperature will be much more 
even, and more easily kept so, than if the 
building is of wood. In the South it will 
be found necessary to have the windows 
large, and to extend them nearly to the floor 
for air and ventilation. 

A good way, perhaps, to go about the 
erection of a church is to build a little at a 
timo, as the early builders did ; say the 
chancel first, which may be used as a chapel ; 
then the nave ; then the tower ; and if an 
enlargement is needed, aisles may be added. 
Never try to put up a large church with 
insufficient funds. 

Red or yellow bricks, either. pressed or 
common, may be used, and in city churches 
of a simple character, especially those for 
mission purposes, brick may seem the more 
appropriate material. Most of the new 
churches throughout London are of brick, 
and very beautiful they are, too. Many 
new churches in the east of London are 
usually of red brick in a very severe round- 
arched style. What strikes an observer 
mostly in these churches is their simplicity, 
appropriateness, and solidity. They are in- 
variably lined on the iuside with bricks, and 
often have vaulted ceilings of the same. They 
consist of nave and chancel, with usually 
two, sometimes four, side aisles. By the 
side of the chancel is a morning chapel, in 
which is held tho week-day or early morn 
ing service, at which few people are likely 
to be present. The church is usually seated 
with chairs, sometimes with open benches, 
pews never, and floored with tiles, which 
are sometimes of clay, encaustic, or even 
wood. This last material has the advan- 
tage of not being cold and damp. 

As consonant with the simple, lasting 
monumental character of your church, al- 
ways have the material of the interior, as 
well as the exterior, of the walls substantial, 
either brick or stone, never plaster. For 
this latter is liable to drop off in time, or to 
get spotted with water, or frozen, and has, 
withal, a very unsubstantial look for a 
church, while to plaster you must put floor- 
ing strips and latns on the walls, thus mak- 
ing the fire risk much greater. If you want 
to plaster the ceilings to obtain an evenness 
of temperature, endeavor to have them 
ceiled over afterwards in wood, or paneled. 
It is pleasing to see the idea of the monu- 
mental character of a church gaining ground 
in this country, especially in tho East, where 
many, if not the most, of the churches 
erected in the last few years, in the larger 
towns at least, have their interior walls of 
a substantial material, usually brick. 

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Furniture. — The altar and font, perhaps 
the pulpit, should be of stone, and the lec- 
tern of brass, while the other furniture is of 
wood, alwavs substantial, and designed in 
keeping with the church. The most of the 
furniture obtained at the ecclesiastical fur- 
nishers', so called, is but a mongrel Gothic, 
clumsy and poorly designed. The brass- 
work is sometimes better. It is more desir- 
able, however, where the funds will allow, 
to have the furniture, including brass- 
work, designed and mado to order. Tour 
architect will advise you, and if ho' is an 
able one, — you should have none other, — let 
him design, or oversee the designing of, 
everything that is connected with the 
church, even to the stained-glass windows 
and the gas-fixtures, and attend -to the selec- 
tion of carpets, rugs, etc. He will not usu- 
ally undertake the designing of stained- 
glass work, unless of a simple character, but 
will advise you where to look, or will obtain 
designs for you. 

There has been of late years some excel- 
lent stained-glass work done in this country. 
It is mostly, however, of a different charac- 
ter from the ancient stained glass, and con- 
sequently from that produced by the best 
makers in London and Munich of to-day. 
In small churches that cannot afford figure- 
work, a very pleasing effect can be gmt by 
using cathedral gla«s, and at a very small ex- 
pense. It is not advisable to have a window 
in the east end over the altar, precedent to 
the contrary notwithstanding, for unless it is 
made very dark indeed, it is sure to throw an 
unpleasant glare in the faces of the congre- 
gation, and to obscure almost entirely the 
altar and things about it. The better way is 
to place a window on one side only, which 
may be made as large as needed, thus obtain- 
ing a sufficiency of light without the confu- 
sion resulting from the multifarious rays of 
conflicting lights. Then it is not well to have 
too much light in a church, — a glare is ex- 
ceedingly unpleasant and confusing to many 
worshipers. Almost as bad is the lack of 
light found in some churches. This latter 
fact is not always owing to small or insuffi- 
cient windows, but often to the fact of the 
church being so wide that the light from the 
low windows will not strike across. This 
can be obviated by building the church with 
a nave and aisles, and getting most of the 
light from the clear-story windows. The 
clear-story may bo as high as you like, the 
higher the better. Windows in the west 
end are permissible, but they should not be 
too bright or large, else the clergy will ex- 
perience the same annoyance that an east 
window causes the congregation. 

The altar should be of stone and a fixture 
in the church, resting on a stone foundation. 
It should be of the form of a tomb, at least 
six feet long, and be two and a half feet wide 
and three feet and three inches high. It 
should be placed against the east wall in 
a square chancel, while in an apsidal one it 
should be set forward, even to the chord, if 

the room can be afforded. It should always 
be raised on at least three steps, — three will 
answer for all ordinary purposes, — the top 
one being wider than the other. The sanc- 
tuary-rail should be of brass if possible ; if 
not, a round wooden rail is sufficient, sot on 
simple standards of metal as open as possi- 
ble. A rail is not at all necessary, except to 
keep out the multitude. A cord will answer 
for the gate, unless a metal rail is used, when 
a smaller metal pipe mav be made to slide 
into the other. This is better than a cum- 
brous gate that is continually getting out of 
order. Near the altar should oe a credence 
to hold the elements before the service, and 
against the south wall should be two or 
three, usually three, seats, or sedilia, for the 
clergy. The chancel should contain the stalls 
or benches for the clergy and choir, consist- 
ing of two or three long benches on each 
side, running longitudinally : the front ones 
being low for the choir and the back ones 
high for the clergy. The organist also 
should sit here with his key-board, and face 
the same way as the choir, the organ being 
placed in a recess or gallery on either side, 
or at the west end. On a line between the 
nave and chancel should be placed the lec- 
tern, which ought to be of brass and in the 
shape of an eagle. A simple wooden lectern 
is often used in small churches ; a very neat 
one may be made of metal to fold up, and 
have a canvas or cloth book-rest. The pul- 
pit may be placed on the north or south side 
of the church, and be of wood or stone. The 
lectern must be on the opposite side from the 
pulpit. The pulpit should be in the nave, 
and as near the people as possible, even 
among them. The prayer should never be 
said or sung at the lectern, as is sometimes 
done, but in the stalls, or at a prayer-desk, 
and facing north or south, not west. At the 
head of the main alley or passage may be a 
small desk at which to say the Litany. 
Often dividing the chancel from the nave is 
an open screen of wood or metal called the 
rood-screen. St. Stephen's, Providence, has 
a very fine new wooden one; while the 
Church of the Advent, Boston, has an iron 
one of considerable height, and St. Stephen's, 
Lynn, Mass., is, I believe, to have one of 

If the church is a free or mission church 
in a town, it is better to seat with chairs, 
otherwise plain open benches may be used. 
They should be two feet and ten inches apart 
from back t» back, while they are often made 
three feet, and even more, as at Trinity 
Church, Boston. Twenty inches in width 
may be allowed for each person. The main 
alley can be from four to six feet wide, and 
the side ones three to four feet. The font 
should be of stone and placed near the main 
entrance. It must be on a solid foundation, 
and be large enough for immersion. It 
ought to be raised on two or three steps, so 
that the clergyman may be seen whilo ad- 
ministering the rite of baptism. Whether 
the floor is of wood or not, it is better to ha v« 

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a line of matting down the alleys than to 
carpet the whole church, while rugs and mats 
may he used for the pews. This last, how- 
ever, is more a matter of convenience and 
comfort, and is often determined hy the 
climate and hy the methods of heating used. 

Sunday-School Chapels. — A Sunday-school 
chapel is oft«n attached to a church, and it is 
always hotter to have it so ; a separate build- 
ing being Jar more preferable than to use 
the basement of the main structure. 

Heating and Ventilation. — Great care 
shojuld be taken in the matter of heating and 
ventilation, especially in. the North, where 
it is very seldom that the temperature of a 
church in winter is at all satisfactory. Heat- 



tag by furnaces is probably the most desir- 
able way. The whole basement may be 
made a hot-air chamber, letting the air up 
in a multitude of places under the pews. In 
this way, by a juaicious arrangement of the 
openings for the fresh warm air and of out- 
lets for the foul air, a reasonably perfect 
system may be obtained. It is "difficult to 
put forth any one system for all cases. Each 
problem should be worked out for itself and 
to meet the exigencies of the occasion. 

Lick- Gates. — A pleasant sight about 
churches, especially in the country, is the 
well-kept church -yard, — the God's acre, — 
where lie all the dead of the parish. At the 
entrance to this church-yard it was a goodly 
custom to erect a shelter over the gate- way, 
under which the mourners might stop and 
rest the corpse while waiting for the proces- 

sion of clergy to come out from the church 
to meet them. This sheltered gate was 
thence called lich-gate or corpse-gate. This 
custom might be revived, the gate serving as 
a shelter from the weather at all times, be- 
sides being a picturesquo ornament to the 


Abacus. The upper part of the capital of a col- 
umn or pier. 
Abbey. A term for a collection of conventual 
buildings, consisting of a church and other 
structures, presided over by an abbot or abbess. 
Abutment. The solid part of a wall or pier from 
which an arch springs or abuts. 

Aisle. The wings at the sides of 
• a church, separated from the 
nave by columns or piers, and 
roofed lower than the main body 
of the church. It is an architec- 
tural division of the structure, 
and not a passage or alley be- 
tween the pews, as often used. 
Almert. A recess in the wall near 
the altar used to oontain the 
sacred vessels. 
Almonry, or Aumbry. A room 
where alms were distributed to 
the poor. 
Altar. An elevated tomb-like 
structure for the oelebration of 
the Eucharist, placed at the east- 
ern end of the church, made at 
first of wood, but the Council of 
Epone, in France (509 A.D.), 
commanded that altars be made 
of stone. 
Alurb. An alley or passage in a 
wall, as in the clear-story of a 
Ambo. A kind of pulpit in the 
early ohurch, originally a read- 
Ambulatory. A passage to walk 

in, such as cloisters. 
Ante-Chapel. A small chapel, 
forming the entrance to another. 
Apse. The semicircular or poly- 
gonal termination to the chancel 
or aisles of a ohurch, very little 
Cfnquefotl. need in England, but common on 

the Continent. 
Arcade. A row or range of arches supported on 
piers or columns, either against a wall or de- 
Arch. A construction of masonry spanning an 
opening, and so constructed that the stones or 
bricks by mutual pressure will support each 
other. The lower part is called the springing, 
the sides the haunches, and the top the crown. 
(Fig. 8.) 
Ashlar. Squared . stones used for the facing of 
walls. The ashlar-line is that of the face of the 
Baldachino. A canopy, supported on shafts, 

standing over the altar. 
Baptistery. A separate building or an addition 
to the church to oontain the font for the rite of 
Base. The moulded lower part of a column or shaft. 
Basilica. A building used by the Greeks and 
Romans for public purposes, as for a justice 
hall, hall of exchange, etc. 

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Bat. The compartment of an arcade, or space 
or division between any two columns or piers. 

Belfry. Usually applied to the ringing-loft of 
a churoh. Properly, a detached campanile con- 
taining bells. 

Bell-Gable, Bell-Cot. A gable or cot in small 
churches and chapels that have no tower, to 
contain one or more bells, usually placed at the 
west end. When placed over the chancel arch 
it is called sanotus bell -cot. 

Blind-Story, or Triforium. A term applied to 
the space between the lower arcade of the wall 
and the clear-story. 

Buttress. A pier of masonry projecting from a 
wall and used to strengthen it. 

Canopy. An ornamental projection or covering 
over niches, doors, windows, seats, and altars. 

Cap, or Capital. The upper part of a column, 
pier, or pilaster ; usually elaborately oarved. 

Cathedral. The principal churoh of a diocese, 
where the Bishop has his seat. (Fig. 4.) 



8axon Cathedral, Canterbury, 960 A.D. 

Chalice. The onp used for the wine at the cele- 
bration of the Eucharist, at first made of wood 
and glass, then of gold and silver. 

Chancel. The eastern end of a church, where 
the clergy and the choir are placed, and where 
the services are performed. 

Chantry. A small chapel built out from a church, 
and often containing the tomb of the founder. 

Chapel. A small building used in place of a 
church in a large parish ; a building attached 
to a church or forming part of an institution, 
and used for the services of the church. 

Chapter-House. The place of assembly for the 
chapter, or deans and canons, of a cathedral. 
The rooms are of various shapes, usually polyg- 

Choir. That part of a cathedral where the ohoir 
sits and where the service is sung. In a parish 
church this place is called the chancel, the term 
choir being confined to cathedrals ; it was sepa- 

' rated from the rest of the church by a screen. 

Clear-Story, or Clerb-Stort. . An upper story 
or row of windows in a churoh above toe blind- 
story. It is in the wall separating nave and 
aisle, which 1b usually called the clear-story 

Cloister. A covered ambulatory or walk about 
a quadrangle in a collegiate or monastic struc- 

Column. A vertical cylindrical shaft used to sup- 
port a superincumbent weight. A olustered 
eolumn is a collection of small slender shafts 
banded together. 

Coping. The top or covering course of a wall, 
usually of stone, and weathered to throw off the 

Corbel. A projecting stone or piece of timber 
jutting out from a wall and used as a support. 

Credence. A small table or recess in the wall 
near the altar, on which the bread and wine 
were placed before they were consecrated. 

Cross. The symbol of the Christian religion. The 
Greek cross has each of its arms alike, while 
the Latin has the lower arm longer than the 
others; this latter is the usual form of cross 

Crypt. A vaulted apartment under a church or 
other building. In a churoh it is generally 
under the chancel. 

Cusp. The point of meeting of the foliations of 
tracery as in a trefoil, where the three project- 
ing points of meeting of the foils are called 

Diaper- work. A form of decorating of flat sur- 
faces, such as walls, panels, etc., with a geomet- 
rical pattern, consisting of squares, lozenges, 
or other forms, filled with a flower or rosette 
design. The name is derived from a kind of 
cloth worked in similar patterns made at Ypres, 
Belgium, henoe the name, Drap D'Ypres. 

Dome. A cupola or inverted cup on the top of a 
building. The term is derived from the name 
given the Italian cathedral, " II duomo/' which 
usually had a dome. 

Dorsal, or Dosbel. The hangings behind the 

Faldstool, or Folding-stool. A seat made to 
fold up like a camp-ohair, and of wood or metal, 
carried about by a Bishop when away from his 
own church, a term erroneously applied to the 
Litany stool. 

Finial. The ornament in which a spire, gable, 
pinnacle, or oanopy terminates, consisting gen- 
erally in a flower or bunch of flowers. 

Fleche. The small spire over the intersection 
of nave and transepts containing the sanotus 

Font. The vessel used in the rite of baptism. It 
should be of stone, and of sufficient size to allow 
a child to be immersed. 

Frithbtool, or Freedstool. A seat placed near 
the altar, the last refuge for those who claimed 
the privilege of sanctuary. The seat of peace. 

Frontal. The hanging of the front of the altar. 

Gablb. The triangular-sbaped upper part of a 
wall formed by the termination of a roof against 

Galilee. A chapel or porch at the western 
entrance to a churoh. Sometimes, a part of the 
west end of the church, separated from the rest, 
and not considered so sacred as the rest of the 
edifice. Used chiefly for penitents not yes 
admitted to the body of the churoh. 

Gargoyle. An ornamental termination to a 
gutter or water-spout used to carry the water 
clear of the building. It is usually a grotesque, 
and supposed to be named from the gurgling 
sound made by the water passing through it. 

Grille. The ornamental iron-work screen in- 
closing a chapel, tomb, or an opening, such as 
a window. 

Digitized by 





Groin. The style of vaulting formed by the 
intersection of two vaults ; a ceiling of this form 
is called a groined ceiliDg. 

Grotesques. The light and fanoiful ornaments 
used by the ancients; also gargoyles, corbels, 
and other ornaments carved in curious and gro- 
tesque forms are often thus called. 

Hammer-beam. A horizontal timber resting on 
the top of the wall and projecting into the 
church, forming part of a truss, and often 
carved ; hence the name hammer-beam truss; 

Jamb. The sides of a door or wiDdow-opening. 

Joints. The interstices between the stones or 
bricks in masonry are called joints. 
" Lady-Chapel. A chapel placed to the eastward 
of the altar in large churches and dedicated 
to the Blessed Virgin, called Our Lady. 

Lancet. A long, narrow window or opening with 
a narrow, poiuted arch. 

Lantern. A term given to the light construction 
forming the top of a tower or dome, usually of 
a polygonal form ; occasionally it is placed on 
a roof, and is used for purposes of light and air. 

Lectern. A movable desk of wood or metal 
used to hold the Bible, often made of brass in 
the form of an eagle, the Bible resting on the 
back of the eagle. 

Lich-gate. A covered gate-way at the entrance 
to a ohurch-yard or cemetery, where the mourn- 
ers rested the corpse while waiting for the 

Louvre. An open structure on a roof, usually for 
ventilation, and consisting of a small lantern or 
cupola, the openings filled with slats or louvre 

Minster. A large church attached to an ecclesi- 
astical establishment. If the fraternity be pre- 
sided over by a Bishop it is called a Cathedral ; 
if by an abbot, an Abbey; if by a prior, a 

Miserere. A projection on the under side of 
seats in the stalls of large churches. These 
seats were made to turn up during the long 
servioes, which were performed standing, and 
the misereres were projected enough to form 
a partial seat. , They were elaborately carved 
in various grotesque forms. 

Monastery. A group of buildings used for the 
habitation of an order of monks. 

Mosaic-work. Flat ornamental work formed by 
inlaying small pieces of stone, glass, enamel, or 
marble of various colors. Floors, walls, and 
ceilings are done in this manner. 

Mullion. A vertical division of a window into 
two or more parts. 

Narthex. The porch forming the entrance to 
the early Christian basilica. 

Nave. The main body or division of a church, 
so called from its fancied resemblance to a ship. 
On either side are the aisles, and at the east end 
is the chancel. 

Oratory. A small room or chapel attached usu- 
ally to a private house and for individual or 
family devotions. 

Pace, or Foot-pace. A broad step in front of 
the altar. 

Paten. A small plate or salver used in the cele- 
bration of the Eucharist j it was formed to fit 
the chalice as a cover. 

Pier. That portion of a wall between windows 
or other openings, or a massive erection stand- 
ing alone and used to support arches, etc. 

Pillars. The round or polygonal piers or col- 
umns that support the main arches of a build- 

Pinnacle. A small turret or tall ornament, taper- 
ing to the top and usually elaborately carved, 
forming terminations to buttresses, corners, etc. 

Piscina. A small basin, either recessed in the 
wall, near the altar, or projecting from it, and 
used to carry off the water used in ablutions 
before the mass. 

Poppy-heads. The finials, or ornaments, at the 
top of bench or stall ends. 

Porch. A covered shelter at the entrance to the 
church. Sometimes the lower story of the tower 
forms the porch. It is usually placed on the 
south side near the west end. 

Pulpit. An elevated platform or desk from 
which sermons are preached. Sometimes of 
stone, but usually of wood, and polygonal or 
round in shape : placed at either the north or 
south side of nave near entrance to chancel. 

Refectory. The dining-hal) of a monastery or 
convent. It contained a desk or pulpit, from 
which one of the members read to the others 
during meals. 

Reliquary. A small box, chest, or casket to 
contain relics. 

Reredos. The screen or other ornamental work 
at the back of the altar, either against the wall 
or detached. 

Retable. A raised shelf at the back of the altar, 
on which are placed the cross, vases, and can- 

Ridge. The apex of the roof running the length 
of the building. 

Rood. The crucifix placed in the rood-loft, with 
figures of the Virgin Mary and St. John on 
either side. 

Rood-beam, or Rood-loft. A heavy beam or 
gallery extending across the chancel at the 
junction with the nave, on which was placed 
the rood ; underneath was often placed a screen 
or low wall, called rood-screen or rood-wall. 
These screens are made quite light and open. 

Rood-tower, Rood steeple. A name sometimes 
given to the great tower at the intersection of 
nave and transepts. 

Rose-window. A name given to a window of 
circular form filled with tracery ; if the tracery 
is in the form of spokes it is called a wheel- 

Sacrarium. The inclosed space about the altar. 

Sacristy. A room attached to a church in which 
the priests robed, and in which the sacred ves- 
sels, vestments, etc., were kept 

Sanctuary. The eastern end of the chancel, in 
which the altar is placed ; called also sacrarium. 

Sanctus Bell-cot. A small gable or other struc- 
ture on the roof, to contain a small bell called 
the sanctus-bell, which was used during various 
parts of the service, especially at the words 
" sanctus, sanctus, sanctus •" placed usually 
over the chancel arch ; sometimes it is in a 
small spire called a fleche. 

Sedilia. Three seats placed near the altar, and 
against or recessed in one of the walls; used 
during parts of the service by the priest and hif 
attendants, the deacon and subdeacon. 

Sepulchre, The Easter. A recess, generally 
in the north wall of a Roman church, to contain 
the cross from Good- Friday to Easter. 

Shafts. Slender columns, either standing alone 
or attached to walls, buttresses, etc. 

Shrine. A chest or box to contain relics; some- 
times in the form of a church ; often they were 
covered with jewels. 

Sill, Cjll. The horizontal stone forming the 
bottom of window-openings. In a wooden 

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building the first timber put on the foundation! 
and extending around the building. 

Soffit. A ceiling ; a term used only to designate 
subordinate parts and members of a building, 
as the ceiling or soffit, or an arch, doorway, 
stairway, cornice, etc. 

Span. The width of an arch between the walls; 
also the width of a roof. 

Spire. A sharply-pointed termination given to 
towers, and rising to a great height, forming 
the roof to the tower; usually built of masonry 
in the best work, sometimes of wood, and oov- 
ered with shingles, tiles, or slates. 

Stall. A fixed scat, partially inclosed, for the 
use of clergy and choir. The stalls are situated 
in the chancel or choir. 

Standard. The term applied to the upright ends 
of stalls or benches. 

Steeple. A general term used to include the 
whole structure of tower, belfry, and spire. 

Stoup. A small vessel placed at the entrance to 
a Roman church to oontain holy water. 

Super altar. A small portable stone altar. 

Tabernacle. A small cell or niche in which 
some holy or precious thing is placed ; applied 
to the receptacle over the altar where the pix is 
placed ; also a niche where an image may be 

Tessellated Pavement. A pavement formed of 
small cubes of stone, marble, pottery, etc, of 
from an inch to a half-inch square, like dice. 

Tower. The large masonry structure used to 
mark the position of a church, usually square, 
sometimes round or polygonal; occasionally 
topped out with a flat roof, of toner, however, 
with a tall spire. 

Tracrry. The ornamental filling in of circular 
windows, window-head*, and panels formed by 
the ramifioations of the tnullions. It should be 
of stone, and not of wood, as it often is. 

Transept. That portion of a church that crosses 
transversely between nave and choir, extending 
beyond the nave on either side, and forming 
the arms of a cross. 

rnANSov. The horizontal cross-bars of wood or 
stone that divide a window or doorway in height, 
in contradistinction to mullions that run verti- 

Trefoil. A panel, window, or window-head 
formed by cusping in the shape of a three-leafed 
flower; quatrefoil is four-leafed; cinquefoil, 
five-leafed; multifoil, many-leafed. 

Triforium, or Blind-story. The space of wall 
between the lower arcade and the clear-story. 

Turret. A small tower, usually round or octag- 
onal ; generally placed at corners of buildings 
or larger towers. 

Tympanum. A name given to the space above 
the opening of a doorway, formed by the square 
head of the door and the form of the arob above 
it ; often elaborately carved, or filled with mosaic 

Vault. The arched ceiling of a roof; where the 
vaults intersect the ceiling is said to be groined. 

Vesica Pisces. An ova K shaped ornament pointed 
at both ends; used for panels, windows, etc. 
It is the common form of the aureole, or glory, 
by which the representations of the persons of 
the Holy Trinity were surrounded in the Mid- 
dle Ages. The name was given by Albert 

Vestry. Vide Sacristy. 

Ion Lewis, Chicago. 

Ark of the Covenant. The coffer or chest 
of shittim or acacia wood, in which were 
placed the Tables of the Law. It was also 

called the Testimony. According to Heb. 
ix. 4, the pot of manna and Aaron's rod 
were within it. It was two and a half cubits 
long and one and a half cubits deep, and 
the same measurement in width. It was 
overlaid with gold within and without, and 
its lid was surrounded with a crown of gold. 
Four golden rings, one, at each corner, were 
placed for the staves of acacia wood by which 
it was to be carried, and which were always 
to remain in place. It was the consecrated 
depository for the Tables of the Law — God's 
Testimony to His people. It therefore con- 
tained the stone tables, hewn by Moses, and 
written on by God for a Testimony before 
His people. It occupied the chief place in 
the Holy of Holies, and it was set before 
the mercy-seat, which was overshadowed by 
the cherubim. In the journeyings of tha 
children it was always to be borne by the 
Kohathites, when the priests had covered it 
with the veil and pall of badger-skins. Upon 
the tent where the Testimony rested, the 
cloud, the glory of the Lord, hovered. It led 
the way in the three days of the first journey 
after leaving Sinai, and it was placed in the 
front of the advancing hosts with a solemn 
proclamation by Moses (Num. x. 88-86 ; cf. 
Ps. lxviii. 1). Its march was marked by 
the blast from two silver trumpets. It was 
never seen but by the High-Priest, for none 
could look upon it and live. It was thus in 
the central place in the Jewish worship, and 
was a perpetual witness of God's covenant 
with His people. So Isaiah appeals to it: "To 
the Law (i.e., the whole Levitical Law) and 
to the Testimony" (t^., the covenant in the 
Ark). (Is. viii. 20.) It excluded idolatry in 
the tabernacle, however much the heatt of 
the people leaned to that sin. 

Again, when Joshua was about to cross 
the Jordan, the Ark led the way, two thou- 
sand cubits in advance of the people (Josh, 
iii., iv.), and it was borne in front in the 
solemn processions about Jericho. It was 
at Gilgal, then removed to Shiloh, till the 
time of Samuel. It was taken by the Philis- 
tines when Hophni and Phinehas sacrile- 
giously carried it to the battle of Aphek, 
who kept it seven months. It was then re- 
turned (1 Sam. vi.), and remained at Kir- 
jath Jearim twenty years, till it was left 
by David at the house of Obed Edom (1 
Chron. xiii.); finally, it was carried to 
Jerusalem and placed in the tent David had 
prepared for it. Thence it was borne to the 
Temple by Solomon. 

Arkansas and Indian Territory. This 
Diocese was organized in 1871 a.d The 
population of the State is 802,564. Bishop 
Polk (born April 10, 1806 a.d.) was " con- 
secrated Missionary Bishop of Arkansas and 
the Indian Territory south of 36° 80', with 
provisional charge of Alabama, Mississippi, 
and the republic of Texas, December 9, 1838 
a.d. At the General Convention held in 
Philadelphia, October 6 to 19, 1841 a.d., 
Bishop Polk was nominated by the House 
of Bishops to the Episcopate of Louisiana, 

Digitized by 





agreeably to the request of that Diocese that 
the General Convention should elect its 
Bishop, in which action the House of Depu- 
ties unanimously concurred. Died June 14, 
1864 a.d. 

"Second Bishop, the Rt. Rev. George 
Washington Freeman, D.D. Born June J 3, 
1789 A.D. Consecrated Missionary Bishop 
of Arkansas and the Indian Territory soutn 
of 86}°, with supervision of the Church in 
Texas, October 26, 1844 a.d. Died April 2«J, 
1858 a.d. 

" Third Bishop, the Rt. Rev. Ilcnry Cham- 
plain Lay, S.T.D., LL.D. Born December 
6, 1813 a.d. Consecrated Missionary Bishop 
of Arkansas and the Indian Territory, Oc- 
tober 23, 1859 a.d. Translated to Easton, 
1869 a.d. 

" Present Bishop, the Rt. Rev. Henry 
Niles Pierce, D.D., LL.D. Residence, Little 
Rock. Born in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, 
October 19, 1820 a.d. Graduated at Brown 
University 1842 a.d. Ordered Deacon 
April 23, 1843 a.d. Ordained Priest Jan- 
uary 8, 1849 a.d. He was successively rec- 
tor of St. John's, Mobile, Ala., St. Paul's, 
Springfield, 111. (1850-70 a.d.). Received 
degree of D.D. from University of Ala- 
bama, and that of LL.D. from the College 
of William and Mary, Virginia, 1869 a.d. 
Consecrated Missionary Bishop of Arkan- 
sas and the Indian Territory in Mobile, 
Ala., January 25, 1870 a.d., by the Rt. Rev. 
Wm. M. Green, D.D., Rt. Rev. Henry J. 
Whitehouse, D.D., LL.D., D.C.L., Rt. Rev. 
R. H. Wilmer, D.D., Rt. Rev. C. J. Quin- 
tard, S.T.D., LL.D., Rt. Rev. Joseph P. B. 
Wilmer, D.D , Rt. Rev. J. F. Young, S.T.D. 
Writings: Occasional Sermons, Essays, Ad- 
dresses, and Poems." (Living Church An- 
nual, 1884J • 

Bishop Freeman was rector of Immanuel 
Church, Newcastle, Del., before his eleva- 
tion to the Episcopate, hence William T. 
Read, Esq., of New Castle, presented reso- 
lutions concerning his death in the Dela- 
ware. Convention of 1868 a.d. They declare 
that " the Church has lost one of her bright- 
est ornaments, a chief pastor eminently qual- 
ified for the exalted and responsible station 
to which the Church called him with -con- 
siderable unanimity, and who discharged its 
duties with diligence, ability, uprightness, 
and zeal, directed by sound judgment, and 
animated by ardent love of God and man." 

In 1835 a.d., Rev. Francis L. Hawks, 
D.D., was chosen by the General Conven- 
tion as Missionary Bishop, to have jurisdic- 
tion in Louisiana and the Territories of 
Arkansas and Florida. He declined the 

When Bishop Polk was elected by the 
General Convention of. 1841 a.d. "to the 
Diocesan Episcopate of Louisiana, he re- 
signed his previous charge, and Bishop 
Otey, of Tennessee, was made acting Bishop 
of. Arkansas, etc. This state of things con- 
tinued until 1844 a.d.," when Bishop Free- 
man was elected. Bishop Freeman was also 

to have jurisdiction in Texas, as well as the 
Indian Territory. 

Bishop Lay reported to the General Con- 
vention of 1868 a.d. concerning Arkansas 
and the Indian Territory, that in the preced- 
ing three years he had licensed 6 lay-readers. 
There was 1 candidate for holy orders, and 
there were 8 Presbyters canonically resi- 
dent, and 1 without a cure. There were 
16 parishes, 5 churches, and 1 parsonage. 
Baptisms', 466; confirmations, 254; com- 
municants, 605; Sunday-school teachers, 57 ; 
scholars, 520. 


"Academic, — St. John's Associate Mission 
School, Fayetteville, Ark., C. A. Levcrett, 
Principal. Went into operation the 1st of 
October, 1868 A.D." 

Bishop Pierce's first annual report to the 
Board of Missions, in October, 1870 a.d., 
6tated that 103 had received confirmation, 
and there had been 52 baptisms. The Bishop 
bad traveled 5414 miles. . " Two parishes 
were self-supporting, Little Bock and Hel- 
ena." The Bishop was consecrated in Jan- 
uary of this year. 

Bishop Pierce reports to the Board of Mis- 
sions in 1883 a.d. that he has been busily 
at work in his .jurisdiction for the past four 
years, " having in that period allowed him- 
self little or no time for simple recreation." 
He speaks with interest of a visit to the 
missions in' the western part of the Indian 
Territory, under Rev. F. B. Wicks. Mr. 
Wicks was a rector in the State of New York, 
who took some Indian lads to educate, and 
afterwards entered on this missionary work. 
Progress has been made u in planting the 
Church among the Cheyennes, Arapahoes, 
Kiowas, and Comanches." The labors of 
Mr. Wicks have been aided by the help of 
the Cheyenne Deacon, Rev. David P. Oka- 
harter. The Bishop confirmed at the Chey- 
enne school-house fifteen persons, all Chey- 
ennes. They were young men and women, 
appearing very intelligent. The Bishop says 
that " they form a grand nucleus for a large 
work among these Indians." He adds, " I 
do not think that I was ever more deeply im- 
pressed with any religious services than I 
was by the baptism of three young men by 
Mr. Wicks on the Wednesday night previ- 
ons to their confirmation, Sunday, October 
5. There was a large congregation of Indi- 
ans and whites present, and few eyes were 
seen in which no tear-drop glistened." At 
the Kiowa and Comanche school-house, 
Anadarko, Mr. Wicks baptized six Indian 
young men, and the Bishop confirmed twelve 
persons. At Anadarko the Kiowa Deacon, 
Rev. Paul C. Zotom, has assisted Mr. 
Wicks, and Mr. George W. Hunt, the 
superintendent of the Kiowa and Comanche 
school, has also given him valuable aid. 
Mr. Hunt has become a candidate for 
orders. Steps have been taken looking to 
the erection of a church at Anadarko. At 
Fort Sill the Bishop confirmed two per- 

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tons, one of them being the wife of the com- 
mandant, Col. G. V. Hendry. The Bishop 
was pleased with the success of the plane of 
Mr. Wicks and his influence among the 
Indians, and thinks that the mission needs 
to be enlarged and developed under such 
wise leadership. 

In Arkansas the Bishop reports a new 
church being pushed towards completion at 
Van Buren, and a new church soon to be 
commenced at Maria nna. The Bishop is ex- 
ceedingly anxious to establish a central mis- 
sion and clergy-house, with a Board of 
Clergy at Little Rock. He has worked for 
years, steadily but gradually, 4t towards the 
establishment of this cathedral and clergy- 
bouse." He says, " I am now, and have been 
since the middle of June last, trying to raise 
the requisite funds. My success has not 
been up to this time great, and yet not 
discouraging. With $2000 in addition to 
what is now secured, I can begin to build 
this full, and have much of my scheme in 
operation during the coming year. I con- 
sider this work one of so much importance 
and so vital to the Church in Arkansas that 
I shall place it second to nothing else till it 
is done. May God put it into the hearts of 
Churchmen everywhere to help me I The 
sum I ask is so little, that I ought not to be 
obliged to take months to raise it" 

Statistics for 1886 a.d. : Clergy, 17; par- 
ishes, 19 ; missions, 10;. ordination, priest, 1 ; 
baptisms, 177; confirmed, 149; com., 1364; 
contributions, $13,955.60. 

Rkv. S. F. Hotchkin. 

Aries. Of the numerous ecclesiastical 
conventions called Councils of Aries, the 
first only need be considered in any full- 
ness. About the beginning of the fourth 
century, on occasions of violent persecu- 
tion, much weakness had been exhibited by 
Christians, as well as much fortitude and 
zeal, which latter was sometimes carried to 
foolish fanaticism ; and there had arisen., 
chiefly in Africa, two classes in the Church ; 
one. of those inclined to treat forgivingly 
and leniently such as had fallen when sorely 
tried by persecution, and to discourage 
fanaticism which provoked persecution ; 
the other, of those who thought they ought 
to take a severer view, and exclude the 
lapsed, often styled traditors, from Church 
privileges and communion, at least until the 
Lour of death. The antagonism of those 
two parties took more definite form, and 
became open and violent, on the election of 
Cascilian to the See of Carthage (311 a.d.). 
and a rival, Majorinus, was elected and 
consecrated to the same See, on the ground 
that Cascilian 's consecration was not valid, 
having been given by a traditor. The Em- 
peror Constantine, who became master of 
the West about this time, gave some atten- 
tion to these disputes, and authorized a meet- 
ing of Bishops at Borne to compose them 
(813 a.d.). Cecilian was present at this 
conference, as was also the opposite party, 
headed by a certain Donatus ; not, however, 

that one from whom the party shortly after* 
wards was named. The decision was in favor 
of Csecilian, but Donatus and his brethren 
were not satisfied, and they applied to the 
Emperor for another hearing. This applica- 
tion issued in the Council of Aries, a general 
Council of the West assembled at A relate, 
a city near the mouth of the Rhone (August 
1, 314 a.d.). It is said as many as two 
hundred Bishops met at this time, among 
whom were three from Britain, — Eboriua 
of York, Re^ti tutus of London, and Adel- 
fius of Lincoln. The result of the deliber- 
ations was again in favor of Csecilian and 
the more moderate party, and a number of 
Canons were passed in the hope of ending 
the dissensions. Among other things it was 
decided that clergymen who were duly con- 
victed as traditors should be deposed ; that 
false accusers should be excommunicated 
until near death ; that ordination by tradi- 
tors, if otherwise unexceptionable, should 
be valid ; that persons baptized by heretics 
in the Name of the Father, etc., and in the 
right form, should not be rebaptized, but 
received into the Church by imposition of 
hands ; and that Easter should be observed 
on Sunday. 

Articles, the XXXIX. " Articles of Relig- 
ion" were an invention, in Western Europe, 
of the sixteenth century. The Eastern 
Church retains yet the Catholic practice of 
fifteen hundred years, and is satisfied with 
the Creed as the one formula of faith, with 
the Liturgy as the rule of worship, and 
with Canons for discipline. The latter tend 
to preserve good morals and promote the 
order of the Church. The second nourishes 
growth in grace, wisdom, and soundness of 
faith. The first maintains the primary facts 
respecting Father, Son, and Holt Ghost, 
which are necessary to be believed in order 
to be saved. They are so necessary because 
salvation is a fact, and must, therefore, rest 
on facts. The only facts which make a sure 
foundation are those set forth in the for- 
mulas of the Creed. Though the Creed has 
two forms, one called the Apostles', and the 
other the Nicene, the latter is only an ex- 
pansion of the former, containing no merely 
human opinions or explanations, but merely 
suoh enlargements of the old statements of 
facts as were known to have been accepted 
and taught from the beginning in all the 
Churches of Apostolic foundation and up- 

In the sixteenth century, however, the 
resistance to the Bishop of Rome, which led 
to the convulsions of the Reformation, was 
accompanied by a fierce reaction against the 
mediaeval theology. Indeed, the encroach- 
ments of the Pope upon the rights of the 
national Churches in Western Europe, and 
his usurpations of power based upon his un- 
catholic claims of " supremacy," had long 
proceeded, pari passu, with the development 
of novel and, therefore, erroneous theolog- 
ical doctrines. Practical corrupts »ns followed 
from erroneous teaching, and induced an 

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active, indignant, and sometimes violent re- 
sistance. The whole Church, in the West, 
had become so bound in the chains of a tyr- 
annous papal rule, and so held captive by a 
powerful, well-organized, and minutely-di- 
vided ecclesiasticism, that when the inevi- 
table reaction came, and the indestructible 
dignity of personal man — made in God's 
image, and responsible directly to Him — 
was reasserted and defended, the rebound, 
like its occasion, became extrome. 

Not only were the rights of man as man, 
free by nature and godlike, an impelling 
force under the Reformation, but the su- 
premacy of Truth, as the Word of God, was 
naturally set forth as the only sure test of 
His will and ways. A general intellectual 
renaissance had prepared the way for a the- 
ological, as well as moral and religious re- 
vival. The theological revival led, of 
course, to doctrinal controversies. These 
disturbed the Quiet of both Church and 
State. The rulers, in both Church and 
State, endeavored to check disorder. The 
Reformers were in earnest, and began to 
show something more than a mere spirit of 
endurance. They were not all ecclesiastics. 
Princes favored the Reformation. Both 
Pope and Emperor tried in vain to stamp 
out the movement. Huss and Jerome had 
been silenced, but Luther, Zwingle, Calvin, 
and the English Convocation were, both 
jointly and severally, too strong to be, re- 
pressed, and too numerous to be confined. 

Open controversy was, therefore, the only 
resort, and out of this controversy grew the 
invention of " Articles of Religion. " Gen- 
erally, though not always, especially at first, 
Articles of Religion were distinguished 
from the Articles of the Faith; The latter 
were contained in the Creed. The former, 
while claimed to be accordant with and 
based upon the Creed, treated largely the 
contemporary questions in dispute. 

A body of Articles of Religion was pre- 
sented by Luther, Melancthon, and their 
associates to the Germanic Diet at Augs- 
burg, June 23, 1530 a.d., and is called " the 
Augsburg Confession." On October 8, 1629 
a.d., a body of seventeen articles, known 
as the " Schwabach Articles,' ' had been 
presented to a joint meeting of the follow- 
ers of Luther and of Zwingle at Marburg, 
but were not accepted by the latter. Indeed, 
this conference seems to have settled the 
fact that Luther and Zwingle could not 
agree. The latter insisted that every point 
should be settled solely upon the express 
words of Holy Scripture, while the former 
claimed that the Church had at least some 
weight of authority as interpreter of Holy 
Scripture. Luther, therefore, wished to re- 
tain all existing doctrines and practices 
which were not against the express words 
of Holy Scripture. On this point they sep- 
arated, and the German Reformers proceeded 

The first part of " The Augsburg Confes- 
sion' 1 consisted of XXII. Articles ; the last 

of which " concludes ... by declaring that 
there is nothing in the doctrine of the Luth- 
eran body which differs either from the 
Scriptures or the ancient Church. 11 (Hard- 
wicke i 

The English Church 1534 a.d., bv distinct 
convocational enactment, rejected the su- 
premacy of the Pope. This was the first de- 
cisive act which involved the English Church 
in the flood of the Reformation. Naturally 
the Continental Reformers were conferred 
with ; and a strong effort was made, in which 
both Henry VIII. and Cranmer joined, to in- 
duce Lutherans, and especially Melancthon, 
to meet and confer with the English Convo- 
cation. 1536 a.d. a series of English "Arti- 
cles of Religion" were drawn up, but not 
actually authorized and set forth. The 
hands of both Gardiner and Cranmer appear 
in them, with not a little of the dash of 
Henry VIII. Meanwhile, the Smalcaldic 
League had organized in Germany a politi- 
cal as well as religious resistance to papal 
usurpations; and efforts were made to at- 
tach Henry VIII. to it. He and his Bishops 
were not, however, willing to adopt the 
Augsburg Confession. Embassies were in- 
terchanged, and conferences followed ; until 
some time in the summer of 1538 a.d. a body 
of XIII. Articles were agreed upon. They 
were (1) of the Unity of God and Trinity of 
persons, (2) of Original Sin, (8) of the two 
natures of Christ, (4] of Justification, (5) 
of the Church, (6) of Baptism, (7) of the 
Eucharist, (8) or Penitence, (9) of use of 
Sacraments, (10) of Ministers of the Church, 
(11) of Ecclesiastical Rites, (12) of Things 
Civil, (13) of Resurrection or the Body and 
Last Judgment. 

These Articles, though showing the in- 
fluence of the Augsburg Confession, were 
full also of signs of those views which dis- 
tinguished the English Reformation from 
that on the Continent. 

The death of Henry VIII., 1547 a.d., 
placed the crown upon the head of the boy 
Edward VI. The Duke of Somerset— the 
Protector of King and realm — was a corre- 
spondent of Calvin. Both King and Protec- 
tor were in close intimacy with Cranmer, 
who is regarded as the chief compiler and 
constructor of the XLII. Articles. These, 
though 4< agreed by the Bishops and other 
learned men in the Synod of London, 1552 
A.D.," were set forth June 19, 1553 a.d., by 
" a mandate in the name of the King directed 
to the officials of the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, requiring them to see that the New 
Formulary should be subscribed ;" t.«., by 
all the clergy, school-masters, and members 
of the university on admission to degrees. 
This was not, however, carried generally 
into effect. 

The reign of Mary Tudor restored papal 
authority, and though nothing official was 
done with the XLII. Articles, they remained 
so in abeyance, that on the ascension to the 
throne of Elizabeth — November 17, 1558 
a.d., — they were not held to be of authority. 

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Indeed (1569 a.d.), "Archbishop Parker, 
with the sanction of the other Metropolitan 
and the rest of the English prelates,' 1 set 
forth XI. Articles of Religion; "and the 
clergy were required to make a public pro- 
fession of it ;" tind it was '* appointed to be 
taught and holden of all parsons, vicars, and 
curates, as * well in testification of their com* 
mon consent in the said doctrine, to tbe stop- 
ping of the mouths of them that go about to 
slander the ministers of the Church for di- 
versity of judgment, as necessary for the in- 
atruction of their people.' " (Hardwicke.) 

The XLII. Articles were, however, taken 
up and discussed by both houses of Convoca- 
tion 1562 a.d. They were a remodeling 
of those set forth ten years before under Ed- 
ward VI. Four were stricken out and sev- 
eral altered, but subscription to them was 
not at first required, although they were used 
sometimes as tests of orthodoxy. Now and 
then "men suspected of heterodoxy were 
called upon to subscribe as equivalent to re- 
cantation. " The XXXIX. Articles were set 
forth by authority of Queen, Convocation, 
and Parliament 1571 a.d., and subscription 
to them was required by a Canon of the Con- 
vocation, assembled at that period, and by a 
contemporary enactment of the civil legisla- 
ture." (Hardwicke.) 

After the death of Luther, 1546 a.d., Cal- 
vin, who was then about thirty-seven years 
old, began to be felt as a power among the 
Continental Reformers. Geneva, in Swit- 
zerland, was his home, but his writings 
spread abroad. He was particularly noted 
for advocating, what is freely talked about 
though never clearly defined, viz., the 
" right of private judgment." This, at least, 
indicates the full evolution of one of the 

ferminal forces of the Reformation, viz., the 
ignified position under God and before man 
of the free person. With a not unusual in- 
consistency Calvio added to this the theology 
of Predestination. These two incompatible 

Sropositions — human freedom and absolute 
ecrees — worked strangely together, and ex- 
erted, indeed, still exert, a vast influence 
upon the Reformation and its development. 
English divines, and especially Whitgift, 
were captivated by Calvinism, and endeav- 
ored to get a series of Calvinistic articles es- 
tablished by authority. They put forth the 
Lambeth Articles, nine in number, which 
were " approved by John (Whitgift), Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, Richard, Bishop of 
London, and other theologians, at Lambeth, 
November 20, 1595 a.d." The first reads : 
11 God from eternity has predestinated- some 
to life, and reprobated others to death." The 
fourth : ** They who are not predestined to 
salvation, necessarily on account of their 
own sins, are damned." The ninth: " It is 
not put in the will or power of every man 
to be saved." 

XIX. Articles of Religion, containing one 
hundred and five paragraphs, " were agreed 
upon by the Archbishops and Bishops and 
the rest of the Cleargie of Ireland in the 

Convocation holden at Dublin 1615 A.D., 
for the avoiding of diversities of opinion, 
and the establishing of consent touching 
true Religion." Tbey were not Calvinistic, 
but were strongly anti-Romish ; and closed 
with a severe denunciation and decree of 
silence and deprival of office against who- 
ever, " after due admonition, doe not con- 
forme himselfe and cease to dis turbo the 
peace of the Church." 

Calvinism was rampant in England un- 
der Elizabeth. Presbyterian ism became, 
both in Church and State, an aggressive force 
soon to be exceeded by Puritanism. The 
later was equally Calvinistic with, and more 
violent than, the former. 

The Calvin ists in France and Switzerland 
had drawn up several bodies of articles of 
religion, called Confessions. 

When James I., 1608 a.d., came to tho 
English throne he disappointed the Presby- 
terians by siding with tne Church of Eng 
land. He dabbled in theology, and was 
well disposed towards a reconciliation, if 
possible, with Calvinism. He sent " a pri- 
vate deputation of divines to the national 
Synod of Dort," 1619 a.d.., but without avail. 
This Synod drew up the final Calvinistio 
confession, and manifested the irrepressible 
antagonism of that doctrine to the Catholic 
faith, as set forth in tbe formulas of worship 
in the Church of England. The "XXXIX. 
Articles of Religion" still carried tho firm 
rejection, by the Church of England, both 
of the dogmas of Calvin and the usurpa- 
tions of Rome. Neither were the peculiar 
tenets of Arminius, who held the opposite 
pole to Calvinism, sanctioned by the Ar- 
ticles. Though drawn in the prevalent 
theological language of the times, they were 
an earnest effort to express the peculiarly 
catholic position of the Church of England. 
Necessarily, with dangers on every hand, 
they bad to be more or less negative in 
spirit and form. In denying errors they 
may not have escaped, in every case, 
the inevitable tendency towards overstate- 

The ferment in Western Europe stirred 
even the Roman Church to her depths. She 
was compelled to respond to the Reforma- 
tion. Pope Paul III. convened the Council 
of Trent, 1545 a.d. It continued through 
his reign and that of Julius III., and 
came to a close December 8-4, 1563 a.d., 
under Pius IV. It made no concessions, 
but rather the contrary. It petrified many 
of the Roman corruptions, added new 
articles to the Faith, and confirmed that 
principle of " Development" which has now 
at last culminated in setting forth, as "Ar- 
ticles of Faith," the Immaculate Conception 
of the Blessed Virgin, and the Infallibility 
of the Pope. 

James I. died 1625 a.d., and was suc- 
ceeded by his son Charles I., who was 
beheaded January 80, 1648 A D. The pre- 
ceding year the Assembly of Divines in 
Westminster set forth the well-known 

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"Westminster Confession," which it the 
authorized exponent of Presbyterian doc- 
trine. The XXXIX. Articles, however, re- 
mttined, and still continue with authority in 
the Church of England. 

The Church in America did not at first 
adopt the XXXIX. Articles. They were 
not referred to even in the Preface to the 
American Prayer- Book, last paragraph but 
one, where it is stated " that this Church is 
far from intending to depart from the 
Church of England in any essential point of 
doctrine, discipline, or worship." Tnis dec- 
laration had airect reference, as the context 
shows, only "to those alterations in the 
Liturgy which became necessary ... in 
consequence of the Revolution." That it 
did not refer specifically to the XXXIX. 
Articles will appear in the proceedings of 
Convention, 1792 a.d., 1799 a.d., as referred 
to below. 

The first action taken in the American 
Church on Articles of Religion was in Gen- 
eral Convention, 1789 a.d., as follows : The 
House of Bishops, consisting of Seabury and 
"White, "originated and sent to the House 
of* Clerical and Lay Deputies ... a pro- 
posed ratification of the Thirty-nine Articles, 
with an exception in regard to the Thirty- 
sixth and Thirty-seventh Articles." This 
was on the last day of the session. In the 
House of Deputies the " proposed ratifica- 
tion" was, " with the concurrence of the 
House of Bishops, referred to a future Con- 

At the General Convention of the Protest- 
ant Episcopal Church in the United States 
of North America, 1792 a.d., the matter was 
considered in the House of Deputies, but 
postponed "because the Churches in some 
of the States are not represented in this 
Convention and others only partially." The 
General Convention held 1795 a.d. again 
postponed the matter. At the Special Gen- 
eral Convention, held in Philadelphia 1799 
a.d., on Thursday, June 13, the Rev. Ash- 
bel Baldwin, from Connecticut, moved in 
the House of Deputies, that "the House 
resolve itself into a committee of the whole 
to take into consideration the propriety of 
framing articles of religion." This was 
agreed to, and when the committee rose, 
"the chairman of the committee, Wm. 
Walter, D.D., of Massachusetts, reported 
the following resolution, viz. : 

"Resolved, That the Articles of our faith 
and religion, as founded on the Holy 
Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, 
are sufficiently declared in our Creeds 
and Liturgy as set forth in the Book of 
Common Prayer established for the use of 
this Church, and that further articles do not 
appear necessary*. ' ' 

" This resolution was disagreed to by the 

On Saturday, June 16, "A resolution was 
proposed by Mr. Bisset,— -Rev. John Bisset, of 
New York,— that the Convention now pro- 
ceed to the framing of articles of religion for 

this Church." " The question was taken by 
yeas and nays," and "carried in the affirm- 
ative. Clergy: yea, Connecticut, Rhode 
Island, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, 
6 ; nay, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Vir- 
ginia, 3. Laity : yea, Connecticut, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, 3; nay, Virginia, 1." 
The committee was "chosen," and con- 
sisted of seven members, one from each State 
except Rhode Island. 

On Tuesday, June 18, " The chairman of 
the Committee on the Articles reported sev- 
enteen articles of Religion, which were read. 
Whereupon, on motion of Mr. Bisset, 

"Resolved, unanimously, That on account 
of the advanced period of the present session, 
and the thinness of the Convention, the con- 
sideration of the Articles now reported and 
read be postponed, and that the Secretary 
transcribe the Articles into the journal of 
this Convention, to lie over for the consider- 
ation of the next General Convention." 

The XVII. Articles are printed in full in 
an appendix. 

The House of Bishops do not appear to 
have taken action upon the subject. Its 
members present were Bishops White, Pro- 
voost, and Bass. Bishop Provoost was 
absent first and . last day. Bishop Bass was 
absent on the first day. Session continued 
from Tuesday, June 11, to Tuesday, June 
18, inclusive, except Sunday. 

The General Convention, 1801 a.d., was 
opened in St. Michael's Church, Trenton, 
N. J., September 9, a sufficient quorum not 
appearing on the 8th, the day of call. The 
House of Bishops, consisting of Bishops \ 
White, Pennsylvania, Claggett, Maryland, 
and Jarvis, Connecticut, on Wednesday, 
September 9, "agreed on a form and manner 
of setting forth the Articles of Religion, and 
agreed that the same be sent to the House 
of Clerical and Lay Deputies for their con- 

It will thus be seen that the Bishops 
ignored, of course, the XVII. Articles, 
which bad only passed in a committee of the 
lower house, and took the initiative in ac- 
tion. The Articles sent by them were the 
XXXIX. of the English Church, with such 
alterations as adapted them to the American 
Church. It will be observed that they call 
them " The Articles of Religion." 

Conference between the nouses and sev- 
eral action resulted in setting forth the so- 
called XXXIX. Articles, as now printed in 
the Prayer-Book, entitled " Articles of Re- 
ligion as established by the Bishops, the 
Clergy, and the Laity of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in the United States of 
America, in Convention, on the 12th day of 
September, in the year of our Lord 1801." 

In Article VIII. all reference to the Atha- 
nasian Creed is left out. Article XXI. is 
omitted " because it is partly of local and 
civil nature, and is provided for as to the 
remaining parts of it in other Articles." 
Article XXXV. has a note modifying its 
recommendation of the Homilies. Article 

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XXXVI. " Of Consecration of Bishops and 
Ministers," is made to commend and defend 
'* The book of Consecration of Bishops, and ' 
ordering of Priests and Deacons, as set forth 
by th<* General Convention of this Church in 
1792." " Article XXXVII. to be omitted, 
and the following substituted in its place: 
« Of the power of the Civil Magistrate.' " 

Thus the American Church has thirty- 
eight Articles of Religion "set forth" by 
the General Convention 1801 a.d., and since 
acquiesced in. 

" In the Church of England, the 86th 
Canon requires the candidate (for orders) 
after reference, first, to the royal supremacy ; 
second, to the Book of Common Prayer 
with the Ordinal ; and, third, to the XXXIX. 
Articles, to signify his assent as follows : I, 
N. N., do willingly and ex animo subscribe 
to those three Articles above mentioned, and 
to all things that are contained in them." 

In the American Church, Article VII. of 
the Constitution requires, "Nor shall any 
person be ordained until he shall have sub- 
scribed the following declaration : " I do be- 
lieve the Holy Scriptures of the Old and 
New Testaments to be the Word of God, 
and to contain all things necessary to salva- 
tion ; and I do solemnly engage to conform 
to the doctrines and worship of the Protest- 
ant Episcopal Church in the United States." 

The authority of the" XXXIX. Articles" 
extends specifically to the clergy, and is set 
forth in the above forms of subscription. 
The laity, as such, even in England, are not 
bound to their terms, though some laymen 
— e.g., members of the universities — have to 
subscribe them. In America the laity are 
only bound by the Creeds. They profess be- 
lief in the Apostles' Creed at baptism, and 
usually recite the Nicene Creed in the Lit- 
urgy proper, or, as it is designated in the 
Prayer- Book, " The Order for the Adminis- 
tration of the Lord's Supper, or Holy Com- 
munion." Their profession of faith, in the 
Holy Catholic Church, subjects the Ameri- 
can laity to such Canons of Discipline as are 
or may be established by the American 

Authorities : Bishop Burnet on XXXIX. 
Articles, Hardwicke's History of the Arti- 
cles, Bishop H. Browne on the XXXIX. 
Articles, Bishop Tomlines' Elements of The- 
ology, etc. Ret. B. Franklin, D.D. 

Ascension. The article of the Creed de- 
clares that our Lord ascended into heaven. 
A creed properly states only facts to be 
believed. A Christian creed states the 
facts of the Christian religion. Therefore 
a fact linking the Resurrection with His 
continuous mediatorial acts and His gift 
of the Holy Ghost could not be omitted. 
But this fact, so briefly stated in the Creed, 
must also be vouched for in the inspired 
record: Therefore we have recorded by 
St John that Christ foretold his Ascen- 
sion (ch. xvi. 5; xx. 17), that He did ascend 
openly before His Apostles, by St. Mark 
(ch. xvi. 19), by St. Luke (en. xxiv. 61 ; 

Acts i. 9-11). He waa seen at His place in 
heaven by bt. Stephen. His ascension was 
taught and inferences drawn from it by St. 
Paul (Eph. iv. 8-16; Col. ii. 16; 1 Tim. iii. 
16), by St. Peter, who was also an eye-wit- 
ness (1 Pet. iii. 22). Therefore it was in His 
very and true Body and Soul, now immor- 
tally conjoined to His Divinity, by which 
He hath entered into the Holiest. The As- 
cension was necessary for us, since He could 
not otherwise send to His Apostles, and 
therefore to His Church, and consequently 
to us, the sift of the Holy Ghost, nor those 
gifts which he received for men that the 
Lord God might dwell among us. It waa 
necessary that He might take up His media- 
torial work. It was necesoary that our af- 
fections might ascend to Him (Col. iii. 1-4). 
These main facts are thus grandly summed 
up by Bishop Pearson : "Upon these consid- 
erations we may easily conclude what every 
Christian is obliged to confess in these words 
of our Creed, He ascended into heaven; for 
thereby he is understood to express thus 
much. I am fully persuaded that the only 
begotten and eternal Son of God, after He 
rose from the dead, did, with the same soul 
and body with which He rose, by a true and 
local translation, convey Himself from the 
earth on which He lived, through all the 
regions of the air, through all the celestial 
orbs, until He came unto the heaven of 
heavens, the most glorious Presence of the 
majesty of God ; and thus I believe in Jesus 
Christ who ascended into heaven.' 1 
(Pearson on the Creed.) 

Ascetics. (Vide Hermits.) The name 
ascetic is derived from the Greek word " as- 
ketikos," which means "exercised." As- 
ceticism has been said to be a temperament, 
rather than a law of Christian life. The 
idea of the ancient ascetics was that soli- 
tude, extreme fasting, and self-denial, and 
hardening of the body and keeping it under, 
and bringing it into subjection (1 Cor. ix. 
27), brought the spirit into better condition 
for constant contemplation of Divine things. 

This style of life is first met with in the 
heathen world, and doubtless many good 
men among them have thus sought God ac- 
cording to their light. The East Indians, 
the Mohammedans, and the ancient Egyp- 
tian priests all practiced asceticism. The 
Therapeutaj (Worshipers) of Egypt, who en- 
deavored to mingle the teachings of Moses 
and Plato, belonged to this school. 

Among the Jews the Essen es were noted 
ascetics, and in the days of St. John the 
Baptist they were leading in their mountain 
valleys a life similar to his. Those who 
strive to trace the history of such communi- 
ties see a forerunner of them in the prophet 
Elijah. Daniel the prophet, in his mourn- 
ing, ate no pleasant bread (Dan. x. 8). In 
the Apocrypha, when Esdras prepares him- 
self for his visions, he goes, according to 
commandment, into the field Ardath, "and 
did eat of the herbs of the field, and/ 1 he 
adds, " the meat of the same satisfied me' 1 

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(2 Esdras ix. 26). Anna, the prophetess, 
" served God with fastings and prayers night 
and day" (St. Luke ii. 86, 37). 

The ascetic is older than the monk, and 
the term is a more general one. In the be- 
ginning he lived alone, or he could live in 
the busy city, distinguished by his zeal ; the 
communities were an after-thought. 

Egypt, "the mother of wonders,"' was 
the natural home of asceticism. The East- 
ern mind is naturally given to reflection. A 
warm climate allows men to live much in 
t l ic open air, and the magnificent clear star- 
light nights of the East " declare the glory 
of God" to the silent watcher. About the 
close of the fourth century the mountains 
and deserts of Egypt were full of Christian 
brethren, whose self-denying lives astonished 
the world. The dwellers in the Roman em- 
pire, which was then rotting in vice, were 
allured to these seats of piety, and St. Je- 
rome and others visited them. Noble Roman 
women gave up their, property, and, tired 
of the effeminate, faithless life of the capi- 
tal, sought the Egyptian desert. The ques- 
tion which met all was whether pleasure or 
virtue was the aim of life. From the Thebaid 
asceticism has spread over the world, and for 
centuries it was a mighty power among men. 

The Essene by his mountain spring with 
his incessant washings was a type of all who 
have followed him. The Carthusians, with 
their rule to eat no flesh and keep perpetual 
silence and never go abroad, and the monks 
of La Trappe, who were to observe silence 
and dig their own graves, are lineal descend- 
ants of the ascetic Jew and the Egyptian 
Christian. The dark forests of Mount Athos 
contain the monasteries which gave Bishops 
to the Eastern Church, and thus its doctrine 
and worship were determined by men who 
knew not the education of public life. 

Hallam, in the " Middle Ages," draws at- 
tention to the fact that the fasting and 
watching and hard lot of monks and her- 
mits must lead men to conclude that they 
are living in hope of a better world in the 
future. The reality of heaven was a con- 
stant impulse in their life. " Jerusalem the 
Golden" is the composition of a monk. The 
worth lessness and uncertainty of earthly 
things led their minds above. The fasting, 
continued often for days, subdued the body 
to the spirit. If heaven was a reality, hell 
was also one. No wonder that the worn-out 
watcher heard the cries of devils in the 
night-birds' notes or in the yells of wild 
beasts among ruins. The sinfulness of sin 
on the one hand and the nearness of God on 
the other were constantly before the mind 
of the ascetic as he watched under the sky 
or tilled his little field. 

A weariness of life, and a preparation for 
death, were the great stimulants to those 
who led so solitary and denying a life. Con- 
templation and prayer were the business of 
life. The Holy Scriptures were the guide, 
and those early ascetics who could not read 
committed them to memory. 

In a busy age, when men must be in the 
world, and yet not of the world, it is well 
sometimes to look upon the lives of men who 
gave up all for Christ, and who, with all 
their imperfections, were the salt of the earth 
in a godless age. 

Authorities : Bingham 's Antiquities, Hase, 
Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, Farrar's 
Life of Christ, Geikie's Life of Christ, and 
Kingsley's Hermits. Kingsley refers to 
Gibbon, Montalembert's "Moines d'Occi- 
dent," Dean Mil man's " History of Chris- 
tianity" and " Latin Christianity," and 
Ozanam's "Etudes German iques," and 
especially to Rosmeyde's "Lives of th* 
Hermit Fathers." 

Rkt. S. F. Hotchkik. 

Assurance of Faith. The word assu- 
rance, in the first verse of St. Luke's Gospel 
and in St. Paul's Epistles, is a metaphor 
taken from the onward sweep of a ship be- 
fore a favoring breeze. St. Luke means to 
say that outward historical facts have given 
us a full persuasion of the truth of what 
spiritual facts we teach in the Gospel. St. 
Paul means the same thing when writing to 
his converts (1 Thess. i. 5; Heb. vi. 11; x. 
22 ; and Rom. iv. 21 j xiv. 5). It is the con- 
viction that comes from those proofs (as the 
gifts of sacramental life by the Holy Ghost, 
cf. the texts cited), which He chooses to put 
before us as sufficient, and our action upon 
that conviction. It cannot refer to the in- 
ward conviction from emotion or excitement. 
The word assurance is used in connection 
either with historic proofs or with the power 
of the Holy Ghost, shown by miracles or 
in connection with the sacraments, or with 
Abraham's faith (Rom. iv. 21), who had 
already outward aemonstration of God's 
power. Therefore Hooker was right when 
ne taught that the proofs of faith were not 
so strong as the assurance of the senses, from 
the certainty of evidence depending upon the 
proofs adduced ; but there arises from this a 
certainty of adherence, which, itself, causes 
the heart to " cleave and stick to that which 
it doth believe. The reason is this: the 
faith of a Christian doth apprehend the 
words of the law, the promises of God not 
only as true but as good ; and therefore even 
then when the evidence which he hath of 
the truth is so small that it gricveth him to 
feel bis weakness in assenting thereto, yet is 
there in him such a sure adherence unto that 
which he doth but faintly and fearfully be- 
lieve, that his spirit having once truly tasted 
the heavenly sweetness thereof, all the world 
is not able quite and clean to remove him 
from it, but he striveth with himself to hope 
against all reason of believing, being settled 
with holy Job upon this immovable resolu- 
tion, * Though God kill me I will not give 
over trusting in Him.' For why? this les- 
son remaineth forever imprinted in him, 
* It is good for me to cleave unto God.' " 
(Hooker, Scrm. i., p. 585, Keble's ed.) This, 
however, is very different from tne pre- 
sumptuous assurance of pardon sometimes 

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taught by sectaries, but which has no war- 
rant of Holy Scripture. Even St. Paul felt 
the need of constant active work for his 
Christian life (c/. 1 Cor. ix. 27, with 2 Tim. 
iv. 8). 
Athanasian Creed. Vide Cbiids and 


Atheism, from a and 9hc* is the denial of 
the existence, of a personal God. It thus 
includes pantheism, which teaches that 
everything is God. Atheism must be care- 
fully distinguished from skepticism, which 
simply doubts, and from infidelity, which 
is the rejection of an organized faith or form 
* of religion. Nor does it include the god- 
lessness of savage tribes, if there be such, 
whose intellectual development is too low to 
form a conception of God. Avowed and 
consistent atheism is exceedingly rare, and 
is always individual, no sect or system hav- 
ing ever been willing to establish itself upon 
this basis. Even the positivism of Comte 
stops short of avowed atheism, content with 
holding the futility of all speculation be- 
yond the data of positive experience. The 
charge of atheism has always been most 
abhorrent to those, even, who might be 
practical atheists. Among the Greeks and 
Komans it was punished with death, those 
convicted of it being regarded by the law 
as hostc8 humani generis, — enemies to the 
human race. A little thought will reveal 
the grounds of this universal repugnance. 
First, it is the deliberate rejection of the 
suggestions of consciousness, no argument 
being ever required to establish a belief in 
God, while atheism is always the result of 
some process of thought. Then the mind 
naturally recoils from what is contrary to 
reason, and atheism is so because it necessi- 
tates the recognition of effect without cause, 
of design without a designer, of law with- 
out a lawgiver, and of life without a source. 
A slight elaboration of the last two points 
may be sufficient for illustration. One of 
the first results of observation and experi- 
ence is the necessary recognition of laws by 
which natural processes are governed, and 
which man can neither understand nor con- 
trol. The recurrence of the seasons, the 
germination of seed, the reproduction of 
plants and animals each after its kind, with 
many more instances which will readily 
occur, are seen to be regular, systematic, 
and permanent, Man finds thom neces- 
sary to his life, while he can neither alter 
nor restrain them, but he may rely upon 
them, and does rely upon them, with the 
absolute certainty of not being disap- 
pointed. Reason tells him that there 
must be a Mind greater than his to conceive 
laws which he cannot comprehend, and a 
Power greater than his to enforce them. 
This Mind and this Power he always finds 
greater than the grasp of his mind and 
power, and this supreme intelligent force is 
God. Again, man recognizes the fact and 
the phenomena of life, but finds no ori- 
gin for them within his experience. But 

reason demands an origin, which must 
necessarily be beyond his experience. He 
finds, too, in close connection with life the 
phenomenon of death, and soon discovers 
that it is abnormal. There ought to be no 
death ; by the very nature of life the ma- 
chines which It quickens should be perma- 
nent. But they are not so, and that sys- 
tematically. Reason demands for this a 
controlling Will which restrains, as it orig- 
inates, the phenomena of life. That origi- 
nating and controlling will is God. Thus 
the rejecting of the existence of God is con- 
trary to reason, and, therefore, abhorrent to 
human intellect. We sometimes meet the 

Shrase " scientific -atheism," but there can 
8 no such thing as scientific atheism, be- 
cause nothing could be more unscientific 
than to deny the existence of that which is 
undemonstrable. But the existence of a 
personal God is undemonstrable by science 
because science deals necessarily with finite 
data and causes ; but finite causes must lead 
to finite results, and God is of necessity 
infinite. Hence science can neither prove 
nor disprove the existence of God, because 
it must work with data which cannot lead 
beyond human experience, while God it 
beyond human experience. But to assume 
that which we cannot know is contrary to 
science, and therefore there can be no sci- 
entific atheism. Finally, atheism is repug- 
nant to reason because it is illogical, logic 
being the perfection of the processes of reason. 
For logic is essentially the necessary sequence 
of cause and effect, and therefore to deny to 
any effect an antecedent cause is illogical. 
But the human mind must necessarily con- 
fine its processes to sequences, beginning 
within its own experience, and the ultimate 
attainment of human experience is always 
manifestly an effect. But atheism denies 
any antecedent cause beyond the possible 
attainment of human experience, and there 
fore atheism is illogical, and consequently 
repugnant to reason. Thus we may read- 
ily account for the abhorrence always man- 
ifested by individuals to the charge of 
atheism. But it is equally repugnant to 
morality, and consequently to the welfare 
of society, because it destroys the strongest 
and highest incentive to the control and 
restraint of those natural appetites and pas- 
sions which in their unbridled indulgence 
are hostile to the interests of society. The 
first element of social order and welfare is 
the restriction of individual liberty for the 
common good, and the restraint within per- 
mitted limits of those dispositions and de- 
sires which are common to all animal na- 
ture. But the fear of human punishment 
and the desire of the good of others have 
never been found sufficient to accomplish 
these ends, unless aided and supported by 
a sense of responsibility and accountability 
unto*a higher Power, whose vigilance can- 
not be escaped and whose authority can- 
not be defied, or whose love and kindness 
excites to reverence and obedience. But 

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atheism destroys alike this fear and this 
reverence, and by removing all sense of 
danger beyond this life, or of compen- 
sating reward hereafter, directly fosters the 
commission of acts contrary to the com- 
mon welfare. Hence society has ever re- 
garded atheism as hostile to its best interests 
and subversive of its fundamental princi- 
ples, and has punished it as a crime or made 
it a bar to social privileges and respect. 
The refusal to accept the oath of an atheist 
in a court of justice is a brand of disgrace, 
and the assertion of a distrust by his fellow- 
citizens, from which every man must shrink 
with horror. It is a powerful proof of the 
healthy tone of public sentiment upon this 
vital matter, that there is probably not a 
single society in the country organized for 
mutual benefits of any kind into which an 
avowed atheist could obtain admission. 

Among those who have been classed as 
atheists are the Peripatetic and Epicurean 
philosophers of ancient times, and Hobbes, 
Hume, Kant, Spinoza, Blount, Vanini, and 
others in the modern period. We must 
remember, however, how inaccurate was 
the language and how intolerant the views 
of theological writers only a few years ago. 
Few, if any, of those named can be properly 
called atheists under the exact terminology 
and discriminating classifications of more 
recent philosophy, though most of them, 
wandering in the misty regions of meta- 
physical speculation, have trodden danger- 
ously near to the fatal verge, and there are 
few minds strong enough to follow their 
teachings with safety. 

Rev. Robert Wilson, D.D. 

Atonement. This word, as applied to the 
great work of Christ, has been used in two 
senses, differing according to the view taken 
of the Person of Christ and of His relation 
to the process of man's salvation. Those 
who deny the divinity of our Lord Jksus 
Christ commonly regard the Atonement as 
a mere restoration of friendly feeling be- 
tween two alienated parties. It is, to use 
their own favorite etymology, an " at-one- 
ment," — a reconciliation of the Creator and 
creature to each other. From this point of 
view, inasmuch as the Creator cannot be 
supposed to have contributed to the aliena- 
tion, — and is not supposed to have raised any 
barrier to the restoration of the original 
amicable relations between Himself and His 
creature, — inasmuch, therefore, as both the 
original departure and the continued separa- 
tion are exclusively on the part of the crea- 
ture, the Atonement is regarded as a process 
not for reconciling, the Creator to the crea- 
ture, or the law to the offender, but only for 
reconciling the creature to the Creator. 
According to this view the work of Christ 
is reduced to the exercise of a mere persua- 
sory influence upon the creature. First, 
persuading him to desire reconciliation, and 
then persuading him to take the steps of 
moral and spiritual reform necessary for the 
restoration of harmony. But in all this 

there is nothing of the nature of expiation 
or of satisfaction rendered for tfee offense. 

But the Holy Catholic Church, while in- 
cluding this persuasory process, in her idea 
of the Atonement, and understanding the 
language of St. Paul (2 Cor. v. 20) as ex- 
pressing it, has, from the first, included 
much more. She holds that the fitness of 
things, their accurate adjustment, the eter- 
nal principles of justice and truth, and the 
permanent well-being of the universe de- 
mand that where law has been broken some 
adequate satisfaction for the offense shall be 
rendered, especially where a penalty has 
been attached beforehand to the infraction • 
and made known to those under its au- 

1st. It is contrary to justice, to the essential 
fines* of things, and to the dignity of all 
law that the infraction of any law should 
have no evil consequences for the infringer ; 
that the results of disobedience should be to 
him the same as those of obedience. Law 
is something more than a mere indication or 
suggestion of action. It is an obligatory 
rule of action, imposing respect for itself 
upon all ; not only binding the person gov- 
erned but existing as an authority in the 
universe, the maintenance of which becomes 
of universal obligation and interest. To be 
law in this sense it must be an enforced rule 
of action. 

2d. The controlling power of law, — its 
value as an effecti ve regulator of action is sac- 
rificed when disobedience goes unpunished. 
Wherefore, when law is violated, its regu- 
lating efficiency, which is impaired by the 
violation, must be restored by some expia- 
tory penalty. It is for the benefit of all for 
whom law is made, the law-breaker himself 
included, that the law shall not be rendered 
ineffective and contemptible by permitting 
its infraction with impunity. 

This becomes more evident when the na- 
ture of Sin is considered : 1st. "Sin is trans- 
gression of Law." 2d. Sin is always the re- 
sponsible act of a free agent. No being it 
responsible for what he cannot help. There- 
fore sinfulness is our common inherited na- 
ture. But Sin itself involves freedom of ac- 
tion,— -action performed not by compulsion — 
however induced through the persuasive in- 
fluence of motives, — but not the less free be- 
cause the result of such persuasion. Hence the 
rationale and the importance of offsetting all 
temptation to law-breaking by' correspond- 
ing penalty. This is an absolutely rational 
arrangement, and one of universal applica- 
tion,— in all worlds and forms of responsible 
existence,— one adapted to the nature of free 
agents, who, because they are free, must 
therefore be able to break the law, and who 
are therefore to be hindered from doing so 
not by compulsion, but by the persuasory 
power of motives. These motives may be of 
different sorts. They may be found in the 
love of the right, or in the love of the law- 
maker. But these motives may be legiti- 
mately and effectively supported by another, 

Digitized by 





rfz., the apprehension of the evil consequences 
of breaking the law. The attachment of a 
penalty to law-breaking is therefore more 
than a measure of justice. It is a positive 
measure of mercy, since it supplies an addi- 
tional protection of the universe against the 
disturbing influences of temptation and sin 
by protecting the free agent against himself. 
Tt is, therefore, also as much a measure of 
mercy for the law-breaker as for the law- 

But in order that a penalty may have any 
useful effect its enforcement must be assured. 
This is — equally as the other, and for the 
same reasons — a measure of true mercy as 
well as of justice,— and for alt — for the law- 
breaker as well as for the law-keeper. And 
all that might be said of the protective 
power of an enforced penalty in the case of 
a. first offense would apply to all subsequent 
offenses. The rationale is the same. 

But where a particular penalty has been 
beforehand attached to the breach of a law 
the veracity of the law-maker is also involved 
in its enforcement It is of course conceiv- 
able that the terms of the penalty may be 
that* the law-breaker shall only be liable to 
certain consequences. But whatever the 
actual terms of the penalty, the veracity of 
the law-maker requires that those terms be 
enforced. A positive threat is only a promise 
in another form. And it is a promise not 
only to the possible law-breaker, made with 
the merciful intent to deter him from the 
crime, but it is a promise to the rest of the 
universe also, whose peace is more or less 
endangered by any infraction of law. The 
actual enforcement of the penalty becomes, 
therefore, an obligation of justice, of mercy, 
and of veracity. 

When man was placed in probation he 
was told that if he sinned he should die. 
It was a promise on the part of the Divine 
Law-maker, and, as made by Divine wisdom, 
one which must be held to have been in just 
proportion to the offense. Having been* 
made, its fulfillment was required by the 
principles of absolute justice, — by the inter- 
est* of the universe, those of the* law-break- 
ing race included, and by the veracity of the 

It was necessary, therefore, from all these 
points of view, that man's offense should be 
punished by the actual infliction, in some 
way, of the promised penalty. And it must 
be observed that the penalty promised was a 
positive and punitive one. There was some- 
thing more than a mere separation from 
God as a simple effect or resulting fact, — a 
fact which could be neutralized or extin- 
guished by another simple fact, viz., by a 
mere bringing together again of the sepa- 
rated ^parties, — an at-one-ment. The penalty 
was iiot only consequential, but was also 
positively punitive, and was therefore some- 
thing more than the offender could himself 
renftiTve by simply returning. The offender 
coura not reinstate himself. He must needs 
be reinstated. But inasmuch as it was due 

to absolute justice, as well as to the in* 
terests of the universe, that no reinstatement 
should take effect which should leave the 
sin unpunished or the broken influence 
of the law unrepaired or uncompensated, 
some adequate compensation, or satisfaction, 
or expiation was necessary, that the law- 
breaking might be properly offset or bal- 
anced, and the shattered influence of the 
law itself, repaired. Could the human law- 
breaker make this expiation for himself 
either by subsequent obedience or by suffer- 
ing ? He could not do this by subsequent 
obedience, inasmuch as there was still due 
from him to his Creator a perpetually per- 
fect service. All that he could do, therefore, 
at the best, would be not to break the law 
again. There could be no room or possibil- 
ity for a superabundant or superfluous ser- 
vice or obedience. But not to offend again 
would offer no satisfaction for the breach 
already committed; nothing but suffering in 
such case could answer the purpose of expi- 
ation ; and had the offender risen from his 
first fault to a continuously perfect obedi- 
ence thereafter, it is conceivable that by his 
sufferings justice could have been satisfied 
and the law vindicated, and its influence 
sustained. But, unfortunately for him, his 
sin not only subjected him to punishment, 
but brought in a depravation of his nature. 
So that from the nrst he has gone on in* 
creasing in place of diminishing the fatal 
record against himself. Manifestly, there- 
fore, he, being a continuous offender, could 
make no expiation for himself, either by 
obedience or- by suffering. 

At the same time it was not consistent 
with justice that the penalty should be 
borne by one absolutely unconnected with 
the offense. • Besides which , the penalty hav- 
ing been denounced specifically upon the 
offender himself, the veracity of the Law 
maker was pledged for its infliction upon 
him. How, then, could expiation be made,, 
or the reinstatement of the offender accom- 
plished, if neither one himself an offender, 
nor one unconnected with the offense, could 
make it? 

Just here an important fact must be 
noticed. Adam represented the race of man, 
and his act was a representative act. His 
offense was a race-offense, and so the penalty 
was a race-penalty. That this is so is evi- 
dent from two facts, not to speak of others : 

1st. The whole race, as a race, have inher- 
ited the taint of Adam's sin. The case is 
not one of a multitude of individual sinners, 
but one of a race or stock of sinners, in 
whom the sinfulness in the stock is congeni- 
tal. There is absolutely never an exception. 
2d. The penalty of mortality is equally uni- 
versal and congenital. There is no exception 
in respect to it. It is, therefore, a race-pun* 

But here again another fact must be borne 
in mind, viz., that the human family is, 
after all, in a very real sense, only one con- 
tinuous person. As the branches of a tree 



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are a part of the one tree, and as, no matter 
how long the life of the tree, its continuity is 
preserved, so that it is, after all, but one and 
the sauie tree, and its latest branches are 
only a continuation of the wood which was 
in it as a sapling a hundred years before, 
so with the human stock. It has not been 
a scries of successive creations ; it has 
been but one continuous, uninterrupted in- 
dividual, at least so far as body and brain 
are concerned, and so far as we may hold 
that mental and moral qualities are inher- 
ited, we may include the mind with the 
body in this statement (the will is perhaps 
the only separable part of the man). The 
child begins by being a living part of its 
parents before it sets out on its own inde- • 
pendent career of will. There has never 
been a break or an interval in this human 
continuity, and so, in point of fact, there 
has been literally but one ever-developing, 
continuous human being. Its many branches, 
however separated after a time from the 
parent stem, are in their start as identical 
with the original stock as are the branches 
of a tree with its trunk. 

This great, continuous, self-involving hu- 
man being, now as many years old as have 
elapsed since the creation, sinned as a 
whole, was sentenced as a whole, and as a 
whole now lies under the penalty of the law. 
In this fact we find the beginning of the 
solution of our difficulty. To complete it 
another fact is necessary. 

The Most High God, the Son, by causing 
Himself to be born of the Virgin Mary, 
entered into the human race and became a 
part of the same. Having thus become 

Eart of the human stock, He could, in His 
uman nature, rightfully represent that 
stock in any transaction with Divine Jus- 
tice. Punishment inflicted upon Him in 
His human nature would be punishment 
inflicted upon the human race. And as the 
bain inflicted upon any part of a human 
oody is inflicted upon that body as a whole, 
so the penalty inflicted upon an individual 
of a race is inflicted upon the race. Thus, 
one person might become proxy for his race 
to the avenging law. 

Yet a continuously sinful member of the 
race could not thus stand as proxy, seeing 
that he would have his own offenses to 
answer for. But one who had incurred no 
individual penalty might thus, by suffering, 
atone — according to his measure — for tho of- 
fense of his race, so that in him his race 
might be punished. 

Kut could any one person adequately atone 
for a whole race ? Could the majesty of 
the law be thus sufficiently vindicated, the 
necessities of justice be maintained, the ve- 
racity of the law-maker be preserved, and 
the interests of the universe be sufficiently 

When in human warfare* a body of men 
having become liable to punishment certain 
of their number are selected as representa- 
tives of the rest, the punishment of a leader 

is accounted the equivalent of that of many 
private individuals. Natural reason accepts 
this as a principle. But God, the Son, by 
taking humanity did not put off His own 
Divinity. And so in standing proxy to 
justice for the human race, His value as an 
example or substitute for others was in- 
finitely multiplied. By how much a Divine 
victim was of more value than a human 
one by so much the more did His suffer- 
ing exceed in value that of any merely 
human victim in supplying a suitable satis- 
faction to the broken law and in restoring 
the power of the law as a preventive of 
future disobedience. Being a part of the 
human stock, the sentence of the law against 
that stock was literally executed in Him, 
and the veracity of the Law-giver was 
maintained. Being Divine, as well as 
human, i.e., a Divine man. He could ade- 
quately represent any number of individuals 
in that race. Thus was solved the riddle. 
Eternal justice, the true honor and dignity 
of law, its availability as a barrier against 
sin, and the truth of God were made con- 
sistent with man's salvation. 

Atonement, then, in the sense in which it 
is applied by the Holy Catholic Church to 
the work of Christ, is the expiation offered 
in the Person of the Divine man whereby 
He put Himself in the place of the rest of 
the condemned human race and suffered in 
its stead. As man, He paid the penalty ad- 
judged against man ; as God, He gave 
value to the substitution of Himself for the 
whole race. 

Thus the Atonement, while including the 
idea of reconciliation or " aUone-mcnt," and 
indeed involving all the subsequent pro- 
cesses of reconciliation whereby the offender 
is brought to a better mind and into har- 
mony again with the Divine will, yet con- 
tains also the principle of a satisfaction, ren- 
dered for the breach of the law ; and so a 
ransom paid for the deliverance of the 
often der. 

In this sense the ancient sacrifices were 
measures of atonement. They were satis- 
factions or ransoms rendered, and being ante- 
types of the Atonement of Christ, imper- 
fect themselves, they were said to effect an 
atonement through Him for those who of- 
fered them. Thus (to select one out of 
many passages) in Lev. iv. 85, it is said 
with respect to any one of the people who 
should sin and bring a sacrifice, " The rfriest 
shall make an atonement for his sin tnlst he 
hath committed, and it shall be forgiven 
him." And so of the sacrifice of our JLord 
Jesus Christ, it is said (Rom. v. ll)£"By 
Him we have received the atonenftent" 
That His Atonement was not a mere rMrocesi j 
of reconciliation, but an expiation by Rufffer- 
ing, is evident from Eph. i. 7, et al.*\ l n 
whom we have redemption through 
blood, the forgiveness of sins." 

Correspondent to this view of the A^ ^ 
ment was the language of the Fathers. 1 \% 
Clement of Borne (a contemporary of I ;# 


By i 

it" J 









Apostles), 1 Epist. vii. : " Let us look stead- 
fastly to the blood of Christ. . . . shed for 
our salvation." Epist. St. Barnabas (a very 
early document], ch. v. : " The remission of 
sins which is effected by His blood of sprink- 
ling." Ignatius ad Smyrn., vi. : "If they 
believe not in the blood of Christ (they) 
shall incur condemnation." Epist. ad Di- 
ognetum, ix. : " He (God) took on Him the 
burden of our iniquities ; He gave His Son 
to be a ransom for us." Justin Martyr, 
Dial. Tryph., lxiii., speaks of Christ as 
" delivered over to death by God for the 
transgressions of the people." 

The above are only a few specimens of the 
vast mass of patristic testimony to the doc- 
trine held by the Holy Catholic Church 
upon this subject and confirmatory of the 
view we have presented. 

Attributes of God. Those characteris- 
tics by which we can recognize Him and 
His dealing with us. "His property is 
always to have Mercy j" Justice is another ; 
Love is more properly Himself. Holiness, 
Compassion, Omnipotence, Omnipresence, 
are attributes. In short, in the Divine 
nature, since we cannot comprehend it in 
itself, we can only recognize attributes. 
These may be grouped into those relating to 
His nature absolutely, and those displayed 
towards us. Of the first we may recite His 
Omnipotence, His Omniscience, His' Omni- 
presence, His Wisdom, His Truth. Of the 
second, we may recite His Justice, His 
Mercy, His Love, His Compassion. These 
are evidently part of the Divine Essence. 
They coexist in Him and are inseparable 
from Him, but they are all cognizable by 
us, and in our own unaided speculations 
concerning the Divine nature are forced 
upon our recognition because there is some 
faint counterpart in our own human nature. 
They are so many cords to draw us to the 
Divine nature. Yot while they coexist and 
are inseparable from His Essence, it is some- 
thing more, as our soul is an essence known 
to us by our capacities, yet it is something 
more. Therefore these several attributes 
that inhere in the very nature of God and 
belong to any conception we can form of 
Him yet do not describe His full nature. 

Attrition. An attempt by the schoolmen 
to give an analysis of repentance led to a too 
curious and untenable series of subdivisions. 
Attrition is defined to be the first step to- 
wards repentance. It is akin to the worldly 
sorrow which worketh death ; not a sorrow 
that arises from a hatred of sin, but a sorrow 
from the consequences of the act. It is a 
step towards true repentance which yet may 
never be attained. As a preliminary part 
to the series of acts in the heart of the sinner 
leading to a true hearty repentance, the dis- 
tinction is useful, enough for the theologian, 
.but it is a very dangerous suggestion to the 
»Jm perfectly taught layman, more especially 
gtince the Council of Trent (Sess. xiv. c. 4, 
ie pcenit.) taught that contrition, confession, 


and satisfaction were sufficient, making con- 
trition consist in the terrors of a stricken 
conscience, and a faith that the sins of the 

Senitent are forgiven by Christ. It is evi- 
ent that this is out a partial statement made 
more fully and accurately elsewhere, but 
certainly (as this is a canon complete in 
itself) very mistakenly here, since the other 
teaching would be lowered to this, not this 
lifted up to meet the truer definition. 

Autocephali. Those Metropolitans who 
were not under a Patriarch were called 
Autocephali. Such were the Archbishop of 
Cyprus by the express recognition of the 
General Council of Ephesus, 481 a.d., and 
the Archbishops of Bulgaria and Georgia. 
The British Archbishop of Caerleon-upon- 
Usk was also autocephalous. 

Ave Maria. The salutation of the Angel 
Gabriel to the Virgin Mary at the Annun- 
ciation (St. Luke i. 28). The words of the 
angel were simply "Hail I thou that art 
highly favored, the Lord is with thee. 
Blessed art thou among women." The 
modern Roman invocation following the 
Vulgate reads, " Hail Mary 1 full of grace," 
then adds from the salutation of St. Eliza- 
beth, " blessed art thou among women, and 
blessed is the fruit of thy womb." The first 
part came into use about 1196 a.d., as is 
seen from the injunctions of Odo, Bishop of 
Paris, at that date. Its universal use was 
ordered by Urban IV. (1261 a.d.), together 
with the addition of Elizabeth's salutation. 
Later yet a precatory, " Holy Mary, mother 
of God, pray for us now and at the hour of 
our death," was added and ordered to be 
used, in the Breviary of Pius V. (1566 a.d.). 
The first clause was in use in England, but 
not the second, till nearly the date of the 
Keformation, and the precatory addition 
never. And in the " Institution of a Chris- 
tian Man," 1680 a.d., the preachers were 
enjoined to teach that it was no prayer, 
but that it was a laud and thanksgiving 
for our Lord's birth, with a remembrance 
that the Virgin humbly submitted and be- 

Azyme. (Unleavened bread.) The con- 
troversy between the Greek and Boman 
Churches upon the use by the latter of un- 
leavened bread in the Eucharist. The earli- 
est use was that of unleavened bread, and 
was so for several centuries (vide Obla- 
tions), but the Boman Church gradually 
fell from the use of leavened bread after 
the close of the ninth century. The Greek 
Church has always used leavened bread. 
When, then, the various causes of division 
came to a focus about 1054 a.d., this use of 
unleavened bread became a bitter part of the 
furious disputes which raged over the differ- 
ences and wrongs of the two Churches, and 
it continued to be a serious subject of con- 
troversy for a long time. (Vide Neale's In- 
troduction to the History of the Eastern 
Church, vol. ii.; Scudamore's Notitia Eucha* 
ristica, pp. 749-66.) 

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Baal. (Lord.) The namo of a deity wor- 
shiped among the Semitic peoples of Syria 
and Mesopotamia. It is identified with the 
Babylonian Bel. The Baal-worship into 
which the Israelites fell when " they joined 
themselves to Baal-peor" when tempted by 
the Moabites, clung to them till late in 
their history. The minor prophets are full 
of references to it, and, in fact, they were 
only cured of it when finally all idolatrous 
tendencies were crushed out by the Babylon- 
ian captivity. 

Balaam. The famous prophet who blessed 
Israel (Num. xxiii. and xxiv.). The whole 
history of his contact with Israel is recorded 
in these two chapters, with a necessary slight 
reference to him in a later chapter. He ap- 
pears from the first as a prophet of God, and 
so acts and is so entitled in the Bible. It is 
not the place here to enter into the ques- 
tion how much knowledge of God the 
heathen really had, and how far He 
chose to have Himself witnessed to among 
them. For any knowledge given to them 
would be perverted into polytheistic teach- 
ing. The history of Balaam is short, but 
very instructive. Balak, the king of Moab, 
sends for him to come to curse the passing 
hosts of Israel, " for I wot that he whom 
thou blessest is blessed, and he whom thou 
cursest is cursed.' 1 It is not necessary to 
suppose that the rewards of divination in 
the hands of the elders of Moab were any 
other than the usual and courteous gifts 
from a prince to a prophet (ef. 1 Sam. ix. 
7-9). Balaam, desirous to go, still in- 

?uired of God whether he could go. The 
jOrd forbade him, " for thou shalt not curse 
the people, for they are blessed. " The 
princes returned to Balak with the mes- 
sage, but Balak, unwilling to let the 
prophet put him off, as he thought, sent 
other. and more honorable ambassadors. 
Balaam still professed utter inability to act 
without permission from the Lord. The 
permission was conditional, — " if the men 
come to call thee." Of this call nothing is 
said, only, " Balaam rose up early in the 
morning and saddled his ass and went with 
the princes of Moab." Hit willful conduct 
brought upon him the terrible rebuke, — 
the dumb ass, speaking with man's voice, 
forbade the madness of the prophet. Doubt- 
less the bribe of political honors held out to 
Balaam was really irresistible, and was, as 
we know, yielded to, but he was at least 
nominally obedient to the inspiration of 
God. Despite Balak 's entreaty he blessed 
the people, adding his prophecy of the Mes- 
siah, " There shall come a star out of Jacob 
and a sceptre shall rise out of Israel." It 
is not necessary to suppose that he could un- 

derstand how far his prophecy reached ; that 
be thought it only political is clear from the 
next verses : its spiritual truth was beyond 
his ken. After this Balaam returned home, 
but with the Midianite princes — who were 
leagued with Balak (Num. xxii. 4-7) — he 
plotted the licentious feast into which Israel 
fell, and for which Moses inflicted a fearful 
vengeance. Balaam himself thus helped to 
brine on a momentary fulfillment of his 
prophecy, "He shall smite the corners of 
Moab and destroy all the children of Sbeth." 
He fell in the battle that broke the power of 
the Midianites (Num. xxxi. 1-10). His is 
a very fascinating history. A prophet of 
God though a heathen, using this influence 
for temporal good among his people, ambi- 
tious, self-willed, vain of his political sa- 
gacity, his was a character of mingled clay 
and gold, and was strong and weak in pro- 
portion. Not above the ideas of his day in 
his surroundings, though as prophet of the 
One God holding the clue to higher prin- 
ciples, he probably deemed his counsel to 
the Midianites a stroke of real policy, and 
did not at all enter into the peculiar purposes 
of God in the separation of Israel from 
among the Gentiles. This was far beyond 
all he had ever learned of God's merciful 
dealings with men. Sharing the political 
views of bis tribe, he fell from the pure 
height into a sin that brought him under 
the edge of the sword. He is a type of a 
large human nature touching many sides 
and appealing to our sympathies. In many 
respects, too, he typifies the character which, 
rising above demagogism, yet does not rank 
above the trickery of the politician when it 
has the opportunity to become a statesman. 

But as one of those permitted to prophesy, 
no matter how obscurely, yet to prophesy 
of Christ, and to leave this prophecy among 
his people, which finally should bring the 
wise men to the cradle of the Star of Jacob, 
Balaam claims of us a special attention. It 
was not necessary that he should understand 
the full reach of his prophecy, but assuredly 
he understood much of its political bearing, 
and, therefore, it added to his responsibility 
in his after-action. To us it is a proof that 
God did not leave Himself without witness 
among the Gentiles. 

Bands. A part of the clerical dress that 
has now almost entirely fallen into disuse. 
It is a remnant of the ancient amice. In 
reality it is a part of the full dress for law- 
yers, as well as clergymen in the English 
Church, but there, as well as here, it is 
hardly ever to be seen. 

Banners are of late origin. In the Bible 
the " banner" appears to have been merely 
a pole with some device upon it, as a rallying- 

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point for the squadron (or worked into the 
sail of the ship if used at sea). It was not a 
flag, whatever standards were used. Rab- 
binical writers state that the standards for 
the four divisions of the tribes upon their 
march (Numb, ii.) were, for Judan, a lion ; 
for Reuben, a man ; for Ephraim, an ox ; 
for Dan, an eagle. But this is mere tradi- 
tion ; compare, however, the Vision of £se- 
kiel (ch. x.) and of the Revelation (ch. iv.). 
But the banner, as a flag, belongs rather to 
the age of Chivalry, and is a heraldic stand- 
ard, and so it passed into Church usage. 
There is no authorization for its use in our 
services. In the Sunday-school celebrations 
it appears to be quite appropriate, and cer- 
tainly most unobjectionable. Banners were 
formerly a part of the accustomed orna- 
ments of the altar, and were suspended 
over it. 

Banns ; Banna of Marriage. The word 
" bann" comes from the Low Latin, signify- 
ing to proclaim an edict; hence the edict 
or proclamation itself, and thence, in the 
Church, a proclamation of marriage between 
parties then and there named. The publi- 
cation of banns of marriage is not required 
in this country, though the custom is in 
many places still carried out. 

The form in England is as follows: 
After the second lesson, at morning prayer 
(or if there be ho morning prayer at evening 
prayer), for three several Sundays previous, 
44 the curate shall say, after the accustomed 
manner, I publish the banns of marriage 

between M. of and N. of . If 

any of you know cause or just impediment 
why these two persons should not be joined 
together in holy matrimony, ye are to de- 
clare it. This is the first (second, or third) 
time of asking. 1 ' But now marriages may 
also be celebrated without either banns or 
license upon production of the superintend- 
ent registrar's certificate. 

Baptism. One of the two great sacra- 
ments " generally necessary to salvation," 
" ordained by Christ Himself 1 (vide Sac- 
rament) as a means of initiation into His 
Church, and "a sign of regeneration or 
new birth" (Article of Religion XXVII.); 
whereby we are made " members of Christ, 
children of God, and heirs of the Kingdom 
of Heaven" (Catechism). 

In considering baptism we shall set forth 
(a) The history of the sacrament ; (b) the 
outward sign and manner of administra- 
tion ; (c) The Covenant: (1) the inward 
grace, (2) the conditions required of those 
who come ; (d) by whom and to whom it is 
to be administered. 

(a) The History. — The washing with 
water as an emblem of purity was of very 
ancient origin and of general use. It is 
specially to be found among Eastern nations. 
Classical writers, both Greek and Latin, fre- 
quently allude to it as a means of purifica- 
tion before offering sacrifices, and of remov- 
ing ceremonial uncleanness. (See Smith's 
Bible Dictionary.) 

In the Mosaic Ritual washing or bathing 
in water is constantly prescribed as a means 
of ceremonial purification. Numerous such 
commands are found in the Pentateuch, 
both for the priests and the people. Thus, 
before going into the sanctuary the priests 
were to wash their hands and their feet, 
" that they died not" (Ex. xxx. 20). For 
this purpose, and also for washing the ves- 
sels and things used in the sacrifices, Moses 
was ordered to place a laver of brass be- 
tween the altar and the tabernacle. Solo- 
mon made ten lavers and " a molten sea" to 
be put before the Temple (2 Chron. iv. 1- 
6). It is these divers washings that are re- 
ferred to in Mark vii. 4, and Heb. ix. 10 ; 
in both places the Greek word being "Bap- 

That the deep spiritual signification of 
the ceremony was understood appears from 
many passages of the Old Testaments 
" Wash me thoroughly from mine iniquity 
and cleanse me from my sin" (Ps. Ii. 2) ; 
"I will wash mine hands in lnnocency, 
O Lord, and so will I go to Thine altar" 
'(Ps. xxvi. 6); "Wash thine heart from 
wickedness" (Jer. iv. 14). 

Jewish writers of a later date tell us thai 
proselytes from the heathen received a bap- 
tism as well as circumcision as a sign of 
the putting away of the old life and admis* 
sion into the new as God's people. 

It is evident that the idea of spiritual 
purification was in the minds of the Jews 
connected with washing or baptism. And 
thus we can understand the readiness with 
which they came to John " preaching the 
baptism of repentance for remission of 
sins ;" and that they at first saw in him the 
promised Messiah, who was to bring re- 
mission of sins. And when he denied this, 
they naturally asked, " Why baptizest thou, 
then ?" His answer pointed to the higher 
baptism of which his was the preparation, 
the baptism of water and of the Spirit. 

When the Christ instituted baptism as 
the great sacrament of forgiveness of sins, 
and initiation into His Church, He only 
adapted an old custom well known to the 
Jews and other people ; though in so doing 
He gave it a wider use and deeper meaning. 
It does not appear that the Christ Himself 
ever baptized, but His disciples did; the 
character of this rite is not described. After 
His resurrection the commission given to 
the Apostles is clear : " Go ye therefore and 
teach (make disciples of) all nations, bap- 
tizing them" (Matt, xxviii. 19). And it is 
very certain that the disciples understood 
that this rite was the ** outward visible sign" 
of remission of sins and reception into the 
Church, Christ's Body. For whenever men, 
convinced by their preaching that Jesus was 
the Son of God, the Mesbiab, asked, " What 
shall we do ?" the uniform answer was, " Re- 
pent and be baptized for the remission of 
sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the 
Holt Ghost" (Acts ii. 88. See also Acts 
viii. 12, 86 ; x. 47 ; xxii. 16). Thus baptism 

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took the place of circumcision as the means 
of entering into covenant with God, and as 
all who were circumcised were called Isra- 
elites, so all baptized persons were called 
Christians. Nor had any a right to assume 
the name until admitted into the Church by 

It is unnecessary to show further that 
from the Apostolic times baptism has been 
regarded by the Church as essential. How- 
ever they may differ as to its meaning and 
modes of administration, all " who profess 
,and call themselves Christian" agree in this. 

(n) Thb Outward Sign and Manner 
of Administration. — The Catechism 
teaches that " the outward visible sign or 
form in baptism" is " water, wherein the 
person is baptized, In the Name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost. 11 Two things, then, are to be con- 
sidered, the water and the word. 

(1) That water is an essential part of 
baptism we learn from the words of our 
Lord to Nicodemus: "Except a man be 
born of water, and of the Spirit, he cannot 
enter into the kingdom of God" (St. John 
iii. 5). So also St. Peter after that the Holt 
Ghost had fallen upon Cornelius and those 
with him, said, " Can any man forbid water, 
that these should not be baptized?" (Acts 
x. 47). And the testimony of the Church 
Is so clear as to the fact, and it is one so uni- 
versally admitted, that it is unnecessary to 
take up space with quotations from the 

But while there is no doubt as to the use 
of water in this sacrament, there is a differ- 
ence of opinion and custom as to the mode 
ol administration ; whether it should be by 
sprinkling, or pouring, or immersion. 

As regards sprinkling, though it may be 
regarded as valid, yet is it irregular, there 
being no authority for its use. The rubric 
in the office in the American Prayer-Book 
orders that the minister taking the child 
41 shall dip it in the water discreetly, or shall 
pour water upon it." In the English office 
there are two rubrics, the first ordering dip- 
ping in the water discreetly and warily, 
" provided that the sponsors shall certify 
that the child may well endure it." An- 
other adds, "but if they certify that the 
child is weak, it shall suffice to pour water 
upon it." The same direction is given for 
the baptism of adults. Thus our Church 
allows as valid and regular either " dipping" 
or " pouring," giving precedence to the 
former. Blunt says (Annotated Prayer- 
Book) : " There can be no question that af- 
fusion, if thoroughly performed, is amply suf- 
ficient for the due administration of the 
sacrament of baptism. In such a climate as 
ours, with such habits as those of modern 
times, and all its consequences considered, 
the dipping of infants could seldom be 
t/*emly, and would often be attended with 
danger. The * weakness' of the rubric may 
justly be assumed as the normal condition of 
infants brought up under such conditions." 

Thus pouring the water has come to be 
with us the usual form of administration. 
But great care should be taken that water be 
poured freely over the head of the child or 
person from the hollow of the minister's 
hand, so that there may be no possible doubt 
of the actual contact of the water with the 
person. To insure this no covering should 
be retained on the head at that time. 

Trine Immersion, — i.e., the dipping or the 
pouring of the water at the naming of each 
Person of the Trinity, making three times, — 
though not ordered by the rubric, is a very 
ancient custom, worthy to be observed as 
teaching the doctrine of the Holy Trinity, 
and rendering more certain the contact with 
the Water. 

Total Immersion. — As regards this, which 
some hold to be essential to baptism, we have 
seen that the Church does not require it. Is 
she right in allowing this discretion ? There 
appears little doubt that the usual custom of 
the early Church was to lead the candidate 
into the water and there dip him three times 
while repeating the prescribed formula. 
And it is urged that St. Paul alludes to this 
in the well-known text, " Therefore we are 
buried with him by baptism into death" 
(Rom. vi. 4). Too much stress has been 
laid upon an argument drawn from a figura- 
tive passage, from which, if the whole be 
thus taken literally, we might also prove 
that we ought to be crucified as he was. 
Doubtless there is here an allusion to the 
usual manner of baptizing, but scarcely in- 
tended as making it essential. From old 
drawings in the catacombs at Rome, it ap- 
pears that the candidate was led into the 
water, and he standing there, the water was 
poured over his head. But even if total im- 
mersion generally obtained in the early 
Church, it never was considered essential. 
What was called elinic baptism, or the bap- 
tism of the sick and weak, was by pouring, 
so also where water was scarce, as in prison 
or in the desert, and these were held so valid 
that Canons were passed forbidding the re* 
baptizing of such. 

If we turn to the New Testament, we find 
that in many of the instances there recorded 
immersion would have been highly improb- 
able if not impossible. How could the 
three thousand baptized on the day of 
Pentecost, or the five thousand afterwards 
added, have been immersed in Jerusalem? 
Nor is it probable that the jailer of Phi- 
lippi could have been immersed in the 
prison. The word baptized does not al- 
ways mean immersion; "the baptizing of 
tables" (Mark vii. 4), and the "divers bap- 
ti zings" of the law, were really washings 
The Israelites " were baptized unto Moses in 
the cloud and in the sea" (1 Cor. x. 2). Yet 
they went over dry-shod ; the Egyptians, 
indeed, were immersed. St. Peter also de- 
clares baptism to be the " figure" of (literally, 
antitype, i.e., "that which corresponds to 
and was figured by") the salvation of Noah 
in the Ark by water (1 Peter iii. 21); Tet 

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Noah was borne upon tbe water, and rained 
npon from heaven ; he was not immersed, 
as were the unbelievers. Great stress has 
been laid upon the account of the baptism 
of the eunuch (Acts viii. 88) : " And they 
went down both into the water, both Philip 
and the eunuch; and he baptized him. 
And when they were come up out of the 
water," etc. But this really proves nothing, 
except, indeed, the necessity of water. For, 
first, the Greek words translated M into" and 
" out of" (etc and at), mean also the place 
towards which and from which there is 
motion ; second, one may " go down into" 
and " come up out of" a water without im- 
mersing the whole body ; and, third, if total 
immersion be meant, then must Philip the 
minister as well as the eunuch have been 
immersed, for it reads, " they went down 
both into the water," which proves too 
much. Most probably both standing in the 
water, Philip taking up thereof in his hand 
or in a vessel, baptized by pouring over the 
bead of the eunuch. 

We assert, then, that Scripture and the 
Church prescribe nothing as to the precise 
manner of administering the water of bap- 
tism. It is therefore one of those ceremonies 
and rites which may be changed by partic- 
ular Churches " according to the diversity 
of countries, times, and men's manners, so 
that nothing be ordained against God's 
Word" (Art. XXXIV J. 

(2) Thb Form of Words. — About this 
there can be no dispute. The dipping in or 
the pouring on of water must be accom- 
panied by the words prescribed by our Lord : 
"In the Name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost." Without 
these no baptism is valid, " for these are es- 
sential parts of baptism." (See rubric at 
end of "Private Baptism of Children.") 

But what is meant by " Baptizing in the 
Name" ? Not only by the authority of, as 
His ministers, though this is meant, but also 
and especially "into the name," as it should 
be translated. For " the name" was put for 
the thing itself: thus, " His name shall be 
called Jesus (Saviour), for He shall save ;" 
4 * They shall call His name Emmanuel," 
for He is " God with us." The sacred name 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost is put upon 
the baptized, as that of Jehovah was upon 
the children of Israel (Num. vi. 27), whereby 
they were made a noly, peculiar people. 
Thus to be baptized into " the name" means 
into the Holy Trinity, for " the name" of old 
meant God Himself, as in the revelation to 
Moses from the burning bush the name I Am, 
is God. Therefore the Hebrews always 
spoke with the deepest reverence of The 
Name. It was not *' to be taken in vain ;" 
•' Incense was to be offered to it;" "In it 
meq were to trust." The Old Testament is 
full of such expressions, by which we learn 
that " The Name" is God Himself, or, rather, 
the revelation of God. To know God's 
name is to know Him ; to do anything by or 
in His name id to do it by or in Him. So 

also in the New Testament we read : " Hal- 
lowed be Thy Name;" " His name, through 
faith in His name, hath made this man 
strong;" "At the name of Jesus every 
knee should bow." And numerous texts 
can be quoted where the name of Jesus is 
put for Himself. 

Therefore, when He whose name is Em- 
manuel, " God with us," is about to send 
forth His messengers to deliver men from 
bondage to sin and death, of which that of 
Egypt was the type, He speaks to them from 
the risen body, dead, yet alive, seeing no 
corruption, of which the Bush was the em- 
blem, and gives them His new name to be 
Sut upon His people, as He did of old to 
Loses, — a new name expressing the fuller 
revelation of Himself, " Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost," not three names, but ono, 
for He says not into the names, but into the 
Name expressing the unity of the Godhead 
in the Trinity of the Persons. This Holy 
Name is to be said over them, and into union 
with this Holy Trinity they are by baptism 

This, we remark in passing, is also in 
brief the creed of the Church, as taught in 
our Catechism. For all Confessions of Faith 
are enlargements or developments or ex- 
planations of this divinely-given formula. 
With what reverence and awe should it be 
regarded ! 

(c) The Covenant. — As under the old 
dispensation God made a covenant with His 
people whereby they were made His, cir- 
cumcision being the outward sign and seal 
thereof, so has He made the new covenant 
in Jfisus (Hebrews xii. 24), whereof baptism 
is the outward sign and pledge. This was 
foretold by the prophet Ezekiel : " Then will 
I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall 
be clean ; from all your filthiness and from 
all your idols will I cleanse you. A new 
heart also will I give you, and a new spirit 
will I put within you, and I will take away 
the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will 
give you an heart of flesh" (Ezek. xxxvi. 
26, 26). 

In this covenant there are the two parties, 
God and man. What God offers is entirely 
a free gift or grace from Him ; He annexes 
to its reception such conditions aj^fie^may 
please, but they are in no waypfthe nature » 
of an equivalent; man caonot purchase 
them ; so St. Paul writes./"! By grace are ye 
saved through faith ; an/a that not of your- 
selves it is the giftorGoD; not of works, 
lest any man should^ooast" (Eph. ii. 8). We 
are thus led to consider, first, God's part, 
and, second, man's part in the covenant 
made in baptism. 

(1) Tub Inward Grace of Baptism. 
— The Catechism defines this to bo " a death 
unto sin, and a new birth unto righteous- 
ness ; for, being by nature born in sin, and 
the children of wfkth, we are hereby made 
the children of grace." And the child is 
taught that in- baptism it " was made a 
member of Christ, the child of God, and 

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an inheritor of the kingdom of heaven. 11 
This is called Regeneration (which see) ; 
according to our Lord's Word, " Ye must 
bo born again." 4< Except a man bo born 
of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter 
into the kingdom of God." 

God gives in baptism, 1st. Remission of 
sins; as St. Peter said to the multitude 
asking, "What shall we do?" "Repent, 
and be baptized every one of you in the 
name of Jesus Christ for the remission 
of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the 
Holy Ghost" (Acts ii. 38) ; as also it was 
said unto Saul, " Arise and be baptized, and 
wash away thy sins" (Acts xxii. 16). 

2d. Membership in His Church, the Body 
of Christ: " For by one Spirit are we all 
baptized into one body;" "Now ye are 
the body of Christ, and members in par- 
ticular" (1 Cor. xii. 13, 27); "His body's 
sake, which is the Church" (Col. i. 24). 

3d. Adoption as His children, and with 
this the gift of the Holy Spirit and heir- 
ship of heaven : "For ye are all the children 
of God by faith in Christ Jesus, for as 
many of you as have been baptized into 
Christ have put on Christ;" "And be- 
cause ye are sons, God hath sent forth the 
Spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying, 
Abba, Father. . . . And if a son, then an 
heir of God through Christ" (Gal. iii. 27 ; 
iv. 6, 7). ' 

The Church, then, for her teaching has 
most certain warrant of Holy Scripture. 
Following this, in the baptismal service, 
she bids us pray God to "sanctify this 
water to the mystical washing away of 
sin." The sponsors are exhorted to pray 
for the person now to be baptized, " That 
our Lord Jesus Christ would vouchsafe 
to receive him, to release him from sin, to 
sanctify him with the Holy Ghost, and to 
give him the Kingdom of Heaven and ever- 
lasting life." And the newly-baptized is 
spoken of as " regenerate and grafted into 
the body of Christ's Church." The 
XXVII. Article of Religion declares that 
" Baptism ... is also a sign of regenera- 
tion, or new birth, whereby they that re- 
ceive baptism rightly are grafted into the 
Church, the promises of forgiveness of sin 
and of our adoption to be the sons of God 
* by the HCRuy Ghost are visibly signed and 
sealed." (Vki* Regeneration for further 
proofs. ) 

(2) The Condi1t ns required in those 
who come to be B- ptized. — Though the 
benefits of baptism arc entirely a free gift 
from God, yet has He * cn fit to prescribe 
certain conditions with >*hich man must 
comply before he can ^Hm the promises. 
These are in the Catechi^ cLeclarcd to be 
"Repentance, whereby tl ev f orsa k e sin; 
and faith, whereby they steadfastly believe 
the promises of God made* to tnem j n t hat 
sacrament ;" or, as it is sejf ort h } n the ques- 
tions asked at the baptl^ Renunciation 
of sin, belief in the Articlfc f the Christian 
Faith, and an honest purpose throughout 

life to keep God's Commandments. Repent- 
ance and Faith have been called the hands 
stretched forth to take hold of God's gifts. 
But even these are of Him, " for it is God that 
worketh in us both to will and to do." With 
the grace of baptism He gives the capacity 
for these, just as in the natural birth He gives 
the various faculties of mind and body. It 
is man's part to realize this and use the spir- 
itual life and power thus given him "to 
work out his salvation." ( Vide further in 

(d) The Minister and Subjects vrr 
Baptism — Lay Baptism. — Ordinarily this 
sacrament is to be administered by one in 
holy orders, for it was in the original com- 
mission given to the Apostles that they 
should baptize. In the Acts of the Apostles 
we read of Philip the Deacon baptizing the 
Samaritans and the eunuch of Ethiopia. It 
certainly would *«eem right that the act of 
receiving into Christ's Church should be 
by one duly commissioned as an ambassador 
for Christ. The Prayer-Book requires that 
it shall be by a minister ; a deacon may act 
in the absence of the priest. Notwithstand- 
ing this, the universal tradition and practice 
of the Church from the earliest ages has 
allowed the validity of lay baptism in cases 
of necessity, a rebaptism never being re- 
quired for such persons. The question was 
fully discussed in the Church of Carthage, 
with the above conclusion. And, therefore, 
in our own Church, lay baptism is recognized 
by general custom, though there is no author- 
ity for it in the Prayer-Book, unless it be 
implied in the rubric appended to the " Of- 
fice for Private Baptism," which limits the 
essentials of baptism to " water, in the 
Name," etc., but says nothing of the neces- 
sity of a lawful minister ; the rubric in the 
service itself, however, requires " a lawful 
minister." It is well here to notice, as an 
historical fact, that in the first Prayer-Book, 
that of 1549 a.d., the rubric directed that 
" when great need shall compel them so to 
do," " one of them present" shall baptize 
the child. In 1603 a.d., after the Hampton 
Conference, to meet the prejudices of the Pu- 
ritans (I), the words " lawful minister" were 
substituted for " one of them," and in the re- 
vision of 1662 a.d. the rubric took its pres- 
ent form. There is in this allowance of lay 
baptism, a departure from the strictness of 
the Church as regards orders ; but universal 
custom seems to sanction it; some writers 
take the ground that any irregularity or de- 
fect in such baptism is made good by con- 
firmation. Others hold that there is a priest- 
hood in every Christian sufficient to make 
his act valid ; these making a distinction 
between that which he has the power to do 
and that which he has the right to do. 

Adult Baptism. — There is a special ser- 
vice provided for the baptism of those of 
riper years. The persons are required to 
answer for themselves, the sponsors being 
"their chosen witnesses." The rubric di- 
rects that "due care be taken for their ex- 

Digitized by 




ami nation, whether they be sufficiently in- 
structed in the Principles of the Christian 
Religion ; and that they be exhorted to pro- 
pare themselves with rrayer and Fasting 
for the receiving of this holy sacrament/ 1 
There is also a rubric that " It is expedient 
that every person thus baptized should be 
confirmed by the Bishop so soon after his 
baptism as conveniently may be, that so he 
may be admitted to the Holy Communion." 

Infant Baptism. — Though there is no dir 
rect command in the New Testament to bap- 
tize infants, yet the inference that it was 
done by the Apostles is so strong as to 
amount to proof. Baptism took the place 
of circumcision. Infants were circumcised, 
and so received into the old covonant ; the 
Apostles naturally, unless forbidden, would 
baptize infants and receive them into the 
new covenant. So' far from being forbidden, 
we read that the only time Jesus was " much 
displeased" was when the disciples rebuked 
those who brought to Him young -children, 
saying, " Suffer the little children to come 
unto n:e, and forbid them not; for of such 
is the kingdom of God." If infants are of 
the kingdom, surely they may receive that 
rite which admits into the kingdom (St. 
Mark x. 13). St. Peter, commanding the 
Jews to be baptized, adds : " For the prom- 
ise is unto you, and to your children" (Acts 
ii. 39). St. Paul on several occasions bap- 
tized whole households; there must have 
been children in some if not all of these. 

But when we take the testimony of the 
Universal Church from the beginning, the 
proof is overwhelming. We have not space 
for quotations, suffice it to say " that all tes- 
timony of writers down to the twelfth cen- 
tury affirms its use," and " there is not one 
saying, quotation, or example that makes 
against it." 

But we have seen that repentance and 
faith are required of those who come to bap- 
tism, and it is argued that as infants are in- 
capable of these they should not be baptized. 
But for this the Church provides by re- 
quiring sureties or sponsors, who promise 
these both in the child's name. Their duty 
it is to see that it be taught, so soon as it be 
able to learn, what has been done for it, and 
to urge it at the proper time to fulfill the 
same by taking upon itself the baptismal 
obligatio* 8, so that it may also enter upon 
the full baptismal privileges, just as the law 
allows children to hold property, but re- 
quires guardians to act for the minor until 
it comes of age, assumes full possession, and 
acts for itself. 

Public Infant Baptism should be admin- 
istered in church, either at Morning or 
Evening Prayer, immediately after the sec- 
ond lesson, both because it is an act in 
which the congregation are to take part, 
and also " for the better instructing ot the 
People in the grounds of Infant Baptism." 
Nor ought baptism to be de. erred till long 
after birth, as is too much the custom. The 
rubric says, not " longer than the first or 

second Sunday." It maygnot always be 
pos-ible to comply with this, but there 
should be no unnecessary delay. 

Private Infant Baptism is only allowed 
for " great cause and necessity :" a shortened 
form is provided to be used in such case. 
Though this be a lawful and sufficient bap- 
tism, still, if the child live, " it is expedient 
that it be brought into the Church," that 
11 the Congregation may be certified of the 
true form of Baptism, and it be received 
publicly as one of the flock of true Christian 

Authorities : Baptism tested by Scripture 
and History, by William Hodges, D.D. ; 
Wall's History of Infant Baptism ; Dr. W. 
Adams' Mercy to Babes ; Wall and Jerriam 
on Infant Baptism. Indeed, the works on 
the subject of Baptism are many and easily 

Rev. E. B. Bogqs, D.D. 

Baptism (Holy), Office of. The ser- 
vices in our Prayer-Book for the adminis- 
tration of baptism are taken almost word for 
word from those in the English book. The 
important changes are that permission is 

fiven for shortening the service for infant 
aptism in case it is used in the same church' 
more than once a month, and that the sign 
of the cross majr be omitted if the omission 
be specially desired, " although the Church 
knows no worthy cause of scruple concern- 
ing the same." The form of the service for 
infant baptism is not closely connected with 
that of ancient rituals, the reason being in 
great part, doubtless, because the Reformers 
thought it necessary to introduce exhorta- 
tions, and to make the service a means of 
instruction to the congregation : and for 
this tatter reason it is ordered that it shall 
be used in the midst of either Morning or 
Evening Prayer. Since 1552 a.d. the 
whole of the service has been said at the 
font; the book of 1649 a.d. ordered the 
first part, as far as the address to the god- 
fathers and godmothers, to be said at the 
church-door and the rest at the font. This 
first part seems to correspond to the ancient 
form of making a catechumen, consisting of 
a call to prayer, a petition for Gob's bless- 
ing on the child, a short Gospel, followed 
by a comment and exhortation based upon 
it, and a prayer which includes a thanks- 
giving. The minister then passes to the 
second part of the service, which is the 
special preparation for tbe sacrament. The 
sponsors are exhorted as to the meaning of 
the act, and are asked to answer in the child's 
name. The questions call for a renuncia- 
tion (on which in early days great stress 
was laid), a profession of faith, an expres- 
sion of desire for baptism, and a promise 
of obedience. Two of the answers in our 
service differ from those in the English 
book : the first, by the addition of all after 
the words "I renounce them all"; and the 
last, by the addition of the words "by 
God's help." Then follow four short 
prayers for spiritual blessings, and a prayer 

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fbr the blessing of the water. These prayers 
(or those which correspond to them) are not 
in the service of 1549 a.d., but will be 
found at the end of the form for private 
baptism, with a direction that when the 
water in the font is changed, which shall be 
once a month at the least, they shall be used 
before any child is baptized in it. Since 
1552 a.d., the water has been put anew in 
the font at each baptism ; this has been di- 
rected by rubric since 1662 a.d. The third 
part of the service consists of the baptism 
itself, which our Church allows to be either 
by immersion or by affusion (no permission 
is given for aspersion), and the making of the 
sign of the cross upon the child's forehead. 
Then in the fourth part the people are 
bidden to prayer, the Lord's Prayer is 
used as the rightful utterance of the child 
of God, and it is followed by thanksgiving 
and prayer, and by exhortations to the spon- 
sors to remember and to fulfill their duties to 
the child, and to see that in due time it is 
brought to the Bishop for confirmation. It 
does not belong to tnis article to speak of 
the doctrine of Baptism ; but the historical 
fact may be stated that this last call to prayer 
and the prayer itself, both of which declare 
that the child is regenerate, were not in the 
first book of Edward VI. (1549 a.d.), but 
were inserted in his second book in 1552 a.d. 
The service* for private baptism, contain- 
ing also a form for publicly receiving into 
the Church such as have been privately 
baptized, calls for no special notice. But 
with reference to the conditional form of 
baptism, which is placed at the end of the 
service, it may be of interest to quote two 
rubrics from the Prayer-Book which was 
set forth by Bishop Torry, of St. Andrew's, 
in 1848 a.d., as embodying a custom in the 
Scotch Church : «« From the unhappy mul- 
tiplicity of religious sects in this country, 
cases frequently occur in which persons, 
from conscientious motives, express a desire 
to separate themselves from such sects, and 
to unite themselves to the Church. In all 
such instances, when the applicants for ad- 
mission into the Church, after due instruc- 
tion, so all express a doubt of the validity 
of the Baptism which they have received 
from the Minister of the sect to which they 
formerly belonged, the clergyman to whom 
the application is made shall baptize the 
person in the hypothetical form prescribed 
in this office. In cases where such doubt 
does not exist, it shall suffice to receive the 

Serson into the Church in this manner : he 
rst kneeling down, the Minister shall take 
him by the hand and say, We receive this 
person" etc. The former of these two rubrics 
was taken from the 17th of the former Canons 
of the Scotch Church ; its substance, with 
the direction for the use of the hypothetical 
form of words, is in the 84th of the present 
Canons, g 4. 

The English Church needed no office for 
the ministration of baptism to such as are 
of riper years until after the Great Rebel- 

lion. Then, in part because it was hoped 
that there would be great numbers of con- 
verts among the natives of America, and 
still more because so many had grown up 
unbaptized at home, a service was prepared 
(it is said by Bishop Griffith, of St. Asaph) 
and inserted in the book of 1662 a.d., from 
which it has passed into our own. Its out- 
line is the same as that for infant baptism, 
and the changes which were made will 
readily explain themselves. 

Authorities: Reeling's Liturgiae Britan- 
nic®, Bulley 's Variations of the Communion 
and Baptismal Offices, Palmer's Orteinea 
Liturgica, Bishop Torry 's Prayer-Book. 
Rbv. Prof. S. Hart. 

Baptistery. The building or chamber set 
apart for the celebration of the sacrament 
of baptism. It was usually attached to the 
larger, or cathedral churcli, since the admin- 
istration of the rite was usual there only. A 
spacious building was necessary, as the sacra- 
ment was administered by immersion, either 
simply or accompanied by aspersion. As 
many as three thousand were baptized on 
Easter-eve when St. Chrysostom was ar- 
rested, and many, both men and women, 
who had not yet received the sacrament, 
were dispersed. The oldest baptistery now 
in existence, at Ravenna, is older than 425- 
480 a.d. It is octagonal, about forty feet in 
diameter, with two niches, or apses. It has 
two stories. The font, which is in the cen- 
tre and octagonal, has a semicircular inden- 
tation in the side, where the priest can stand 
to immerse without descending into the 
water. The walls are decorated with fig- 
ures in low relief in stucco, but the dome is 
covered with mosaics ; the central portion 
representing the baptism of our Lord. 
Baptisteries of later date are found in vari- 
ous parts of Europe, but as adult baptisms 
fell into disuse, the baptistery was not 
needed, and the font was transferred to 
the church. There it has happened that the 
canopy under which the font was placed 
was so enlarged and enriched as to be sup- 
ported upon its own pillars, and so be almost 
a baptistery within the church. Examples 
of this occur in England. 

Barnabas. (8on of prophecy or exhorta- 
tion (Bev. Vers.) ; not so correctly in A.V., 
"of consolation.") A Levite by descent, a 
Cypriote by birth, and by some (Clem. Alex., 
Strom, ii. 176) said to be one of the seventy, 
was one of the earliest prominent members 
of the infant Church (Acts iv. 36). His real 
name, Joseph (or Joses), has been overshad- 
owed by the name given him by the Apostles. 
His act of giving the price of a field which 
he had soldto the Church is the first notice 
we have of him. He takes Saul after his 
conversion (Acts ix. 27) to the Apostles as 
though there had been a previous friend- 
ship between them. When he saw the 
growth of the Gentile Church at Antioch 
he sought Saul at Tarsus and brought him 
there, as if knowing Saul's special mission 
to the Gentiles. With Saul he carried the 

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relief the Church at Antioch sent to Jerusa- 
lem upon occasion of the famine (Acts xi. 
80). Upon their return they were set apart 
hy direction of the Holy Ghost for tneir 
first missionary journey (Acts xiii , xivA 
which was first to Cyprus (where Saul took 
the name of Paul), and into Asia Minor as 
far as Derbe, in Lycaonia. Returning to 
Perga, they sailed to the port of Seleucia, 
and so returned home to Antioch. They 
were associated together in the struggle 
against the Judaizers in the question of cir- 
cumcision, and were sent from the Council 
of Jerusalem with honor hack to Antioch. 
"When the second missionary journey was pro- 
posed, they disagreed as to the propriety of 
taking his nephew, John Mark, with them. 
" The contention was so sharp that they 
parted asunder." Since the brethren com- 
mended St. Paul to the grace of God, it has 
been inferred that Barnabas was in the 
wrong. This is the last notice in the Acts. 
St. Paul speaks of him in Gal. ii. St. Bar- 
nabas was emphatically a good man and 
full of the Holt Ghost, but does not seem 
to have had that energetic determination that 
was so marked in St. Paul. He was im- 
pressed by St. Peter even when intimately 
associated with St. Paul (Gal. ii. 18). What 
his after-career was is not authentically told 
us. One tradition sends him to Milan, a 
later one gave him martyrdom upon his 
second visit to Cyprus. 

An epistle under his name is extant. It 
has been held authentic by very many able 
scholars, but is not now admitted as genu- 
ine. However, it is a very ancient Christian 
writing, probably of the earlier part of the 
second century. It was evidently the work 
of a very devout but narrow Christian, 
who neither grasped the beauty of allegori- 
cal interpretation nor the true breadth of 
Christianity. It is a valuable writing, not 
for its contents, but for the inferences that 
may be drawn from it. (Feast-day, June 

Bartholomew. Of him we have nothing 
but the name in the lists of the Apostles. 
In St. Matt. x. 5, we have Philip and Bar- 
tholomew the sixth in the list. In St. Mark 
iii. 18, with Philip, he is the sixth ; as, too, 
in St. Luke vi. 14. If he is the same as 
Nathaniel, as some have thought with a 
great deal of plausibility, we have some 
clue to his character, — an Israelite indeed 
Jn whom is no guile. The arguments relied 
'on arc, briefly, (a) The call of St. Barthol- 
omew is not recorded, while the address to 
Nathaniel is nearly equivalent, (b) The 
synoptists who mention Bartholomew do 
not allude to Nathaniel, while St. John 
does not name Bartholomew, but does Na- 
thaniel, (el Bar-tholmai is the same as 
Bar-Jona, St. Peter's other name, or Bar- 
nabas, and may be an appellative or a sur- 
name, as in the other two cases. But the 
concurrent tradition of the early Church 
is utterly silent upon this identification. 
Any certain tradition, too, about his Career 

is wanting. It is supposed that he evangel- 
ized Northern India, leaving there a Hebrew 
copy of St Matthew's Gospel, which after- 
wards was found by Pantsenus, the great 
Alexandrian catechist (190 a.d.) ; tb at hav- 
ing once escaped crucifixion through the 
remorse of his persecutor, he was afterwards 
flayed alive by Kins Astyages, at Alban- 
opolis, upon the Caspian Sea. But there is 
nothing to lead us to suppose that there if 
any substructure of fact for the tradition. 
It is only another example of the rule " prin- 
ciples, not men," which marks God's work 
in the world, while yet these principles are 
only for man's salvation. (Feast-day, 
August 24.) 

Baruch. (Blessed.) The son of Neriah, 
and friend and amanuensis of Jeremiah 
( Jer. xxxii. 12 ; xxxvi. 10 sy.), was of courtly 
family. His brother Seriah held office under 
King Zedekiah. He was accused of urging 
Jeremiah in favor of the Chaldeans. Jose- 
ph us says be was imprisoned with the 
prophet, but was permitted, after the fall 
of Jerusalem, by Nebuchadnezzar, to remain 
with Jeremiah, and was forced with him to 
go down to Egypt. This is the last certain 
information we have of him. He was a man 
of courage, as is shown by his steadfast ad- 
herence to Jeremiah, ana by his acting as 
his amanuensis. The book attributed to. 
him is apocryphal, though it was received 
by some of the Fathers, as Athanasius, Cyril 
of* Jerusalem, and Nicephorus. Dr. Gins- 
burg's conjecture that it was written by 
some devout Jew about the middle of the 
second century before Christ is probably 
correct, but the value he puts upon it is as 
probably exaggerated. It is but a cento 
of passages from the prayer of Daniel (Dan. 
ix.), from Deut. xxviii., and from phrases to 
be found in the prophets, especially Isaiah. 
The first three chapters may be a transla- 
tion from some Hebrew imitator, and the 
last two an addition by the translator, as 
has been conjectured. But beyond record- 
ing the hopes of the Jews under the Seleu- 
cidaa or the Ptolomies it is valueless. 

Basin ; for receiving the alms and other 
devotions of the congregation in the pro- 
ana ph oral portion of the Communion ser- 
vice. The rubric runs : 

*' Whilst these sentences are in reading 
the Deacons, Church- wardens, or other fit 
persons appointed for that purpose, shall re- 
ceive the Alms for the Poor and other De- 
votions of the people in a decent Ba?in to 
be provided by the Parish for that purpose ; 
ana reverently bring it to the Priest, who 
shall humbly present and place it upon the 
Holy Table." 

Bath-kol. (Daughter of a voice.) Really, 
a sort of divination among the later Jews. 
It was pretended that after the inspiration 
of the prophets ceased devout men were 
guided by a voice (Bath-kol) ; in fact, they 
put such a cbnstruction upon the first words 
tbey accidentally heard, after devoutly ask- 
ing for instruction. To give an instance: 

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" B. Iochanan and B. Simeon ben Lachish 
desiring to see the face of B. Samuel, a Baby- 
lonish doctor, suid, Let us follow the hearing 
of Bath-kol. Traveling, therefore, near a 
school, they heard the voice of a boy reading 
these words out of the first book of Samuel : 
* And Samuel died. 1 From thence the two 
Babbis inferred that their friend Samuel 
was dead ; and, indeed, Samuel of Babylon 
was just dead." 

Beatific Vision. "As for me, I will behold 
Thy face in righteousness : and I shall be 
satisfied, when I awake, with Thy likeness' 1 
(Ps. xvii. 15). ** Beloved, now are we the 
sons of God, and it doth not yet appear 
what we shall be : but we know that, when 
He shall appear, we shall be like Him ; for 
we shall see Him as He is' 1 (1 John iii. 2). 
These texts (and many others) contain the 
fullness of the doctrine of the highest and 
final state of blessedness. There is the bless- 
edness of knowledge of God, the blessed- 
ness of a full Faith, the blessedness of seeing 
and hearing Him by every means vouch- 
safed to us here, but beside there will be the 
blessed joy of seeing Him face to face in 
holiness in HiS glory. It is not to be in 
this life. It was denied to Moses, St. John, 
and St. Paul ; both declare " no man can see 
God. 1 ' But in the hereafter we shall see 
Him face to face. " His servants shall serve 
Him, and they shall see His face; and His 
name shall be in their foreheads 1 ' (Bev. 
xxii. 3, 4). But the full glory of the vision 
of God will be, undoubtedly, after the 

Beatification. The declaration by the 
Pope that such or such a holy person, whose 
life was notably holy and accompanied by 
miracles, is in eternal bliss, and in conse- 
quence permits religious honor to be paid 
him. In beatification the Pope does not 
judicially determine the state of the saint, 
but only so far as to free the religious hon- 
ors paid to him from the charge of super- 
stition. But in canonization the Pope does 
determine officially, ex cathedra, the condi- 
tion of the new saint. 

Bel and the Dragon, — Apocrypha. The 
Greek translations of Daniel contain addi- 
tions to the original text. The most im- 
portant are in the Apocrypha, and are 
the Song of the Three Holy Children, the 
History of Susanna, and the History of 
Bel and the Dragon. Bel and the Dragon 
is placed at the end of Daniel, and in the 
Septuagint is headed " Part of the prophecy 
of Habakkuk." There is no evidence that 
the additions ever formed a part of the 
Hebrew text It is surmised that the trans- 
lator of Daniel may have wrought up cur- 
rent traditions in these additions. The story 
of the Dragon appears like a "strange 
exaggeration" of the deliverance of Daniel 
from the lions (Dan. vi.). The story has 
received a embellishments in later times." 
It need not be regarded as a mire fable, but 
it was shaped for a moral purpose. While 
Calmet and the Port Royalists strive to trace 

the history in this work, it may be as well 
to consider rather its design, "to render 
idolatry ridiculous, and to exalt the true 
God." The idol Bel is represented as the 
object of the king's adoration, while Daniel 
is a worshiper of " the living God" (v. 6). 
The king sneaks to him of the food which 
Bel eats, and Daniel declares that the idol is 
but brass and clay. A contest is brought 
on between Daniel and the idol priests, and 
when he shows their duplicity to the king 
they are slain, and Daniel destroys Bel and 
his temple. Then follows the killing of the 
Dragon by Daniel's skill, and the story of 
the den of lions, with an addition concern- 
ing Habakkuk 's aid in feeding Daniel. 

Authorities: B. F. Westcott, in Wm. 
Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, Homo's 
Introduction, Arnald's Commentary, in Pa- 
trick, Lowth, and Whitby. 

Rev. S. F. Hotchkin. 

Belfry. Vide Architecture. 

Bells, The. They are mentioned in the 
Bible as a part of the High-Priest's dress, 
fringing the lower edge of his robe, and by 
their tinkling the people might know when 
he went into the Holy Place, and when he 
came out, " that he die not." But in Chris- 
tian times bells are used to summon the 
faithful to the services. The earliest bells 
in use were very small ones, — hand-bells, in 
fact, — and, trusting to the shape of several 
that still remain, shaped very much like our 
cow-bells. In times of persecution a mes- 
senger used to summon the congregation ; in 
quiet times a Deacon announced the hours 
of service. Bells or their equivalents or 
substitutes were used after Christianity was 
formally recognized by the state. The oldest 
use of bells is attributed, but probably 
wrongly, tQ Paulinus, Bishop of Nola, in 
Campania (409 a.d.), but he does not speak 
of bells at all in his description of his 
Church. They soon became generally used 
in the West, and were of considerable size. 
Charlemagne (800 a.d.) encouraged the 
founding of bells, and employed skillful 
founders. Of these, Tancho, of St. Gall, 
was the chief, who cast a large bell for the 
great church at Aachen (Aix). He asked 
for one hundred pounds of silver as alloy 
for the copper, from which we may infer 
that the bells may have weighed four or five 
hundred pounds. In the East bells were in- 
troduced from Venice, and were becoming 
general (866 a.d.), till the Turks, through, 
superstition, forbade their use. So now the 
summons to service is given by hammering 
upon a board suspended from a rope or chain 
( Vide Skmantron) or held by the centre in 
the hand. It was usually twelve feet long 
and from a foot to a foot and a half wide, 
and was reduced in the centre to a width suf- 
ficient to let it be grasped by the hand. It 
was struck with a hammer or mallet. Some- 
times the 8emantron is made of iron or of 

Turketul, Abbot of Crowland (870 a.dA 
gave seven bells to his monastery, probably 

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the first peal in England. Kinsius of York 
(1061-61 a.d.) gave the Church of St. John, 
at Beverley, two great bells. 

From the time that Church utensils were 
first used there was always some act of dedi- 
cation of them to sacred and hallowed use. 
Forms for the benediction of bells are found 
in the later MSS. Sacramentarium of Greg- 
ory, and probably date from the time of Al- 
cuin (790 a.d.). Upon many church-bells 
was placed the Latin doggerel, — 

Lftodo Deum Ternm, Plebera toco, congivgo clerum, 
DefunctoB ploro, Pcttem fugo, FwU deooro. 

A peal is of seven or more bells ; a chime 
of three or more. For ruies for ringing 
chimes and peals any hand-book on bells 
may be consulted. 

For churches in the country the bell 
should be selected, if possible, with reference 
to the position of the church ; if upon an 
eminence or on a plain, a bell of the lowest 
tone that can be heard the farthest (and it 
should be heard at least three miles) is the 
proper one to choose. From E to A should 
oe the general range of the note. 

Bema. The place of the Bishop's throne 
in the primitive Church, or, possibly, the 
whole apse itself. The Bishop's throne was 
anciently placed in the centre against the 
wall, and the scdiliafor the Presbyters were 
ranged on either hand, while in the centre 
of the apse the altar was placed. 

Benatura. A holy water stoup. 

Benedicite. (The Song of the Three Chil- 
dren.) A hymn found in the Septuagint 
version of the book of Daniel, and also in 
the Apocrypha, but not occurring in the 
Hebrew Scripture. It is said to have been 
sung by Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah 
after their miraculous deliverance from the 
fiery furnace, as recorded in Daniel iii. It 
resembles very much the 148th Psalm, and 
is said by many to be only an expansion 
of it. It was probably used in the Jewish 
synagogue worship, and so passed into early 
Christian usage. It was certainly in use in 
the days of St. Athanasius (825-60 A.D.). 
St. Chrysostom (425 a.d.) calls it " that ad- 
mirable and marvelous song, which from 
that day to this has been sung everywhere 
throughout the world, and shall yet bo sung 
by future generations." It was incorpo- 
rated into the offices, common to both the 
English and Oallican Churches, and from 
thence it passed into its present place in the 
Prayer-Book of 1549 a.d., which it has kept 
ever since. In that Prayer- Book this rubric 
was prefixed to the Te Deum: 

"After the first lesson shall follow Te 
Deum laudamua in English daily through- 
out the year except in Lent, all the which 
time in the place of Te Deum shall be used 
Benedicite omnia Opera Domini Domino in 
English, as followeth." (In the first Prayer- 
Book the hymn ran thus : 

* ail ye works of the Lord ipeak good of tbo Loan : 
prtiM Him and set Him op foreTer." 

In the second Prayer- Book (1552 a.d.) it 
was changed to the present form.) In 1552 
this restriction was removed. However, the 
rule is often followed now, but it would be 
well to use it when Gen. i. is read. It has 
been commented on in a devotional tone by 
several recent writers, for which it is admi- 
rably adapted, bringing forth, as it can be 
well made to do, the glory of God in all His 

Benediction. The act of blessing and 
the form of blessing. " And without all 
contradiction the less is blessed of the bet- 
ter" (Heb. vii. 7). In Patriarchal days the 
blessing of the children was a most sacred 
and important act. Abraham had his chil- 
dren blessed of God. Isaac was deceived 
into giving Jacob the greater blessing, but 
would not alter it. Jacob left a solemn pro- 

Ehetic blessing of his twelve sons. In the 
iter history, Moses had given him the form 
of blessing the people, a form the Church 
has incorporated into her Office of Visitation 
of the Sick. It was a solemn threefold ut- 
terance of The Name, which was then put 
upon the children of Israel: "The Lord 
ble^s thee and keep thee. T$e Lord make 
His Face shine upon thee and be gracious 
unto thee. The Lord lift up His counte- 
nance upon thee and give thee peace. And 
they shall put My Name upon the children 
of Israel and I will bless them." 

In all lands and in all times the reception 
of a benediction has always been highly 
valued, and this formal putting of God's 
blessing upon His people is of the highest 
importance. In the Prayer- Book there are 
six formulas of benediction and three prayers 
for special benediction. The first is the 
mutual benediction of both priest and peo- 
ple in the versicles : " The Lord be with 
you, R. and with thy spirit." The second 
is the benediction taken from 2 Cor. xiii. 14 : 
"The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ 
and the love of God and the fellowship of 
the Holt Ghost be with us all evermore," 
in which the variation of 4< us" for 4t you," 
though apparently slight when compared 
with the same benediction in St James's 
Liturgy, hints at the possibility that St. 
Paul may have quoted from the Liturgy, 
and that our own use came not from the 
form in the New Testament, but from this 
ancient Liturgy. This blessing closes both 
Morning and Evening Prayer and tho 
Burial service. The third form is the beau- 
tiful one formed by the English Church from 
an old Anglo-Saxon form and a benediction 
by St. Paul. The first part is from Phil. iv. 
6, 7 ; " The peace of God which passeth all un- 
derstanding shall keep your hearts and minds 
through Jesus Christ," but enlarged. The 
second part is also enlarged from this bless- 
ing in Leofric's Exeter Pontifical: "The 
blessing of God the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost, and the peace 
of the Lord be ever with you." This is used 
at the Holy Communion, at ordination, and 
at the consecration of a church. The latter 

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part was also placed by. the Caroline revisers 
(1682 a.d.) after the Confirmation Office. 
The fourth form is the one divinely com- 
manded to bo put upon the Holy People, 
and was incorporated into the Office for the 
Visitation of the Sick. The fifth form is 
the blessing (taken from Heb. ziii. 20, 21) 
in the Office of Institution. There is no 
alteration in this form. The sixth form is 
the one at the close of the Marriage service. 
It is modeled upon the one in the English 
Office, but differs from it materially. The 
English form is this : "Almighty God, who 
at the beginning did create our first parents, 
Adam and Eve, and did sanctify and join 
them together in marriage ; Pour upon you 
the riches of His grace, sanctify and bless 
you, that ye may please Him both in body 
and soul, and live together in holy love unto 
your lives' end. Amen." Our American 
form is : " God the Father, God the Son, 
God the Holy Ghost bless, preserve, and 
keep you. The Lord mercifully with His 
favor look upon you and fill you with all 
spiritual benediction and grace, that ye may 
so live together in this life that in the world 
to come ye may have life everlasting. 

The three prayers of benediction are, first, 
the Invocation in the Holy Communion : 
"And we most humbly beseech Thee, O 
merciful Father, to hear us; and of Thy 
almighty goodness vouchsafe to bless and 
sanctify with Thy Word and Holy Spirit 
these Thy gifts and creatures of bread and 
wine." The second is the prayer for the 
blessing of the water in the Baptismal Office. 
The third is properly a series of prayers in 
the Form of Consecration of a Church or 
Chapel. The first being the prayer " O Eter- 
nal God," and the Collects following; the 
second, after the sentence of consecration is 
read, the prayer, " Blessed be Thy Name, O 
Lord," etc. ; and after the Morning Prayer 
and Communion service the last prayer, 
" Blessed be Thy Name, O Lord God," etc. 
Of course the service closes with The Peace 
of God. 

The acts of blessing are oft repeated, some- 
times daily, as, for instance, grace at meat. 
In the primitive Church many forms of ben- 
ediction were used ; as of the utensils and 
furniture of a church, as well as of persons. 

It were well if a little thought were spent 
upon the value and solemnity of benedictions, 
chiefly those given to us at the Church's ser- 
vices, but also on less solemn occasions. To 
have His name put upon us is no light thing, 
but of itself a rich and abiding gift, unless we 
cast it from us. Then as the acts of God's 
officer are not mere forms, but true and effec- 
tual actions, we receive of God true and 
effectual blessing as we fit ourselves for it 
and give due heed to it. 

Benedictus. The second of the two hymns 
after the second lesson at Morning Prayer. 
It is the hymn of Zacharias, the father of 
St. John Baptist, at his son's circumcision. 
The English places it first, and recites it at 

length ; but the American Church places it 
second, and recites but four verses If the 
tone of the hymn be noted carefully, it will 
be seen to be fitly used from Advent Sunday 
to Trinity Sunday, while the Jubilate is more 
proper for the Trinity season. It was in* 
tended in the English service to be used con- 
stantly, the Jubilate being given as an alter- 
nate, to avoid the repetition of the Benedictus 
when it should occur in the second lesson. 
Its ritual use has come to us from the Galil- 
ean and Salsbury uses. 

Benefice. It was used to signify the gift of 
land given to the soldier out of conquered ter- 
ritory. " Hence, doubtless, came the word 
benefice to be applied to Church livings ; for, 
besides that the ecclesiastics held for life, like 
the soldier?, the riches of the Church arose 
from the beneficence of princes." (Burns, 
Eccl. Law.) In the American Church no 
such thing as a benefice is properly known, 
since our parishes and churches are erected 
and supported under different conditions of 
life from those in which the Church in Eu- 
rope grew. A benefice is the growth of dif- 
ferent customs from ours. A benefice re- 
quires to be erected by Episcopal authority ; 
to be founded for purely spiritual purposes ; 
to be conferred upon a clerk in orders; it 
must be perpetual, and given to another per 
son than him who confers it. In obtaining 
a benefice, then, there must be, I. Presenta- 
tion by the proper person to the Bishop 
of the nominee. II. Examination by the 
Bishop. III. Refusal (generally from want 
of learning) ; or, IV. Admission. V. In- 
stitution (when the nominee is presented by 
a patron to the Bishop or Collation (when 
the Bishop presents a benefice in his own 
gift). VI. Induction, usually by the Arch- 
deacon. VII. Duty after induction. A 
benefice is a different thing from a cathedral 
preferment ; for it has a cure of souls, which 
a cathedral preferment hath not. 

Benefit of Clergy. A mediaeval custom 
by which accused persons who proved them- 
selves to be " clerks" by reading Latin 
could claim to be tried by the Bishop's, in- 
stead of the King's, Court. It was a priv- 
ilege originally belonging only to those 
who were actually in holy orders,' but it was 
gradually extended to those in minor orders 
and to every one who could read a verse in 
the Latin Bible. The privilege was grossly 
abused, and a hindrance to the execution of 
justice and a scandal and burden to the 
Church. It was modified and restrained at 
the Reformation, and the clergy were them- 
selves subject to secular tribunals for crimes 
and misdemeanors at law, and finally the 
Benefit of Clergy was abolished in 1827 a.d. 

Bible, The, is the popular collective title 
of the sacred books of the Christian Church. 
It includes the Old Testament, or the He- 
brew Sacred Scriptures, the ecclesiastical 
books called " the Apocrypha," and the dis- 
tinctively Christian books which compose 
the New Testament. The earliest collective 
title was the "Law," which embraced proba- 

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bly only the five books *of Moses. Later 
the collection of the prophets was added, 
and later still the Hagiographa, or the 
Psalms. In our Saviour's time the whole 
collection was spoken of as "the Law," 
" the Law and the Prophets," or " the Law, 
the Prophets, and the Psalms," or more 
generally, " the Scriptures," and " the Holy 
Scriptures," or "the Scripture." With one 
or two exceptions (2 Pet. iii. 16 ; 1 Tim. v. 
18), whenever " the Scriptures" or " the 
Scripture" are mentioned in the New Testa- 
ment, the reference is to the sacred books of 
the Old Testament (e.g , St. John ii. 22, v. 
80 ; 2 Tim. iii. 15). St. Paul speaks of 
44 the old covenant" or " testament" (2 Cor. 
iii. 14], and contrasts " the two Covenants" 
(Gal. iv. 24), so that very early these titles 
of "Old Covenant," or " Testament" and 
44 New Testament," were in use. It was not 
till St. Jerome, in the fourth century, used 
the title " Bibliothoca divina" that anyone 
term was used to include both. About the 
same time the Greeks began to use the plu- 
ral Biblia, or " The Books," which was 
afterwards borrowed in the West and used 
as a singular, anfl so has passed into com- 
mon use in the word Bible. 

While, therefore, this use expresses a pop- 
ular conviction and a great truth, St. Je- 
rome's title, " the Divine Library," or that 
which is generally used in the Prayer-Book, 
is more strictly correct, inasmuch as the 
Bible is a collection of some sixty-six (or, 
including the Apocrypha, eighty) distinct 
books or documents, scattered over a period 
of fifteen hundred years, and written in dif- 
ferent styles and for different purpotes. 

These are arranged in our Bibles, except 
so fur as the threefold general division marks 
such a distinction, without regard to order 
of time. The Law of Moses comes first in 
order, followed by the historical books, and 
many of those which, in the Hebrew, are 
reckoned among the Psalms or Hagiogra- 
>ha, and those by the prophets. The He- 
Tew Bible, after the Law of Moses, places 
two collections of " the Prophets," the first, 
priores, including Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 
Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings, and posteriores, in- 
cluding those that we name the prophets, 
except Daniel, who, along with David, as 
possessing the gift of prophecy but not ex- 
ercising the pastoral office of the prophet, is 
reckoned among "the Writings," or " the 
Psalms." In the Septuagint version of the 
Old Testament, which has always been in 
use in the Eastern Church, the Apocry- 
phal or Ecclesiastical books are interspersed 
among the books of the Prophets and Hagio- 
grapha as they are also in the Vulgate, which 
is used by the Roman Church and regarded 
as in every part of equal authority. Neither 
is the New Testament arranged chronolog- 
ically. The general order is the Gospels 
and the book of Acts, which supplements 
St. Luke's Gospel, St. Paul's Epistles, the 
General Epistles, the Revelation of St. John. 
The history of the Canon of the Old Testa- 


ment is very meagre. The word Canon sig- 
nifies a rule or measuring line, and is gener- 
ally used to signify the collection of those 
books which came under the rule or defini- 
tion of " inspired books," or "Holy Scrip- 
tures." Of the Canon of the Old Testament, 
it is conceded that up to the captivity only 
that portion which is called the Law (2 Kings 
xxii. 18 ; Isa. xxxiv. 16) was collected and 
reckoned as sacred and closed. A strong 
evidence of this is found in the fact that the 
Samaritans only receive the five books of 
Moses as sacred. After the return from the 
Captivity history ascribes the authoritative 
collection and use of " the Prophets" to Ezra, 
and after him to Nehemiah (2 Mace. ii. 13). 
Ezra organized "the great assembly" by 
which the collection of the Scriptures was 
carried on and completed. The lust member 
of the great assembly was Simon the Just 
(290 B.C.), and after his time no new book 
was added to the Hebrew Canon. In Alex- 
andria, however, in the third century B.C., 
the Greek version, called, it is said, from the 
number of the translators the Septuagint, or 
"the LXX.," had been made, and was in 
universal use among all Greek-speaking Jews 
in the world. To this additions were made, 
viz., those which are included in "the 
Apocrypha," and were received and used as 
part of the Holy Scriptures by the early 
Church. As has been said, they are still so 
received by the Eastern Church, and in spite 
of St. Jerome's protest and distinction, which 
is quoted in our VI. Article, the Roman 
Church declares all but three of them canon- 
ical and of equal value with the other books 
of the Old Testament, and those three being 
the two books of Esdras and the Prayer of 
Manasseh. Our own Church draws the dis- 
tinction of St. Jerome between " the Canon- 
ical books of the Old and New Testament" 
and "the other books (as Hierome saith), 
which the Church doth read for example of 
life and instruction of manners, but yet doth 
not apply them to establish any doctrine." 

The history of the Canon of the New Tes- 
tament is of course much more complete. 
At first the Church had the living voice of 
Apostles, and with this to supplement and 
explain the Sacred Scriptures of the Old 
Covenant, it needed nothing more. But 
this state of things could not last, and partly 
by design (St. Luke i. 1-4 ; 2 Pet. i. 15), 
chiefly, it would appear, by the power of an 
overruling Providence, not only were the 
four Gospels written, but in a series of occa- 
sional letters the Apostles, and especially 
St. Paul, furnished a body of commentaries 
and instructions, which have been and will 
toe the sacred legacy and the Sacred Scrip- 
tures of the Church for all time. Though 
these writings were at first the special prop- 
erty of different parts of the Church, and 
though at the very first not all Churches pos- 
sessed them all, still as one body the Church 
possessed them all, and within another gen 
eration had gathered them all in one collec- 
tion. The " Apostolic Fathers," St. Clement 

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of Borne, St. Ignatius, St. Poly carp, St. 
Barnabas, frequently quote the Gospels and 
Epistles. Marcien the heretic, Irenaws, Ter- 
tullian, recognize the Gospel " comprising 
the four Gospels.' ' Tatian's Diatessaron is a 
harmony of the four Gospels, and they quote 
" the Apostles" as collections of Epistles al- 
ready known. Origen mentions the books 
of both the Old and the New Testaments by 
name, and comments on them. Other books of 
the Apostolic Fathers were read in churches, 
but were designated as " ecclesiastical, " 
"read," or "disputed," though they were 
not forbidden till the Councilof Laodicea, 
8G0 a.d. The persecution of Diocletian, 808 
a.d., was especially directed against the 
Churches ana the Scriptures of the Chris- 
tians, " that the Churches should be razed 
and the Scriptures consumed with fire," but it 
had the good effect to sharpen the distinction 
between " the Holy Scriptures" and all other 
writings, and the use of the word " Canoni- 
cal," to distinguish those which were "in- 
spired and sacred," may be said to date 
from this time. The controversies of the 
fourth century give frequent testimony to 
the fact that there was a general consent to 
the Canon of both the Old Testament and 
the New. 

The earliest MSS. known date from that 
century and the following, — the Sinaitic and 
Vatican Codices (fourth century), and the 
Alexandrian and Eph ramie (fifth century). 
Many hundreds, more or less complete, are 
in existence and known, dating from every 
century since that time. These which have 
been named are evidently intended for pub^ 
lie use, and, of course, represent older man- 
uscripts which have perished. Thev con- 
tain more or less entirely both the Old and 
the New Testaments. 

Attempts were made very early to divide 
the books into portions for convenience of 
use, but our present division into chapters 
dates only from the thirteenth century, and 
is the work of Cardinal Hugo, of Sancto Caro. 
The division into verses is later still, and the 
work of Stephens, the printer, in the six- 
teenth century. 

The Scriptures were first received by the 
Church in Greek, and there is no known 
translation into Latin till Tertullian quotes 
that which was in use in Africa. The first 
attempt at translation into Anglo-Saxon 
was by Caedman, in the sixth century, 
and after him by the Venerable Bede. 
Wickliffe's version in the fourteenth century 
was the first complete- English translation. 
The first printed edition of the New Testa- 
ment in English was Tyndale's, probably 
printed at Worms. Coverdale's Bible was* 
printed abroad in 1585 a.d. Cranmer's 
"Great Bible," in 1640 a.d., was the first 
appointed " to be read in Churches." The 
Genevan Bible of 1560 a.d. was for three- 
fourths of a century the popular Bible 
in England. The " Bishops' Bible" of 1568 
a.d. is that from which the Prayer-Book 
version of the Psalms is taken. The author- 

ized version, known as King James's Bible, 
dates from 1611 a.d., since which time till 
the year 1881 a.d. no revision by authority 
has been attempted. 

II. This bald and imperfect sketch of the his- 
tory of the Bible leaves upon the mind of the 
reader at first the impression of uncertainty 
and lack of the authority which we have 
been accustomed to associate with the Bible. 
The Bible is fragmentary instead of being 
one complete work, and the history is frag- 
mentary and as incomplete. The authors 
of many books are not named. They do not 
plainly set forth claims of their own author- 
ity. The record of their origin is often not 
what we would desire or expect. The Canon 
was not established at once and finally. 
There is little apparent unity of time or 
place or purpose in the different books. 

And yet out of these fragments, and under 
circumstances of the kingdom and people 
of Israel and of the early Church most un- 
favorable, grew and has been made up a 
collection which, without change of one 
part to adapt it to another, is so completely 
one that to many a reader of the Bible the 
knowledge comes with a kind of shock that 
it is not one in the same sense that a history 
or a treatise on arithmetic is one. The 
unity is so complete and acknowledged by 
friend and foe that it has passed into com- 
mon speech and thought, and the bitterest 
enemy of the " Christian superstition" con- 
sider* that when he has delivered a blow at 
Daniel or St. Peter's Epistle he has smitten 
the whole fabric, while many a diligent 
reader of the Bible " reads a chapter" with- 
out being compelled to recognize the differ- 
ence between Gospel and Epistle, between 
history and poetry, or even between Old 
Testament and New. That is to say, in a 
true and deep sense the Bible is one book, 
and they who so regard it are not mistaken. 
It has grown with the growth of a living 
thing, and the life of it has been the Spirit 
who spake by the prophets. 

The true character of this Divine Library 
can better be understood from another point 
of view. The Scriptures contain in them- 
selves the record of the effect which they 
have had in the world, and their work is on 
record and in sight. The history of the 
people of Israel is the story of the educa- 
tion of a people from the lowest beginnings 
to the highest forms of civilization and en- 
lightenment. In depth of thought, in pure- 
ness of morals, in lofty spiritual conceptions,* 
and at the same time in the practical bear- 
ing of its wisdom upon daily life and upon 
society, no literature of any ancient nation 
compares with that of the people whom 
Moses led out of Egypt. And upon that 
foundation is built the structure of the New 
Testament. To compare the Christian Scrip- 
tures with the writings of their own time or. 
of anv other is impossible. Their character 
and their effect is one, and it is unique. 

III. The Old Testament is therefore the 
history of a nation, and to be understood it 

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must be read as a history. The story begins 
with the beginning of the whole race, -and 
then is narrowed to the history of a family 
which becomes a great nation. That nation 
suffers reverses and is broken up, but it does 
not perish till its work is done. This .his- 
tory is not contained only in the historical 
books. The prophets are woven into it, 
and each of the other books and each por- 
tion of them falls into its place. 

The first book tells the story of the earth 
from its creation "in the beginning, " 
through successive changes until man's cr« a- 
tion, and then goes on to relate the history 
of the race until the choice of one family, 
which henceforward becomes its almost ex- 
clusive subject. There is hardly a passage 
or a verse in the first part of the book of Gene- 
sis, i.e., that part of it which relates the early 
history of the earth and of mankind, which 
has not been the object of attack and the 
subject of controversy. The accounts of 
the creation, of the fall, of the flood, the 
chronology, the theology ,— everything in 
the book and everything about it has been 
denied and defended, its Mosaic author- 
ship has been impugned. It has been 
separated into two and three and an indefi- 
nite number of documents ascribed to as 
many authors. But still the book remains. 
Its account of the creation is declared to be 
" a remarkable anticipation of the conclu- 
sions of science. 1 ' Its account of the fall of 
man is our only solution of the problem of 
evil in the world. The critics never have 
agreed in the results of their criticism. The 
Mosaic authorship is unshaken. And the 
historical character of the narrative rests 
on firmer ground than ever. 

The remaining four books of the Penta- 
teuch relate the history of that chosen 
people from the time of their great leader 
and lawgiver, Moses, down to the time of 
their establishment in the land which had 
been promised to them. 

From Moses to David marks the trial and 
failure of the theocratic system, or rather 
the failure of the people to come up to the 
lofty ideal of that system. The three char- 
acters of prophet, priest, and king are re- 
markably blended in Samuel ; but they are 
never reunited. He is the one chosen to 
anoint the king over the people, and to 
establish the line of the prophets which be- 
comes from that time prominent. To this 
giriod belong the books of Joshua, Judges, 
uth. Prom David to the Captivity is the 
period of the kingdom, though in the second 
generation it was divided and continued 
as two kingdoms. The worship of Jehovah 
was established at Jerusalem. The prophets 
prophesied as special messengers of the Lord 
to both kingdoms. To this period belong 
the historical books of Samuel, Kings, and 
Chronicles, the prophecies of Isaiah, Jere- 
miah, the earlier of the minor prophets, the 
greater part of the Psalms, and the books 
of Solomon. During and after the Cap- 
tivity, Ezekiel, Daniel, Uaggai, Zechariah, 


Malachi, many of the Psalms, and the his- 
torical books of Kira and Nehemiah. The 
book of Job is one of which the date and 
author are unknown, but apparently it is 
one of the earliest, if not the very earliest, of 

These different books represent different 
stages of the national life and of the na- 
tional education. The state of society in 
Genesis is patriarchal. When the children 
of Israel come prominently forward in 
Exodus, they are bondmen in Egypt. The 
Law is given to a people degraded by long 
bondage. Joshua, Judges, Kuth, depict a 
state of society of the rudest and most 
primitive. The hooks of the kingdom show 
us a nation highly cultivated and enlight- 
ened. From that condition they fell away, 
but the lofty spiritual conceptions and high 
moral purposes which had belonged to them 
at their best remained to them, and kept 
them from ever becoming really like the 
nations around them. There is in the his- 
tory a distinct advance from time to t'me. 
The nation is being educated, as we can see 
verv clearly. 

iV. But while, say during the five cen- 
turies from Moses to Solomon, there is a 
continual progress and education of the peo- 
ple, evident in their customs, social, politi- 
cal, and even religious, in the evils that are 
rebuked and in the form of the rebukes, in 
the form of the instructions that are given 
to them, there is in the story from beginning 
to end one unchangeable element. He who 
in the beginning created the heavens and 
the earth Is the Lord, who spake to Abra- 
ham and to Moses, who was revealed on 
Sinai, and who made the promise to David 
and to Solomon. The Law that He gave on 
Sinai embraced all the principles of all the 
law that He ever gave them. Higher con- 
ception of God, or of man's duty to Him, 
than was revealed then, and later in Deuter- 
onomy, — " The Lord our God is one Lord : 
and thou shalt love the Lord thy God with 
all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and 
with all thy might" (Deut. vi. 4, 6), — was 
never revealed to them or to man. All 
that was taught them, and all that was 
given them, was involved in those first com- 
mandments. The priesthood as being nearer 
by their office to the source of truth, and as the 
teaching caste, no doubt were always some- 
what in advance of the common people, but- 
they had no secret knowledge, and nothing 
which did not belong alike to all and each of 
the "kingdomofpriests"(Ex.xix.6). Moses 
expressed the view of true wisdom and the 
view of the whole law when he rejoiced that 
some were prophesying in the camp, '• would 
God that all tne Lord's people were proph- 
ets." Our Saviour appeals to the saying 
to Moses at the bush, "1 am the God of 
Abraham and of Isaac and of Jacob," as 
proof of the resurrection of the dead. The 
progress and education of the nation was not 
in the way of discovery or development of 
new truth : but it was a progress and edu- 

Digitized by 



cation up to a standard which was set for 
them on Sinai, and in the call of Moses and in 
the promise to Abraham, and never changed. 

This thought of the perfrctness and unity 
ot the truth which was revealed gives us 
the key to the unity of the Scriptures. We 
can understand how the inspired words of 
the One God should be essentially one with 
each other. But we have an explanation 
more definite still. That explanation lies in 
the one purpose of God, which was first 
revealed in Eden, in the promise of the 
" seed of the woman who should bruise the 
serpent's head," which was repeated to 
Abraham, " in thy seed shall all the nations 
of the earth be blessed," and again to David 
of the Son, who should sit on his throne 
and reign forever. " Your father Abra- 
ham rejoiced to see my day," our Saviour 
said. Of all the Law and the prophets He 
said, " I am not come to destroy but to ful- 
fill." " The testimony of Jesus is the spirit 
of prophecy." The children of Israel were 
'chosen and kept and tauuht and trained for 
the fulfillment of that one promise and pur- 
pose of Almighty God. What was true of 
the whole system was true of every part of 
it. Every sacrifice was a type of Curist. 
Every law and every prophecy foretold 

Still more evidently true is it of the Scrip- 
tures of the New Testament that they depend 
upon CHRIST and reveal Him. The Gospels 
are biographies of Him. The Epistles apply 
the truth as it is in Him, to establish and 
edify His Kingdom and to instruct and 
guide His followers. They are nothing with- 
out Him, and it is in vain to try to under- 
stand them without the presupposition of 
faith in Him. 

The faiih in Christ is therefore the bond 
of union between the Old Testament and the 
New. Out of the Old Testament had grown 
up at our Saviour's coming a strong and 
definite expectation of the Christ, the Son 
of David. And though many held that ex- 
pectation along with such errors that they 
could not recognize the fulfillment, He did 
fulfill it, and it~was the purpose of the Gos- 
pels and Epistles to show how He fulfilled 
it The Old and the New are, therefore, one 
" in Him." We could have neither without 
the other, but neither without Him. 

V. The Bible is therefore a history, and a 
history which has one key, and which cen- 
tres in one Person. But there is another 
view of its historical character which is in- 
volved in this one, and which is not less 
necessary in order to understand either the 
history which the Scriptures relate or their 
own history as books. It would be impossi- 
ble for any man to understand the first sen- 
tence of the Old Testament who did not 
know who is the God who created, or to be- 
lieve it who did not believe in Him. It 
would be impossible to form any idea of the 
connection of the different portions without 
some recognition of Christ our Lord as the 
object and fulfillment of the purpose of God. 


But not less necessary than these two first 
principles of scriptural criticism is another, — 
the recognition of the kingdom of Israel and 
of its fulfillment, the Kingdom of Christ on 
earth, in their corporate and official capacity 
of the witness and keeper of Holy Scripture. 
The Old Testament Scriptures were written 
and committed to the Kingdom and Church 
of Israel (Bom. iii. 2) under nil its varied 
circumstances. It is as necessary to keep 
this thought in mind in order to understand 
them as ii is with regard to any history or 
public document of any nation. While they 
contain many things which are universally* 
true and applicable to all times and peoples, 
they contain a great (leal which is only di- 
rectly true and applicable to this particular 
people and perhaps to this particular time, 
and even that universal truth must be seen 
to be understood through the medium of this 
"peculiar people." 

This is one practical bearing of the princi- 
ple. Another is no less important. These 
Scriptures are the inspired Word of God, and 
this chosen nation is the chosen people of 
God in the same sense and for the same pur- 
pose, — " an inspired nation" in Dean Stan- 
ley's words. To give any meaning to the 
words " inspired" or " chosen of God," is to 
suppose His overruling presence with them 
as a people in the reception and preserva- 
tion of His words to them. He used men 
to write them. Who the men were or what 
the pen they wrote with or the material on 
which they wrote we do not know, but the 
fact that we have them proves that they were 
written, and .proves also £he fact of their 
preservation. The men and the names 
passed away, for they were acting officially, — 
the prophet is one who " speaks for God," 
— and what they spoke and wrote by vir- 
tue of their office, the whole living body 
acting by its various members, and through 
generations, tested, sifted, preserved by vir- 
tue of its office. When men neglected their 
duty God overruled their neglect, and when 
some reformation repairs the ruined Temple 
of the Lord, under the rubbish they find 
" the book of the Law of the Lord" (2 Chron. 
xxxiv. 14). The practical bearing of this 
principle as an answer to many of the attacks 
of unbelief is very evident. History and con- 
stitution and laws and poetry imply and 
prove the nation to which they belonged. 
The strong proof that the Scriptures of the 
Old Testament are all that we believe them 
to be lies in the testimony which the people 
of Israel supply us by their existence as a 
people. In this wider view many of the 
smaller questions and tests of words and 
styles and imagined probabilities of men who 
read the books of three thousand years ago 
with nineteenth century eyes simply sink 
out of sight. 

We can see the bearing of this principle 
upon the Old Testament Scriptures. It is 
no less important to the understanding of 
the New Testament. The Scriptures of the 
New Testament were written and com mi t- 

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ted, not by chance, nor lo all the world, nop 
to anv miraculous agency, but to the Church 
of Cnrist, to which they stand related pre- 
cisely as do the Scriptures of the Old Testa- 
ment to the Church of Israel. It hardly 
needs to be suggested that the Epistle to the 
Church of God, which is at Corinth, sup- 
poses the existence of the Church of God at 
Corinth, and that one who would understand 
that Epistle must read it with the under- 
standing of a Church thoroughly organised 
and possessing all that was needed for the 
full performance of the work of a Church : 
Creed, Sacraments, Liturgy, Psalms, and 
many other things not so desirable, but all 
indicative of corporate existence. What is 
true of this one letter is just as true, though 
not always so evident, of all the rest of the 
New Testament. No one can read and un- 
derstand alike why some things are said, and 
some equally important are omitted, and 
many others only hinted at, who does not 
read these Scriptures with the understand- 
ing of the Church to which and for which 
they were written. The world receives them 
from the Church. It can only read them 
understanding^ in the Church. 

The same principle clears up many difficul- 
ties with regard to the history of the Canon 
of the Now Testament. Written to and for 
the Church, that Church preserved them. 
Fathers and Councils were the voices, blend- 
ing many in one, which spake the judgment 
of the living body in which the guiding 
Spirit had come to abide at Pentecost. We 
have an idea of what is meant by " public 
opinion," " the spirit of the age," etc. The 
Canon of Scripture expresses the matured 
judgment of the Church of God, whose office 
it is to be " the pillar and ground of the 
truth," and to which the Spirit was prom- 
ised, and at Pentecost was sent to abide, who 
** shall guide you into all truth." 

VI. In referring to these first principles 
of the truth about the Holy Scriptures we 
have not been unmindful of the recent at- 
tacks and the bold claims of modern criti- 
cism. We have had them constantly in 
mind, and this article has been shaped with 
reference to them, not with a view to avoid 
any of them, but to suggest the best way for 
the ordinary reader to meet them. There 
are two kinds of criticism, — one is the criti- 
cism of true, and therefore humble and 
faithful, scholarship, which regards no point 
of the truth beneath its notice, and so is not 
ashamed to busy itself with words and lots 
and points of the Scriptures, but which is 
not afraid of any truth wherever it finds it, 
but which, at the same time, recognizes the 
fact that there are weightier matters than 
these, and that there is truth which is higher 
and deeper than men can see or reach, and 
which is to be accepted not on evidence of 
sight, but of reason and faith. We need 
never fear such criticism or its results. There 
is another criticism which we need not bo 
much fear as shun, — the dishonest and de- 
structive criticism of determined unbelief, 

sometimes very learned, and sometimes very 
shallow and ignorant and boastful, which 
begins its investigations into the Scriptures 
in the spirit of the detective, with a mind 
warp* d and a heart hardened by determined 
prejudice. ^ It says beforehand, There can be 
no such thing as a miracle ; a real prophecy 
is impossible. There is no God, or if there 
is, He does not interfere with the order of 
nature and in the affairs of man ; the super- 
natural is the work of imagination, the di- 
vine is the unknowable; and then in this 
spirit of " free inquiry" it proceeds to con- 
vict the Scriptures of folly and falsehood, 
and calls its conclusions " the results of the 
higher critickm." So another "sweeps the 
heavens with his telescope and finds no God 
there," and another "carves the living 
hound," and with knife and glass and un- 
clean hand searches and finds no life in the 
carcass. Even so " their witness agrees not 
together," and the constant contradictions 
of the critics, both in their principles and 
in their conclusions, are enough to allay our 
fears if we had any. There is literally not 
a book of Holy Scripture which has not 
been the subject of such attacks, and it 
may be safely said that no book could possi- 
bly stand, and no evidence could be accepted, 
upon their principles. If the judge begins 
the trial of a case by declaring that all the 
witnesses are liars before he hears them, 
then no evidence can prove a case, and not 
only" can no miracle and no prophecy be 

§ roved, but no ordinary event in life. If 
inferences in style in the writings of one 
who prophesied during the reign of four 
kings proves that Isaiah could not have 
written all his prophecy, and demands a 
14 great unknown" to supply his lack, and 
if the same reasons require two Zechariahs 
and two or more Daniels and two St. Johns, 
and two—the " Elohist" and the " Jehovist" 
— or a dozen writers of Genesis, and a forger 
of Deuteronomy, and even of St. Paul's 
Epistles, then no great poet or author who 
ever lived ever wrote his own writings, and 
no man who u now is old" could ever " have 
been young." 

The truth about such attacks is that they 
are only new in form, they are old in spirit. 
They are the trials and tests not only of 
our faith, but of the truth. The final re- 
sults have always been good. Small errors 
in the text have been detected and corrected, 
and there is a constant return to the very 
perfection of the original writings. But 
that we may not misunderstand the bearing 
of such an admission, let us understand just 
what it implies. Such a sifting and com- 
parison of hundreds of old manuscripts, and 
the existence of such errors or any errors in 
some or other of them, proves two things, — 
in the first place, the vast number of other 
manuscripts which they represent, and there- 
fore of other witnesses to the truth, and also 
proves the true existence of a common and 
perfect original as certainly as the converg- 
ing of paths into roads, and of roads into a 


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city, proves the existence of the city into 
which and out of which they lead. The 
finding and expunging of a word or a sen- 
tence or a passage (and especially one which 
has no special doctrinal significance, and 
which is, if not a copyist's error, at best a 
paraphrase, or comment), so far from shak- 
ing our faith in the rest, only confirms our 
assurance. When the expert clerk in a bank 
discovers, by the aid of eye and glass, and 
scales, in packages of bills or a pile of gold 
and silver pieces, one which is counterfeit, 
but which, by its close imitation of the 
genuine, has escaped the ordinary eve, in- 
stead of rushing to the conclusion that all 
are therefore counterfeit, you are assured by 
, the same tests that all the rest are true. 

"lam not aware," says Professor San- 
day, of Oxford, 4t of a single discovery of 
now documents or materials bearing, how- 
ever indirectly, on New Testament criti- 
cism, that has tended in any way to shake 
the foundations of our faith, while by far 
the larger number have tended very posi- 
tively to strengthen them. Nor is the pros- 
pect any less favorable as regards specula- 
tive, analytical, or reconstructive criticism. 
Here, perhaps, there is more reason for dis- 
quiet Bola and revolutionary hypotheses 
have been thrown out, and will pruoably be 
thrown out again. But when we look back 
upon past controversies, we shall see in- 
deed that they have left a residuum, but a 
residuum that leaves Christianity no weaker, 
but rather stronger, than it was before. 
Errors are corrected; exaggerations are 
modified; our understanding of the New 
Testament grows in depth and fullness. 
And in the mean time, as it seems to me, 
certain positions have been placed beyond 
the reach of controversy. They are so 
much secure ground from which we can 
look out in safety, even though there may 
be obscurity outside. It is only a matter of 
time, and in the end all will come out right 
a^ain. One truth cannot permanently con- 
flict with another truth." 

There are " things hard to be understood 
in all the Holy Scriptures, which they that 
are unlearned and unstable wrest to their 
own destruction." But none the less we 
are commanded by our Lord to " search" 
them, only to read them in faith in Him if 
we would read them safely and profitably. 
They will be attacked, and many will deny 
and reject them. But we need neither be 
misled by their errors nor fear their attacks. 
Some of them proceed from ignorance. One 
is reminded of the anecdote of Franklin, 
who being in company with a number of 
French infidels, who were ridiculing the 
Bible, took from his pocket " an old book 
that he had picked up at a book-stall," and 
read to them, to their delight, the u Prayer 
of Habakkuk," and then compelled them to 
confess that they had never read the book 
on which they were sitting in judgment 
Others proceed from other causes. But we 
need not fear them. We have endeavored 

to indicate some of the guards against them 
in those deeper and wider principles of 
scriptural criticism without which any stu- 
dent will go astray. With which we come 
down to the-e books -from a wider view and 
a higher position 

It may be well to remind ourselves that 
one single fulfilled prophecy, such as the 
many that cluster about our Saviour's com- 
ing, is decisive against tho denials of proph- 
ecy and for the belief in it. One fact of 
definite, Messianic expectation, once so per- 
sistently denied and now so universally con- 
ceded, founded on the prophecy of Daniel, 
is enough to establish the truth of Daniel the 
prophet. Ono miracle, and above all the 
miracle of the Insurrection, justifies and 
establishes the belief in miracles. " If all 
the rest of the Christian Scriptures were lost 
or unauthentic, the four great undisputed 
Epistles of St. Paul furnish us with all the 
essentials of the Christian Faith." So that 
even against unbelieving criticism we are at 
liberty to choose our own ground, and to 
summon our enemy to stand upon it. But 
for our own purpose and advantage the true 
course is not even to take our stand at first 
even on such certain truth. JVe can come 
more safely and wisely to the examination 
even of such evidences — of which there is 
abundance — from above. Granted the be- 
ing of God, and the supernatural is natural, 
things hard to be understood become matters 
of course Prophecy is the necessary declara- 
tion of His will, and miracles the natural 
evidence and means by which He accom- 
plishes it. If this is His will and His work, 
then these ways are such as are to be ex- 
pected. Instead of fastening on some lit- 
tle point and testing the passage by a word, 
and the book by a misunderstood passage, 
and the whole by a darkened past, and so at 
every step shutting out the evidence and 
truth of God, we see in the Scriptures tho 
Word of Him who is higher than the Scrip- 
tures, and who must be believed in, in order 
to understand His Word, the revelation of 
CnaisT the Incarnate Word without whom 
tbey are naught, and the message delivered 
to " the Church which is His Body." They 
are not, therefore, all our religion, nor the 
sum of the trust committed to us. They do 
not lose but gain to our view when we 
understand that they are not alone, but that 
they are as the law of the Kingdom, filling 
their place and fulfilling their work in the 
great system of the Kingdom of the great 
God and our Saviour. Then we can read 
the books in their places, and each chapter 
and verse and word is magnified and enlight- 
ened by the light that falls upon it from the 
sun of the svstem. It is fully in accord with 
this principle that " the Article of the Suffi- 
ciency of the Holy Scriptures for Salvation 
was placed by our Anglican Fathers next 
after the Articles of the Trinity." " Holy 
Scripture containeth all things necessary 
to salvation, so that whatsoever is not 
read therein, nor may be proved thoreby, is 

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not to be required of any man that it should 
be believed as an article of the Faith, or be 
thought requisite or necessary to salvation. 11 
And it is in the same spirit that it goes on 
to define what is meant by Holy Scripture, 
with an appeal to the general judgment of 
the Church, — " those canonical books of the 
Old and New Testament of whose authority 
was never any doubt in the Church." 

Authorities: Wordsworth's Commentary, 
The Bible in the Church, Westcott, Aids to 
Faith, Encyclopedia Britannica, Proceedings 
of Reading Church Congress. 

Rky. L. W. Gibson. 

Bidding Prayers. To bid not only meant 
to order, but also to pray (cf. German, beten). 
Bidding prayer, then, is a monition or call to 
prayer. It is retained in our " Let us pray." 
In the 53th Canon of 16()8 a.d., the form of 
bidding prayer was given thus : * * Before all 
sermons, lectures, and homilies the preachers 
and ministers shall move the people to join 
with them in prayer in this form, or to tfiia 
effeci, as briefly as conveniently they may : 
Ye shall pray for Christ's Holy Catholic 
Church ; that is, for the whole congregation 
of Christian people dispersed throughout 
the whole world, and especially for the 
Churches of England, Scotland, and Ireland. 
And herein I require you most especially to 
pray for the King's most excellent Majesty, 
our sovereign, Lord James, King of England, 
Scotland, France, and Ireland, defender of 
the faith and supreme governor in these 
his realms and all other his dominions and 
countries over all persons, in all causes as 
well ecclesiastical as temporal. Te shall 
also pray for our gracious Queen Anne, the 
noble Prince Henry, and the rest of the 
King's and Queen's royal issue. Te shall 
pray for the ministers of God's Holy Word 
and sacraments, as well Archbishops and 
Bishops as other pastors and curates. Ye 
shall also pray for the King's most honor- 
able Council and for all the nobility and 
magistrates of this realm, that all and every 
of these in their several callings may serve 
truly and faithfully to the glory of God and 
the edifying and well governing of His people, 
remembering the account they must make. 
Also ye shall pray for the whole Commons 
of this realm that they may live in the true 
faith and fear of God, in humble obedience 
to the King, and brotherly charity one to 
another. Finally, let us praise God for all 
those which are departed out of this life in 
the faith of Cheist, and pray unto God 
that we may have grace to direct our lives 
after their good example, that this life ended 
we may be made partakers with them of the 
glorious resurrection in the life everlasting." 
It always concluded with the Lord's Prayer. 
The names and estates are varied, of course, 
with the times and the sovereigns, but the 
bidding prayer is still used in England. As 
it often happens that it would be very con- 
venient to deliver a lecture or sermon to a 
class or guild without the Evening Prayer 
preceding it, it is worth the while to con- 

sider whether it might not be advisable for 
the Church to permitsome such form of bid- 
ding prayer to be used under due restric- 

Bier. A portable carriage for the dead. 

Bigamy. The crime of marrying a sec* 
ond wife while the first is still living. In 
the early Church it meant also the marry* 
ing of a second wife after the death of 
the first, — an act which was discouraged in 
every way, it being sometimes an impedi- 
ment to holy orders. But the rule ana the 
opposition varied in various parts of the 
Church and at different times. 

Birretta. The square cap worn by for- 
eign ecclesiastics over the zucchetto, or close 
skull-cap. It was probably a late introduc- 
tion after tonsure was fully enforced. 

Bishop, The Rights, Duties, and Privi- 
leges of a. Immediately before His ascen- 
sion into Heaven, in a place apart where 
He had appointed, our Lord,, in the pres- 
ence of His eleven Apostles, asserting the 
plenitude of His power, "All power is 
given unto me in heaven and in earth" (St. 
Matthew xxviii. 18), made this the basis of 
the fullness of the functions with which He 
sent forth His Apostles to their work : ** Go 
ye, therefore, and teach all nations. . . . 
and, lo, I am with you al way." " As («atof) 
my Father has sent me, even so send I you" 
(St. Jx>hn xx. 21). Of the fullness of the 
power with which He was Himself endued, 
according to this measure He invested His 
Apostles with authority to carry on the 
work which He had begun. Realizing the 
sole responsibility thus placed upon them, 
they fill up their number (Acts i. 26), and 
in due time constitute the subordinate 
orders of Deacon and Presbyter (Acts vi. 6 ; 
Titus i. 5), for the better execution of the 
task that at first rested wholly upon them- 
selves. With the headship of the Church 
under Christ in this office always clearly 
indicated, but under varying names, it set- 
tled within the first century after Christ 
upon that designation of Bishop, which 
was used at times by the Apostles, and has 
been employed ever since. At first the 
oversight was in the body of the Apostles 
jointly. Then a single Apostle had the 
care of those whom he had been the means 
of converting to the Christian faith. Soon 
after this there arose natural Iv the Diocesan 
Episcopate, with the immediate authority 
of Bishops restricted to their several Dio- 
ceses, along with a joint responsibility on 
the part of each Bishop, as a part of the 
general Episcopate, for the welfare of the 
entire Church. 

The duty of general oversight in the 
Bishop very soon compelled the designation 
of particular Presbyters to have the imme- 
diate spiritual care of the several districts 
or parishes as they were successively formed. 
These Presbyters at first were sent forth 
from the Bishop's Church, and acted with 
delegated authority. As the number of 
Christians and the distance from the Bishop 

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Increased, these Presbyters came gradually 
to act with greater independence, and the 
relation of their parishes with the cathedral 
became more indefinite. At the same time 
the connection of every baptized person 
with the Bishop was marked, and the sig- 
nificance of the sole office which was im- 
mediately created in the Church by our 
Lord was emphasized in the renewal before 
him of the baptismal vows, and the receiv- 
ing from him in confirmation the seal of 
the Holy Ghost. 

The distinct purpose declared for which 
the number of the Apostles was completed 
was that the person so chosen might be a 
witness to the resurrection of our Lord. 
This office of the Episcopate, to hold, and 
hand on, and bear witness to, the purity of 
the faith, has always been very important. 
As different interpretations of the Holy 
Scriptures appeared, and questions arose 
about the faith which had been delivered, 
the Bishops from all parts of the Church 
were called together into Councils in order 
to bear witness to what had been held from 
the beginning, and to determine Questions 
of discipline and order. This was the order 
in the Church with whom the decisions as 
to doctrine rested. 

This witnessing function of the Epis- 
copate, coming among the other reasons 
stated, from the fact that it never died, and 
could be distinctly traced in the history of 
the several Sees, was naturally joined with 
the executive function. Whatever others 
could do the Bishop could do, and more. 
All functions ended up in him. All appeals 
might finally come to him for settlement. 
He was the visible centre of communion. 
Through him the Diocese and its members 
were connected with the universal Church. 
He was the guardian of the rights and 
privileges of the several members of the 
Diocese as against each other. 

This executive function of the Bishop 
manifested itself in several forms : 

(1) Having a seat in all General Coun- 
cils of the Church, he has the position of 
presidency in his own Diocese. He holds 
his own office in trust, being obliged to see 
that its powers and dignities suffer no dimi- 
nution while they are in his hands. He is 
also the trustee of the traditional and imme- 
morial immunities and privileges of all the 
clergymen and laymen in his jurisdiction. 
The interest and the greatest efficiency of 
the whole Church are involved in the de- 
velopment to the highest point of all the 
capacities which are in each office, and in 
the prevention of the dishonoring of any 
position or the diminution of its efficiency 
by the intrusion of other agencies out of 
their rightful place. This duty comes 
rightly on the Bishop. 

Apostolic example shows that this rule of 
the BUhop is not designed to be autocratic, 
but to be shared and concurred in by the 
counsel of the Presbyters and Brethren (Acts 
xv. 28). In all forms of ecclesiastical ac- 

tion, whether in the adoption of Canons, or 
in the election of Bishops, or in the regula- 
tion of the minor business of the Church, 
this initiation of the Bishop along with the 
deliberate concurrence of the other orders in 
the Church has been seen. 

(2) Outside of conciliar action the Bishop 
is responsible for the efficiency of the Church 
in all of the multiform activities of a living, 
aggressive body, all the time confronting 
new questions. Responsible for the spiritual 
interests of the Diocese, his original right 
of nomination of ministers to all parishes 
has yet its trace remaining in the need that 
he should concur in all elections of clergy- 
men to cures, in order to the validity of the 
action. In case of differences between the 
minister and congregation, which may not 
otherwise be appeased, with him, either per- 
sonally or by deputy, the business of final 
appeal and settlement lies. In case of fault 
of any sort alleged in the minister, the 
Bishop, on a formal presentation of the case 
to his notice, takes order for the constitution 
of the court, if he thinks that the matter 
should go to trial, and the pronouncement 
of sentence if guilt is found. 

The Deacon is peculiarly under the Bish- 
op's care. His studies, as are also those of 
the candidate for holy orders, are prosecuted 
under the Bishop's direction. The Deacon 
is also subject to the Bishop's control in offi- 
ciating in the Diocese. 

To the parish and the laity, from the 
Bishop, passed, in large degree, the power 
of nomination to the rectorship when the 
income of the parish went directly to the 
clergymen, instead of, as at first, coming to 
the Bishop for distribution. Where, how- 
ever, the Bishop now does not nominate, be 
generally recommends for vacant positions, 
with an influence which is increased, not 
merely by the fact of his office, but also by 
his larger knowledge and the disinterested- 
ness of his motives. In any event the 
choice of a rector has to be communicated 
to him and be approved by him. 

(8) As the supreme executive officer of the 
Diocese, the distribution of the moneys of 
the Diocese is largely under his influence, 
if not bis control. He, in consultation with 
others, distributes the money which is con- 
tributed for the missionary purposes of the 
Diocese, as well all the educational and elee- 
mosynary funds which are at disposal. To 
him also, as having a better knowledge of 
the real condition and needs of the Diocese, 
are intrusted, from time to time, trust moneys 
for distribution according to his judgment, 
for church building and for personal and 
parochial aid. 

The relation of the Bishop not merely 
with the Diocese, but with the general 
Church, is shown in the manner of his 
election and otherwise. It is required that 
he shall receive at least a majority of the 
votes of the clergymen and parishes having 
seats in the Convention ; but his election is 
still incomplete until he receives the vote* 

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of a majority of the Diveses, as represented 
by their Standing Committees or deputations 
in General Convention; and after this the 
evidence of the consent of a majority of the 
Bishops. He may not resign his office until 
he has not only the consent of the Diocese, 
but of the House of Bishops. If charged 
with fault, he is tried by the House of 
Bishops sitting as a court. 

The otiicial designation of the Bishop in 
this country, as recommended by the Gen* 
eral Convention of 1785, was "The Right 
Keverend A. B M Bishop of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in C. D." 

It would not be strange that, from disuse 
on the part of the Bishop, or from ambition 
or excessive energy on the part of others, in 
the passage of lime some of the original 
functions of the Episcopate may have lapsed 
or been intruded upon. 

(1) The right of ordering the Liturgy and 
the Kitual of his Diocese, which originally 
belonged to the Bishop, has passed to the 
legislation of the national Church, to which 
the Bishop has virtually ceded a portion of 
his right. A disposition, also, practically to 
regulate the Kitual, without reference to the 
Bishop, has not infrequently appeared in 
certain ministers and parishes of a Dio- 

(2) The headship of the Diocese as repre- 
sented in Council, and the possibility of re- 
jecting all measures which did not meet 
with his approval, has in many instances 
shrunken to the honorary presidency of the 
body, and only such a voice in disapproval 
as belongs to any clergyman in the Diocese. 

But his authority as being the chief offi- 
cer, and his veto, which is inseparable from 
his right to legislate and to discipline, being 
inherent in the office of Bishop, are not for- 
feited when either not used or held in abey- 
ance through force of circumstances. 

(3) From non-residence and immersion in 
other interests the right of the BUhop in 
his cathedral has declined, in many cases, to 
the concession of but a formal visitation, 
and the privilege of an honorary seat in the 

(4) The right and the duty of giving holy 
orders, which is a primary office of the 
Episcopate, have in cases been so abridged 
by the excessive powers asserted by bodies 
having advisory functions, that it has been 
impossible for Bishops collectively or acting 
singly to give the Episcopate, or even ap- 
proach the question of the fitness of the 
persons proposed for admission to the lower 

It is believed, however, that, with regard 
to these and many other functions of a like 
character, the disposition in the Church is to 
restore to the Bishop that which for the Di- 
vine regimen of the Church, and therefore 
the better efficiency of its work, rightly and 
originally belong»*d to him ; while providing 
that the wisdom and healthful influence of 
his work shall be increased by the counsel, 
the co-operation, and the necessary checks 

which come from the other constituent parts 
of the Church. 

Bt. Kjev. C. F. Robertson, D.D., 
Bishop of Missouri. 

Blasphemy. Blasphemy is sometimes 
confused with profanity. A profane person 
is one who uses evil language, oaths, and 
blasphemous phrases. But a person may be 
guilty of blasphemy without any profanity, 
for he may teach contrary to God's honor 
or truth and yet use apparently reverent 
language. In the early Church there were 
three sorts of blasphemy distinguished: 
First, of apostates j so St. Polycarp indig- 
nantly replied when required to deny 
Christ : " These eighty and six years have 
I served Him, and He never did me harm ; 
how, then, can I blaspheme my King and 
my Saviour?" Second, of heretics and 
schismatics, who yet may recommend their 
heresy by moral lives. The Church visited 
these with excommunication. The third 
sort of blasphemy was the sin against the 
Holt Ghost. What this sin was, or is, was 
much debated. At the time when our Lord 
declared it, it was a denial of the evidence by 
miracles which He worked of the power of 
the Holt Ghost. If, then , it was a si n then 
to deny the power of the Holy Ghost, now 
it must be of the same kind. St. Athanasius 
and St. Ambrose defined it to be a denial of 
the Divinity of Christ, but St. Augustine 
defined it to be persistent and final impeni- 
tency. However this may be, the sin of 
blasphemy is committed with fearful fre- 
quency in this age. It is by a direct revil- 
ing of God a sin that marks the last ageof 
the world (Rev. xvi. 9, 11, 21; 2 Tim. iii. 
2). By willfully imputing to Him attributes 
or qualities which are not possible, as injus- 
tice, and creation of sin, or denying His at- 
tributes of love, mercy, truth, and such like. 
It may be also committed by reviling His 
creatures. Thus imprecations and profane 
swearing have the nature of blasphemy. 
By the Statute Law of England the denial 
of the persons of the Trinity, of the Chris- 
tian religion, of the Divine authority of the 
Holy Scriptures, is made blasphemy. 

Blood. " But fiesh with the life thereof, 
which is the blood thereof, ye shall not eat" 
(Gen. ix. 4). " And whatsoever man there 
be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers 
that sojourn among you, that eateth any 
manner of blood; I will even set my face 
against that soul that eateth blood, and will 
cut him off from among his people" (Lev. 
xvii. 10). "That ye abstain from . . . 
blood" (Acts xv. 29). 

It is very clear that in God's sight blood 
has a sacred and significant character which 
is much disregarded. The command was 
strict, " he shall even pour out the blood 
thereof and cover it with dust." The Chris- 
tians observed it under the directions of the 
Apostolic Letter, as quoted above. Blood 
was accounted the life, and modern science 
teaches us the same. " It is the life of all 
fiesh ; the blood of it is for the life thereof." 

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The loss of blood is the loss of physical life, 
and this is typical of the death of the soul. 
So Holy Scripture speaks of the " pouring 
out of the soul," and " the offering of the 
soul." Blood, therefore, being the life, and 
as Atonement is based upon the life of one for 
the lives of all (Rom. v. and Heb. ix. 7 s?.), 
the bloody sacrifice was the type of the one 
full sufficient sacrifice of Christ. Fur the 
life of the flesh is in the blood : " and I have 
given it to you upon the altar to make an 
atonement for your souls: for it is the blood 
that maketh an atonement for the soul" 
(Lev. xvii. 11). If, then, the blood of the 
lamb, the heifer, or the dove could have 
such typical significance, of how much 
greater dignity must we devoutly count the 
redeeming blood of our Lord Jicaua Christ, 
the Lamb of God, for whom were all previ- 
ous sacrifices and in whom their meaning 
and efficacy centred 1 " The blood of J k*us 
Christ cleanseth us from all sin." " How 
much more shall the blood of Christ, who, 
through the eternal Spirit, offered Himself 
without snot to God, purge your conscience 
from dead works to serve the living God." 
" Unto Uim that lovt d us and washed us 
from our sins in His own blood, and hath 
made us kings and priests unto God and His 
Father, to Him be glory and dominion for 
ever and ever. Amen." " These are they 
which came out of great tribulation and 
have washed their robes and made them 
white in the blood of the Lamb." Thence 
the blood of redemption upon the cross is 
made by Him our life. " This is my blood" 
which is shed for you and for many for the 
remission of sins. Do this as oft as yesh«U 
drink it, for the Lord Jesus had already 
said, " Whoso eateth my Flesh, and drinketh 
my Blood, hath eternal life ; and I will raise 
him up at the last day" (St. John vi. 64). 

Body, Mystical. The union between 
Christ and His members is so real, so in- 
timate, that St. Paul declares we are of His 
flesh and of His bones (Eph. v. 80). The 
Body into which we are so bound up is 
His Mystical Body the Church, which the 
Apostle declares we are. " Now ye are the 
Body of Christ, and members in particular 
(1 Cor. xii. 27), but this Body hath Christ 
as its Head, " And gave Him to be the Head 
over all things to the Church, which is His 
Body, the fullness of Him that filleth all in 
all" (Eph. i. 28). This Church, the souls and 
bodies of them that believe, He has purchased 
to Himself with His own Blood. It is a 
mystical Body, and our union in Christ is 
mystical, because it is now beyond our com- 
prehene on, but not contrary to the analogies 
which faith supplies from the experience we 
daily have given us. It is, thert-fore, to be 
believed and acted upon in our spiritual life, 
for the spiritual life of the Christian is the 
Life of Christ. The Church is not only the 
fullness of Him that filleth all in all: it is 
His Bride; it is His joy. Therefore the 
joining of ourselves to Christ by baptism, 
by the Communion, by the faith, love, and 

obedience which enter into the nature of our 
spiritual life, is such and so close a union 
with Him that it is properly mystical, be- 
yond human knowledge, and is summed up 
in the strong words St. Paul uses : " Ye aro 
dead, and your life is hid with Christ in 
God," and the still more mysterious lan- 
guage of St. Peter: ""Whereby aro given 
unto us exceeding great and precious prom- 
ises, that by these ye might be partakers of 
the Divine nature, having escaped the cor- 
ruption that is in theworll through lust" 
(2 Pet. i. 4). The Church is the visible ap- 
pointed Body for the giving and receiving 
of the gifts, graces, and influences which 
make up the mystical union of the Christian 
with his Lord. The inner mystical union 
of the life is the spiritual activity and healthy 
use of these means of grace in the man him- 
self. This mystical union has been treated 
of in many ways, its study and practice 
having formed a school of thought in the 
Church, which finally led into vagaries not 
warranted by Holy Scripture. 

Body, Natural. Our natural bodies, how- 
ever they may be viewed under the investi- 
gations of modern science, can finally be 
treated simply as returning to that dust out 
of which we aro formed. The teachings of the 
1st and 2d chapters of Genesis are the basis, 
finally, of all that can be said of our mortal 
bodies. That we were made by God in His 
own Image, and received from Him a living 
soul from His breath, that this breath wa? 
the breath of lives (vide margin in A. V. and 
Heb.). and that the subdivision of our life 
into physical, intellectual, and spiritual life, 
of wnich every thinking man is thoroughly 
conscious, all these are postulates with the 
Christian. The analysis of materialists can- 
not overthrow these, for they are aside from 
the line of study he has marked out for him- 
self, and the clashing comes from his effort 
to overpass the bounds between mind and 
matter. And the last analysis even of the 
material^ ends in a pre-existent ideal. 
That He can and did call our nature into 
existence by His own fiat is, of course, a 
fact that every believer in Revelation as- 
serts. How far, in what way it may be said 
that our body is in His Image, has ever been 
a matter of much speculation, but will be 
ever one of those mysteries solved in the 
hereafter, when we sha 1 know even as we 
are known. Of the creation of woman, it 
may be said to be wholly of the one nature 
of man, but derivatively, and subsisting as 
subordinate, and not by original creation. 
There are in our human nature three forms 
of existence, two of them in the historical 
past, the third in the continuous flow of 
human history : Adam by original creation, 
Eve by being formed out of Adam, and 
their descendants by conception and birth. 
And this human nature thus brought into 
existence is intimately bound up in a unity 
wonderful and reacting, and typical of the 
infinite and incomprehensible unity of the 
Divine Nature. 

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The Fall, by the introduction of sin by 
disobedience into our nature, produced dis- 
integration where the principle of unity 
had been fundamental. Capacities and en- 
dowments fitted for immortality and per- 
fect happiness were so tainted and stained, 
and the principle of harmonic life in God 
so ruined, that death was the inevitable 
result. " Dying thou shalt die" was the 
enouncing of a fact resulting from sin. 
Death is the final result of a prolonged dis- 
integration that begins with the moment of 
birth. When reparation no longer exceeds 
the waste, then death begins to win the vic- 
tory in the lengthened struggle. But since 
man had all things put in subjection to him, 
his fall tainted and soiled all the subordinate 
creation. Therefore St. Paul teaches us that 
" we know that the whole creation groanetE 
and travaileth in pain together until now." 
Our spate does not permit us to point out 
the bearing of the whole passage (Horn. viii. 
19-28) upon the Fall, the interconnection 
of the natural creation and man, and the 
restoration of the one by the redemption of 
the other through Jesus Christ, and by 
the continuous presence of the Holy Spirit. 
But this outline statement of the scriptural 
facts will give the clue to a clear grasp of 
this subject. The capacity for eternal life 
will be discussed under the title of .Immor- 
tality. The disastrous consequences of 
the Fall ruined the corporeal powers and 
beauty of the body, but we cannot know 
the height from which Adam fell. Dr. 
South 's well-known saying, that an Aristotle 
was but the rubbish of an Adam, is possibly 
the best way that we can express the extent 
of the injury. Immortality belonged sinoe 
then only to the sin less Christ, for " it was not 
possible that He should be holden of death" 
(Acts ii. 24). But as the second Adam, the 
Quickening Spirit, He restores to us this 
immortality. The forgiveness, then, of sin 
is the first step to the giving back to our 
natural bodies their original power of mor- 
tality, which re-endowment is to be com- 
pleted at the Resurrection. 

Body, Spiritual. St. Paul distinctly 
teaches that the body to be given us at our 
resurrection is to be spiritual. This diffi- 
culty always has been presented : how, then, 
shall we be judged in the spiritual body for 
the deeds done in the natural bodv ? or, in 
other words, how shall that personal identity 
which we now wear be brought up at the 
judgment-seat? That we cannot now un- 
derstand, but it is no greater difficulty to 
accept the future fact than it is to accept 
and act upon the present fact, that our souls 
and our bodies — two distinct and, in some 
respects, antagonistic entities — form but one 
person, though we can never understand the 
ultimate principle of their union. Indeed, it 
is less difficult to admit that in a perfect 
state of sin less n ess a spiritual body, with 
spiritual capacities now beyond us, may be 
the only fit habitation for the redeemed soul. 
But the words of Scripture are to be accepted, 

and then explanation to be patiently waited 
for. Tho fuller discussion of this subject 
belongs to the title Resurrection. 

Bowing, in the Creed. A reverent act of 
worship at the name of Jesus (Phil. ii. 10). 
Tho text upon which this bowing is based 
refers properly to a bending of the knee, 
which was an Oriental act of nomage. It is 
only when His name, Jesus, is uttered that 
this reverent bowing is proper. Jesus u 
His name as man with us. Christ is His 
title, as anointed to His threefold office as 
Prophet, Priest, and King. Therefore St., 
Paul's arguments with the Thessalonians 
were accurately stated, " that this Jesus 
whom I proclaim unto you is the Christ." 
The 18th Canon of the Church of England 
makes bowing at the name of Jesus proper, 
not only in the Creed, but at all other times 
when it is mentioned. " When, in time of 
Divine service, the Lord Jesus shall be 
mentioned, due and lowly reverence shall be 
done by all persons present as hath been 
accustomed: testifying by these outward 
ceremonies and gestures their inward humil- 
ity, Christian resolution, and due acknowl- 
edgment that the Lord Jesus Christ, the 
true eternal Son of God, is the only Saviour 
of the world, in whom alone all the mercies, 
graces, and promises of God to mankind for 
tbis life ana the life to come are fully and 
wholly comprised." (Canons of 1608 a.d.) 

Breviary. The Book of the Daily Offices 
of the Koman Church. The name belonged 
to the particular MSS. prepared by Gregory 
VII. (1085 a.d. ), but the book, in principle, 
was in use in the Church many ages be- 
fore. It was made up of the Psalms, of the 
Lessons from Holy Scripture, or from the 
works of the Fathers, sentences thrown into 
the form of Versicles, Responds, Antiphons, 
Prosas, and other similar forms. Every 
Bishop had, originally, tho power to alter, 
arrange, or recompile the Liturgy in his Dio- 
cese, but from the fifth century thore was a 
tendency to unify the services, and es|>ecially 
was this done in the Provinces. Still there 
was a large degree of variation for many 
ages. In the English Church there were 
varieties in the several leading Dioceses. 
The monasteries had their special Breviaries. 
Tho Roman office-books, Missal and Brevi- 
ary, were and are forced upon the Dioceses 
which receive the papal authority, despite 
of very determined resistance. The present 
form of the Roman Breviary was made under 
Pius V. It is divided into four parts, called 
after the seasons, Pars Hiemahs, Vernalis, 
^Estivalis, Autumnalis. Each of these parts, 
in addition to the introductory rubrics, calen- 
dar, arid other tables, has four subdivisions : 
(I.) Tho Psalter, comprising the Psalms 
and Canticles, arranged for weekly recita- 
tion, and also the unvarying parts of the 
offices. (II.) The Proper Offices for the 
season, which vary with the reason. (III.) 
The Proper Offices for the Festivals of the 
Saints. (IV.) The Common (i.a., unvary- 
ing) Office for the Festivals of the Saints. 

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Brief. Usually applied to Letters Apos- 
tolic of the Pope. It is distinguished from 
the Bull chiefly from the form and nature of 
the instrument. They both have the same 
authority, but the Brief is generally shorter 
and deals often with matters of less impor- 
tance, and it may be recalled or repressed at 
will. It is ordinarily written in the Latin 
character, has a wax seal attached bearing 
the impress of the so called " fisherman's 
ring," — a figure of St. Peter fishing from a 
boat, — and is signed by the Secretary of 
Briefs. The form of the Brief, though now 
fixed by language, has varied in times past. 
( Vide Bulls.) In England the crown has 
from time immemorial issued Briefs for 
charitable purposes, which briefs are directed 
to be read among the notices after the reci- 
tation of the Nieene Creed after the Gospel. 
As the cost of issuing these briefs, though 
reduced very much from the previous 
charges, is still very great, they are not so 
frequently issued. 

British Church, The. When or by whom 
Christianity was brought to Britain is un- 
known. As it was under the dominion of 
the Roman emperors until 409 A.D., it is 
probable that the Gospel was preached there 
as in other parts of the empire at a very 
early period. Direct evidence is wanting 
until the end of the second century. Clem- 
ent of Rome, 90 a.d., mentions that St. 
Paul, before his martyrdom, had visited the 
boundary of the West (rb repua rye dvoeoc), 
but the expression is too indefinite to found 
an argument upon it. The identification of 
Claudia and Pudens mentioned by St. Paul 
(2 Tim. iv. 21) with a Roman family con- 
nected with the government of Britain is 
also very doubtful. The story of St. Joseph 
of Arimathea and bis twelve companions, 
their coming to Glastonbury, and the holy 
thorn which sprang from his planted staff, 
is a mediaeval legend. The earliest un- 
doubted testimony to the existence of Chris- 
tianity in Britain is that of Tertullian (b. 
160), and as he says that the Gospel had in 
his time penetrated regions in the island 
which the Romans had not visited, it is clear 
that it was no new thing. To that period 
(177 a.d.) belongs the account of a British 
chief, Lucius by name, applying to the 
Bishop of Rome for Christian instruction. 
Very little can be collected from our scanty 
records with regard to the state of the 
Church in its earliest period, its exiension, 
mode of government, or life. There were 
Bishops in the principal Roman towns, in 
which places there may have been some 
churches of Roman brick, but in most cases, 
away from those centres, such buildings as 
existed for purposes of Christian worship 
were constructed of wands or wattles in the 
ancient British fashion. But it does not 
appear that much progress had been made 
during the Roman period in the conversion 
of the great body of the population. That 
the Church had her martyrs hern as else- 
where is shown by the story of Alban, con- 

verted by the Christian priest to whom he 
had in pity given shelter, and in whose 
stead he gave himself up to the persecutors. 
With his name are associated many others 
at the same period, the beginning of the 
fourth century, under the merciless Empe- 
ror Maximian. Bishops from Britain were 
present at the Council of Aries in France, 
814 a.d., from York, London, and (proba- 
bly) Caerleon. During the Arian contro- 
versy in the fourth century the steadfast- 
ness of the British Church is frequently 
referred to, though British Bishops at the 
Council of Ariminum (359 a.d.) assented 
with those more learned than themselves to 
the uncatholic formulary there adopted. 
But like the mass of those who were there 
misled, their weakness was but temporary. 
St. Jerome speaks of the British Christians 
of his time as sharing in the common en- 
thusiasm for pilgrimages to the Holy Land. 
We obtain at this period some interesting 
glimpses of British Christianity shortly be- 
fore the withdrawal of the Romans. In 
North Britain, near Dumbarton, we read of 
the Deacon Calpurnius, whose father, Poti- 
tus, was a priest, and his son the famous St. 
Patrick. Ninian, from Cumberland, is ed- 
ucated at Rome and returns in Episcopal 
orders to establish a mission on the coast of 
Galloway. Here he built his church on the 
promontory of Whithorn, which, being of 
stone instead of the more common wood, be- 
came renowned as the White House, — Can- 
dida Casa. This mission was a centre of 
light throughout the Roman province of 
Valentia. The heresy of Pelagius, or Mor- 
gan, the Briton, deeply affected his native 
country, and occasioned the mission from 
Gaul of the famous St. German and his 
companion, Lupus, who succeeded in stem- 
ming the tide of heresy, and seem to have 
done much good of other kinds. In this 
connection comes the story of the " Alleluia 
Victory," when a British army, mostly con- 
verted from paganism and baptized by Ger- 
man at the Easter festival just past, rose 
from ambush shouting " Alleluia," and put 
to rout an army of Picts and Saxons with- 
out striking a blow. During his mission 
in Britain, which included two visits (429 and 
447 a.d.), German is said to have founded 
schools in Wales, and some old religious cus- 
toms were always referred to him. This 
mission of St. German, the still earlier one 
of Victricius of Rouen, the fact that a 
Briton was the first Bishop of Rouen, the 
character of the earliest Liturgical remains, 
are facts which point t<»a Gullican origin for 
the British Church. The supposed proofs 
of an Eastern origin are without founda- 
tion, as will be seen hereafter. 

In the fifth century came the labors of 
St. Patrick and the conversion of Ireland. 
The infant Church, owing to the circum- 
stances of the case, assumed in Ireland, and 
afterwards in Scotland, through the.mission 
of StColumba, a peculiar form. The country 
I was peopled by wild clans, each attached to 

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its own chieftain, a type which remained 
longest in the Highlands of Scotland. The 
missionaries were compelled to direct their 
efforts first to the conversion of the chiefs, 
for without this nothing could he effected. 
Almost of necessity the monastic system be- 
came predominant. The Abbot occupied 
with reference to his society a position par- 
allel with that of the chief to his clan, and, 
in fact, both characters were sometimes 
united in the same person. The consequence 
of this system in a country in which other 
centres did not exist was, that the Abbot 
exercised the chief religious control of the 
district in which his house was situated, and 
the position of Bishops was inferior to that 
which they occupied generally in the Cath- 
olic Church. This, which grew out of the 
necessities of the earliest missions, long re- 
mained a striking feature of Celtic Christi- 
anity in Ireland and Scotland, but a little 
later we see it disappearing and the Bishop 
assuming bis more appropriate functions, 
when these missions spread into the north 
of England. It would be a mistake, how- 
ever, to suppose that the essential functions 
of the Bishop were at any time lost sight of 
or usurped by the Abbot. The Bishop was 
always called upon to ordain, to give con- 
firmation and the more solemn benediction, 
and to consecrate churches. A Bishop 
might be a member of a religious house, ad- 
vanced perhaps to the Episcopal order for 
pre-eminent piety or learning. He would 
be subject, like the rest, to the Abbot, yet 
the Abbot never ventured to exercise any 
of his Episcopal functions. It would ap- 
pear that there were in Ireland a great num- 
ber of " village Bishops. 1 ' To such a one 
St. Columba was sent for ordination, and 
found the good man plowing in his field. 
From such a system as this went forth some 
of the grandest missionaries the Christian 
Church has ever produced, through whom 
the conversion of Gtermany was well begun, 
that of paganized England mainly accom- 
plished. Such a system was, in fact, far 
better suited for mission work among wild 
and barbarous tribes than # to be the perma- 
nent form under which Christianity should 
occupy the land. We can only mention 
here the names of Col um ban and Gall, who 
labored in the Vosges and in Switzerland, 
Kilian and Vergilius in Germany, and 
many others their companions and associ- 
ates It was the foundation of St. Columba 
in Scctland which became the chief source 
of light for England, as vrp see in following 
the history of early English Christianity. 

Reviewing the interesting though scanty 
records of British Christianity, we easily dis- 
cern, (1) That the supremacy or even the 
primacy of Rome was unknown. St. Colum- 
t>a and the other Irish missionaries treated 
the Pope with the respect due to the Bishop 
of the most important See in the We.-t, but 
nothing more; they hesitated not to differ 
with him and to rebuke him in no measured 
terms. (2) We see Christianity assuming a 

unique form of external organization among 
the Irish and Northern Celts, which, how- 
ever, is not seen among the Britons of the 
south until the Saxon conquest drives them 
into Wales. (8) Such characteristic marks 
as can be made out indicate a probable Gallic 
origin for early British Christianity, while 
that of North Britain and Ireland is derived 
from South Britain. 

The Saxon Period, the Conversion of Eng- 
land. — During the century and a quarter 
from 449-677 a.d. Britain becomes England, 
and with this change Christianity is driven 
from the land, and the worship of Thor and 
Odin reigns supreme. The only account of 
this momentous change, from the British 
side, is that of Gildas, who shows fully the 
weak and divided condition of the mingled 
heathen and Christian Britons, which made 
them on the whole the easy prey of desultory 
conquest The remnants recover some degree 
of strength and maintain themselves long 
after the conquest in Wales, Cornwall, and 
Strathclyde along the western coast. Chris- 
tianity here undergoes a revival of earnest- 
ness aided perhaps by closer relations with 
the vigorous life of the Irish Church. Col- 
leges and monasteries were founded in which 
religion and learning were fostered and kept 
ali vo. Such were, the famous Bangor Isceod 
in Flintshire; St! Asaph, founded by St. 
Mungo (Munghu) ; at Llancarfan the col- 
lege founded by St. Cfujoc, who resigned a 
princely heritage for the religious life. Else- 
where the Angles and Saxons had occupied 
the land. The old Episcopal Sees had be- 
come centres of pagan worship. Then came 
the mission of Augustine und his monks (597 
a.d.I, sent by Pope Gregory, the one great 
mission which came forth from Rome itself*. 
The missionaries landed at Tbanet, where 
the fierce Jute had first stepped upon British 
soil. Kent was soon conquered for the 
Church and the See of Canterbury estab- 
lished, with Augustine for its first occupant. 
Essex followed, with Mellitus as first Bishop 
of London, from which, however, he was 
soon driven, and paganism resumed its sway. 
Paulinus, another member of the mission, 
became the Apostle of Northumbria under 
the patronage of King Edwin, and showed 
himself a faithful and unwearied missionary, 
but on the death of the king he too was 
driven out. Birinus, who came later under 
the auspices of Pope Honor i us, converted the 
West Saxons. 

The Celtic Missions. — But while the good 
work of the Roman missionaries was thus pro- 
ceeding with many vicissitudes, an independ- 
ent movement of even greater strength was 
setting in from the northward, and ten years 
after Paulinus was driven from York St. 
Aidan arrived to take up the work, from the 
great monastery of St. Columba at Iona. Ho 
established himself not at York, but, after the 
Celtic custom, selected a retired spot upon the 
coast, and founded the new House of Lindis- 
farne, from which went forth the men who 
were to convert all North and Middle Eng- 

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land, that is, the greater part of the land. It 
was not long before the two elements, that 
from Rome and that from Scotland, came into 
collision. Augustine, acting under the di- 
rection of St. Gregory, hud made an endeavor 
to arrive at an understanding with the 
British Bishops of the west of England, but 
failed of success, partly through his own want 
of tact, partly through their obstinate ad- 
herence to their own customs. This was at 
the meeting at Augustine's Oak near the 
Severn (600 a.d.). Here the points of differ- 
ence between the Roman Church and the 
Celtic first came into view, from which it 
plainly appears that the latter knew nothing 
of the supremacy of Rome. The principal 
ground of difference was the time of the ob- 
servance of Easter. There was also some 
difficulty in regard to the mode of baptism, 
but precisely what we have no means of 
knowing. A third point had reference to 
the tonsure. The first and last of these have 
often been adduced as proofs of the Eastern 
origin of British Christianity, but (1) the 
Celtic Easter was not the same with the 
Quortodeciman practice of Asia Minor, as- 
cribed to St. John, according to which the 
festival was celebrated on the 14th Nisan, 
which might fall on any day of the week. 
The Celtic Easter must always fall upon a 
Sunday, but the cycle employed was simply 
the uncorrected cycle of an earlier time. 
Neither (2) was their tonsure like that of the 
East. The Greek tonsure was total, that of 
Rome was coronal, the Celtic shaved the an- 
terior half of the head. 

The next great occasion when these points 
of difference came in question was at the 
conference of Whitby, 664 a.d. This was 
not so much a contest between men as prin- 
ciples, since the leaders of the discussion on 
both sides were men who had been trained 
originally in the Celtic system. On the 
Celtic side was Colman, the successor of 
Aidan ; on the Roman side the famous Wil- 
frid, then Abbot of Ripon. Wilfrid was a 
native of Northumbria, trained first at Lin- 
disfarne, but afterwards with Benedict Bis- 
cop, the earliest Englishman who appears as 
a promoter of religious art, he had visited 
Rome and become filled with an enthusiastic 
determination to bring his earlier friends 
into accord with the usages of the Church at 
large,especially as represented by the mother- 
Church of the West, as she now claimed to 
be. The conference was held at Whitby, 
the famous monastery of St. Hilda, who had 
become the counselor of kings. Wilfrid 
gained the victory, and Colman with a part 
of his monks from Lindisfarne, and other 
followers, withdrew to lona and afterwards 
to Ireland, where he died in 676 a.d. This 
conference and its results constitute an epoch 
in the history of English Christianity. The 
single-mindedness and saintly lives of these 
Celtic missionaries, their utter unworldliness, 
as Bede, himself a strong Roman sympa- 
thizer, describes it, might make us regret the 
triumph of the Roman system. Looking at 

the later development of the papal claims, 
we might be tempted to dream of a Church 
which, taking its rise independent of Rome, 
never submitted to her domination, and thus 
in the far West might have presented a par- 
allel to the orthodox Church of the East. 
But such a result was probably impossible, 
when we consider the difficulties which the 
future history of England had in store for 
the Church. The Celtic Church was " devoid 
of that unifying power, that wonderful gift 
of order and organization which was the 
strength of the Roman," therefore it would 
not have enabled England " to endure the 
tremendous strain of the next four hundred 
years." As it was, it was the Church which 
gave England unity and the strength which 
comes from unity. After the withdrawal of 
Colman, Wilfrid was appointed Bishop of 
York, and went into Gaul for consecration. 
During his prolonged absence the Celtic 
party obtained a temporary victory, by per- 
suading the king to appoint to the vacant 
bishopric Chad, one of the original disciples 
of Aidan at Lindisfarne. His consecration, 
which took place at Winchester, is interest- 
ing from the circumstance that Bishop 
Wini of that See, who had been consecrated 
in Gaul, obtained the assistance of two 
Bishops of British race from Cornwall, and 
thus in the person of Chad the two lines 
were united. 

Another epoch in the history of England 
and its Church was the arrival of Theodore 
of Tarsus, an Eastern monk (669 a.d.), ap- 
pointed and consecrated Archbishop of Can- 
terbury by the Pope himself after the death 
of the nominee of the English kings, who had 
gone to Rome for consecration. Theodore, 
taking his seat at Canterbury, commenced 
his work by making a careful visitation of 
his whole province. He was the first Arch- 
bishop to whom all England submitted. 
One result of his visitation was the estab- 
lishment of Wilfyid in the See of York, 
Chad quietly withdrawing to become, later, 
Bishop of Lichfield. But the great work 
of Theodore was the extension and organi- 
zation of the Episcopate. According to 
high authority, " by his arrangement of 
Dioceses and the way in which he grouped 
them around the See of Canterbury, in his 
national Synods and ecclesiastical Canons, 
Theodore did unconsciously a political 
work." The spectacle of a Church at one, 
under one Archbishop, prepared the way for 
a united state under one king. The union 
of England was, however, very gradual, and 
only effected long after this time, when dan- 
ger threatened from abroad. Theodore is 
also thought to have taken the first steps 
towards the establishment of the parochial 

Schools and Learning. — Learning followed 
in the wake of Christian enlightenment. At 
the school of Canterbury, under Theodore, 
Hebrew, Greek, and Latin were taught 
Here was trained Adhelm, Abbot of 
Malmesbury and Bishop of Sherborne, 

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who zealously promoted the cause of edu- 
cation in Wessex, and comj>osed many re- 
ligious songs in balittd form and in the 
.Saxon tongue. He is to be remembered as 
the first Englishman who cultivated classi- 
cal learning with success. Ho died 709 ad. 
The poetry of Caedmon, a lay brother of 
Whitby, tho great St. Hilda's monastery in 
the north, enabled Biblical lore to spread 
among the common people of the lowest 
class. By casting the Sacred Story and tho 
Creed of Christendom into the simplest ver- 
nacular speech, the Faith was brought home 
to the hearts of serf and shepherd. Learn- 
ing flourished most in the schools of North- 
umbria, especially at J arrow and York. It 
was at Jarrow that Bede, called tho Venera- 
ble, passed his life (b. about 673 a.d.). He 
is the true father of English literature, and 
through his many treatises made accessible 
to his countrymen all the knowledge of his 
day, sacred and profane; the first theologian 
and the first cultivator of science the Eng- 
lish race ever produced. From the school of 
Tork came in the next century (b. 735 a.d.) 
the famous Alcuin, who spent many years 
at the court of Charlemagne, and aided in 
the great educational designs of that en- 
lightened emperor. In Alfred the Great 
Christianized England produced the perfect 
king. "Alfred was tho noblest, as no was 
the most complete embodiment of all that 
is great, all that is loveable in tho English 
temper'* (Green's English People). The 
first in the line of ecclesiastical statesmen 
who have played such a large part in Eng- 
lish history was St. Dunetan. As virtual 
ruler of Wessex from 950-979 a.d., he did 
much by his firmness and strict even-handed 
justice to fuse the English people into one 

T/ie Effects of Monasticism. — In the later 
Saxon period the glory of thecarlier Church 
is obscured. The galaxy of saints and 
learned men who appeared at tho period 
of the conversion of England and in the 
next age left few successors. Gradually 
a certain feebleness crept over the whole 
people which made them the easy prey, first 
of the Banes, then of the' Norm uns. The 
cause of this was undoubtedly the abnor- 
mal development of monasticism. Eng- 
land, like all Northern Europe, was con- 
verted by monks, — those of the rule of St. 
Columba on the one hand, and of St. Bene- 
dict on the other. It was inevitable that 
monasticism should be strong, and it soon 
pervaded the whole of Anglo-Saxon life. 
Immense donations of land were conferred 
upon the monasteries, more than thirty kings 
and queens ended their days in tho cloister, 
and from other walks of life an innumerable 
company. The grandest and most success- 
ful of all missionary agencies, monasticism 
becomes a heavy burden and a grave evil 
when it dominates the whole life of a nation. 
Asceticism, which has and ever must have 
its place, and that a most important place, in 
the Christian Church, is a fruitful source of 

error and corruption when it is attempted 
to make it the only allowable form of Chris- 
tian life. The strength of the nation for- 
saking the work of common life to ser\e 
God in the cloistered walls, and ultimately 
to avoid the burden of duty laid upon thorn, 
was putting an end to progress, both in 
Church ana State. The condition of things 
is well expressed by Dean Milman : " The 
Anglo-Saxon clergy, since the days of Dun 
stan, had produced no remarkable man. 
The triumph of monasticism had enfeebled 
without sanctifying tho secular clergy. . . . 
It might conceal much gentle and amiable 
goodness; but its outward character was 
that of timid and unworldly ignorance, 
unfit to rule, and exercising but feeble and 
unbeneficial influence/' 

England and the Papacy. — It is important 
to trace, however briefly, the relation of the 
Church in England to the Papacy. We 
have seen, in reviewing the history of 
British Christianity, that the Britons seem 
to have had no knowledge of any kind of 
papal jurisdiction. It would seem to be 
equally true that in the early English 
(Anglo-Saxon) Church there was but little 
notion of the rule of Rome over other 
Churches as a matter of right and law. 
They by no means submitted to the Pope as 
possessing the headship and universal do- 
minion over the Catholic Church. Yet 
none the less they owned his sway. It is a 
popular error to represent the Anglo-Saxon 
Christians as asserting independence of Rome 
and maintaining their rights as a branch of 
the Church. The simple truth is that tho 
relation between Rome and England at that 
period did not rest upon a basis of claims 
and concessions ; it did not wear a legal as- 
pect. Such words as these indicate the pre- 
vailing sentiment: "Gregory, our father, 
who sent us baptism," " Though he be not 
an apostle to others, yet he is to us, for tho 
seal of his.apostleship are we in the Lord.' 1 
Notwithstanding the fact that the greater 
part of England had first received the Gos- 
pel from Iona and Lindisfarno, there was, 
after tho reconciliation and fusion of the two 
elements under the influence of Wilfrid and 
the wise measures of Theodore, a remark- 
able lack of any consciousness ,of an inde- 
pendent origin among the Christian people 
of England. They leaned to Rome as colo- 
nists to the mother-country, without think- 
ing of raising any question as to what might 
some time be claimed as a matter of right. 
Their loyalty to the mother-Church was ro- 
mantic and childlike. A pilgrimage to Rome 
was the dream of every Christian English- 
man's heart. "From no other land did 
there flow into the papal exchequer puch rich 
contributions." Yet practically the inde- 
pendence of the Church was little interfered 
with. Bishops were chosen without the 
papal intervention, though sometimes that 
intervention was invited, as in the case of 
Archbishop Theodore. But in general all 
ecclesiastical appointments were in the hands 

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of the king. If we compare the position of 
the Church in the Anglo-Saxon period with 
that under the Norman kings, the difference 
does not consist in the greater devotion 
shown to the Papacy at the later epoch. The 
contrary is true. Doubtless the foreign ec- 
clesiastics who poured into England at this 
time, filling its Sees and Benefices, brought 
with them the latest forms and observances 
which the Catholic religion had assumed, 
and a perceptible change of tone. But as 
regards the tapacy, we find that the com- 
mon practice of the earlier period, which 
had rested only on custom, became express 
law. The dependence of the Church on the 
-oyal power was strictly enforced. Prelates 
w»re practically chosen by the king. More- 
over, William the Conqueror would allow 
no papal letters to be received into the realm 
without his assent. He met the demands of 
Gregory VII. with a stern refusal. " Fealty 
I have never willed to do, nor will I do it 
now. I have never promised it, nor do I 
find that my predecessors did it to yours." 
Such principles were maintained by William 
and his successors, not for the good of the 
Church, but to strengthen their own power. 
Yet the practical result was the comparative 
independence on Rome of the realm and 
Church of England, and at most periods a 
considerable jealousy of papal encroach- 
ments. It seemed to many noble and devoted 
men far more natural that the Church should 
lean on Rome than be subject to the tender 
mercies of a tyrant at home, and, very dif- 
ferent from our view, they often identified 
the " liberties of the Church" with subjec- 
tion to the Pope. Yet a deep, underlying 
feeling of independence resided in the Eng- 
lish people. When the raosfr powerful of 
Popes, Innocent III., deposed even so evil a 
man as King John, the bull might have re- 
mained ineffectual, so far as the main body 
of the people were concerned, notwithstand- 
ing the great encouragement which it gave 
to all his enemies, public and private. When 
the king yielded and knelt before the papal 
legate, " He has become the Pope's man ; ho 
has forfeited the very name of king," was 
said to have been the indignant outcry of 
his subjects. This was the highest point 
which papal aggression ever reached in Eng- 
land. With the growth of a strong national 
spirit came resistance, often renewed and 
gradually embodied in the laws of the king- 
dom, to the papal claims (1) of a right 'to 
exact pecuniary contributions, (2) of eccle- 
siastical jurisdiction, as exhibited in ap- 
pointments to Bishoprics and other Benefices, 
and in appeals from English courts. The 
"Constitutions of Clarendon," 1164 A.D., 
provided that elections of Bishops or Abbots 
should take place in the presence of the 
king's officers, and have the king's assent, 
and that no appeals should go further than 
the Archbishop without his consent, and to 
these measures the prelates gave their in- 
dorsement. In Henry III.'s time there was 
a rising throughout the kingdom against 

the papal collectors, and the barons for their 
part refused to aid the Pope in his contest 
with Frederick II. It was at this time, says 
Green, "that the little rift first opened 
which was destined to widen into the gulf 
which parted one from the other at the 
Reformation." As Parliament rises into 
importance, the jealousy of papal aggression 
is exhibited from time to time in no uncer- 
tain tones. In the reign of Edward III. 
(1827-1877 a.d.) Parliament utters distinct 
protests against the corrupt and injurious 
interference of the Pope with the affairs of 
the Church of England, and supports the 
king against the Pope in the contest with 
Scotland. When a papal interdict was laid 
upon Flanders, English priests said mass in 
that country with bold defiance. Papal 
legates were threatened with stoning when 
they landed in England. In 1848 a.d. the 
Commons petitioned against papal appoint- 
ments to vacant livings in despite of the 
rights of patrons or of the crown, and the 
king complained to the Pope of the appoint* 
ment of "foreigners, mostly suspicious per- 
sons," and reminds his Holiness that the 
successor of the Apostles was set over the 
Lord's sheep to feed and not to shear them. 
The Parliament declared that they " neither 
could nor would tolerate such things any 

In 1851 a.d. the Statute of Provisors for- 
bade any one to receive a papal provision or 
appointment ; that is, a grant of the Pope 
superseding the right acquired by election, 
and conferring afresh the spiritual and tem- 
poral administration of See or Benefice. This 
practice had commenced in 1800 a.d., but 
had constantly been resisted. In 1853 a.d. 
the first of the celebrated statutes of " Prae- 
munire" was passed, forbidding any appeal 
from tho English courts, under pain of out- 
lawry, perpetual imprisonment, or banish- 
ment from the land. Both these laws were 
reiterated at later periods. By the enlarged 
statute of Praemunire, passed in 1390 a.d., 
it was enacted that all persons procuring in 
the Court of Rome or elsewhere transla- 
tions, processes, sentences of excommunica- 
tion, bulls, instruments, or other things 
which touch the king, his crown, regality, 
or realm, should suffer the penalties of prae- 
munire. "This act is one of the strongest 
defensive measures taken during the Middle 
Ages against Rome" (Stubbs). When Popo 
Urban V. referred to King John's submis- 
sion and oath of fealty as the ground of 
his demands, it was declared by Parliament 
that John's submission had been made " with- 
out their assent and against his coronation 
oath," and they pledged themselves to resist 
such claims with all their power. That was 
the last ever heard of a papal over-lordship 
in the feudal sense over England. These 
statutes of Praemunire and Provisors re- 
mained the law of England, though allowed 
to fall into disuse when the policy of the 
Papacy avoided direct conflict, until in the 
hands of Henry VIII. they proved a weapon 

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of tremendous power, and hardly any new 
legislation was necessary, but simply the 
execution of laws already long existing, to 
complete the independence of the English 
Church. Whatever theories of the Papacy 
may have been held by many or few and 
acted upon from time to time in England, 
however far at some epochs the leaders of 
the Church may have committed themselves 
to Rome's extreme claims, history shows 
that the assertion of those claims was re- 
sisted whenever they came in conflict with 
the national spirit, that the general drift of 
English sentiment was towards independ- 
ence, and that the steps needful to achieve 
that independence were almost all taken one 
hundred and eighty years before it was at 
last effected. While we may admit the sub- 
jection of the English Church to the Papacy 
in ways more or less defined and admitted 
through the Middle Ages, the facts show 
that such subjection was not looked upon as 
a matter of Divine right, and that the ex- 
tremes t claims of Hildebrand were not ad- 
mitted. The Papacy had its part to play 
under Divine Providence, in aiding the 
Church to resist the tyranny of kings, and 
when that work was done its power ceased 
in England. Even Sir Thomas More and 
those who thought with him were not 
troubled at the rejection of papal control : 
their opposition was to the royal assumption 
of supremacy over the Church. 

Conclusion. — We may fitly conclude in the 
words of Dean Church : •* The lesson of his- 
tory, I think, is this, not that all the good 
which might have been hoped for to society 
has followed from the appearance of the 
Christian religion in the forefront of human 
life; not that in this willful and blundering 
world, so full of misused gifts and wasted 
opportunities and disappointed promise, mis- 
take and mischief have never been in its 
train ; not that in the nations where it has 
gained a footing it has mastered their beset- 
ting sins, the falsehood of one, the ferocity 
of another, the characteristic sensuality, the 
characteristic arrogance of others. But his- 
tory teaches us this: that in tracing back 
the course of human improvement we come, 
in one case after another, upon Christianity 
as the source from which improvement de- 
rived its principle and its motive ; we find 
no other source adequate to account for the 
new spring of amendment ; and, without it, 
no other sources of good could have been 
relied upon." 

Authorities : Bede's Ecclesiastical History 
(trans, in Bonn's Library), Irish Primitive 
Church, by Daniel De vinne\ St. Patrick's 
Confession (Mignd), Murray's Ireland and 
her Church, Bright's Early English Church, 
Archbishop Trench's Lectures on Mediaeval 
Church History, Maclear's Conversion of the 
Celts, Maclear's Conversion of the English, 
Churton's Early English Church, Green's 
History of the English People, Stubbs' Con- 
stitutional History of England. 

Riv. Prop. W. J. Gold. 

Bull. The name given to the Letters of 
the Pope, whose authority, whether for tem- 
porary or constitutional purposes, is para- 
mount. The name is taken from the leaden 
seal (Bulla) attached by a silken string (if 
it be a Bull of Grace) or by a hempen cord 
(if it be a Bull of Justice). This globular 
seal bears upon one side tne representation 
of the Apostles SS. Peter and Paul, and on 
the other the name of the reigning Pontiff. 
The Bull is issued from the papal Chancery. 
There are also Consistorial Bulls ; i.e., those 
issued by the advice and consent of the Car- 
dinals in Consistory, by whom they are 
signed. The matter of the Bull may be of 
comparatively private nature, or it may re- 
late to public matters of a nation, or of 
an order, or it may be binding upon the 
whole Roman obedience, or it may lay down 
certain constitutional principles, as did the 
famous Bull Unam Santtam. 

Burial. While it was customary among 
the heathen, yet the whole surroundings ac- 
companying the act of burial among Chris- 
tians were so marked and so reverent, that 
they stamped the rite as Christian. Julian, 
the apostate emperor, 368 a.d., acknowledged 
that austerity of life, hospitality, and rever 
ent burial of the dead were the powerful in- 
fluences that gave Christians the conversion 
of the empire. It had its motive in the 
faith in the Resurrection, and, therefore, the 
body that God would so care for as to bring 
again from its dust must be reverently laid 
away. To attack this loving care of the 
Christian for the remains of his loved one 
was a controlling cause why so many martyrs 
were burnt by heathen magistrates. The 
honorable burial of our Lord's Body by 
Joseph of Arimathea was the pattern upon 
which the Christian based his care of his 
dead. But in times of persecution it was 
not always possible to bestow this care, and 
interment was often very hurried. Yet when 
Polycarp was burnt, his bones and ashes were 
gathered up, without hindrance, by the 
brethren. To be buried beside the remains 
of a martyr was always accounted honorable. 
At first burials were made anywhere it was 
most convenient outside of the city, as burials 
within were illegal. But care was had to 
obtain, whenever possiblej a cemetery of their 
own, and their right to it was generally con- 
ceded. At Alexandria they had them open 1 v. 
In Rome, where the soil was such that sub- 
terranean burial could be carried out, the 
Christians dug out those underground gal- 
leries — already begun by the heathen — for 
burial purposes, and those catacombs became 
places of refuge of safe meeting as well as 
of burial, since the tunnels as they were dug 
out ramified so as to form an underground 
labyrinth. When peace came, churches wi»re 
frequently erected upon the tombs of saints. 
The early Christians, whenever they could 
do so, made their burial rites contrast nota- 
bly with those of the heathen. The body 
was kept unburied as long as convenient. 
It was decently prepared for burial by the 

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friends and relatives, not by hired persons, 
swathed in linen with decent orderliness. 
It was laid out either at the house or in the 
church. The watchers over it sang hymns 
and anthems. They buried in open day, 
with something of triumphal pomp, with 
hymns of hope and faitn and scriptural 
anthems. "When the grave was reached 
these hymns and prayers were renewed, and 
an address closed the service. 

Burial rites must vary very much with 
tho circumstances and with the development 
of the people, but the simpler and plainer 
a Christian burial can be conducted the bet- 
ter it is. Two chief things should be made 
prominent, the faith in the future Resurrec- 
tion and the loving care which for Christ's 
8a ke we should show the dead. The history 
of the Order for the Burial of the Dead is 
simple and clear. It has little relation to 
the ancient offices, taking from the Sarum 
use the first two opening sentences, and 
adding the third. The corpse was to bo 
carried either to the church or the grave 
at once, apparently customarily to the grave. 
Then the noble anthem, " Man that is born 
of woman," was recited. Its use here was 
peculiar to the English Prayer-Book. It 
was to be said either by the priest alone or 
together with the clerks. The priest was to 
cast the earth upon the body in the first 
Prayer- Book (1549 A.D.); this was changed 
to the present use in the second Prayer- 
Book (1652 a.d.). Tho sentence of com- 
mittal, as also the final prayer, expressed a 
strong hope in the blessedness ot the de- 
ceased. In the first Prayer-Book, if the 
body was borne to the grave at once, the 
Psalms cxvi., exxxix., cxlvi., were to be re- 
cited in the church afterwards, together with 
the Lesson (1 Cor. xv. 20 *?.), and then 
the suffrages and a final prayer were recited. 
The second Prayer-Book apparently, after 

the anthem, " I heard a voice," ordered the 
Lesson to be read at the grave, and then, 
with the Kyries and the Lord's Prayer, 
closed with the final prayers nearly as 
in our Prayer-Book. The Prayer-Book of 
1662 a.d. rearranged this material into the 
present order, which, with important verbal 
changes, we follow. These verbal changes 
consist in an entire omission of any refer- 
ence to hopes especially for the deceased, 
the dropping of the Kyries, and the continu- 
ous recital of the two Psalms (xxxix. and 
xc. ), whereas the Gloria is placed at the 
end of each Psalm in the English Prayer- 

This order for the Burial of the Dead is 
unapproached in simple and severe grandeur 
and lofty faith and perfect harmony with 
only what is revealed to us in Holy Scrip- 
ture. Its clear proclamation of the Resur- 
rection, its freedom from all that men may 
wish to believe, however naturally, yet with- 
out clear warrant, its solemn lesson to the 
living, make it a most noble office. And yet 
no office in the Prayer-Book has so many 
of its rubrics systematically violated, in or- 
dinary cases at least. Comparatively little 
watchfulness is used to observe the rubric as 
to those who can have the office read over 
them. Tho anthem shall be said or sung 
while the corpse is made ready for the grave, 
not after it is placed. It is not incumbent 
on the minister to recite it by himself. The 
purpose evidently is to have the choir or the 
assembled friends recite it. This is true also 
of the other anthem, "I heard a voice." 
Then tho minister alone should recite the 
Lord's Prayer. Much of tho impressiveness 
and solemnity of this beautiful office is lost 
by these infractions of the rubric. 

Burse. The case for the fair linen cloth 
with which the elements are to be covered 
when all have communed. 



Cabala. The mystic thoosophy of the 
later speculative Jewish schools. Its con- 
tents are much older than its written docu- 
ments, which apparently date from the tenth 
century, though these are attributed to a 
much later age. The Cabala is based upon 
a mystic and allegorizing arithmetic, which 
is arbitrarily applied to the doctrine of the 
nature and attributes of God. It had its 
uses, doubtless, in counteracting the grosser 
anthropomorphic teachings of the Talmud, 
beside which it seems to have flowed in a 
parallel and distinct channel, though prob- 
ably the Rabbi of the Talmud was also a 
master of the Cabala. It may indirectly 

have- had a great influence in the allegoriz- 
ing tendency in the interpretation of Holy 
Scripture, which overreached itself in the 
Church. The tendency to' a mystical inter- 
pretation has always been very great in 
both the older Jewish, and in the Christian 
Church, based, indeed, upon the sanction 
and example of our Lord and of St. Paul, 
but running to a most absurd excess. The 
Cabala has many points of contact with 
Gnosticism. It was essentially pantheistic. 
That it should have some points of agree- 
ment with Christian doctrine is to be antici- 
pated, yet they are very few. It supplied 
Pbilo, probably, with the idea of the Logos 

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which prepared the way for understanding 
the revelation of the Word of God. It 
seems to hold to a triple condition of our 
soul, — the intellectual, the moral, and the 
spiritual energy of our life. The freedom 
of will in fallen man is asserted. 

Calendar. A table of the order of days in 
the year, such as is prefixed to our Prayer- 
Book. The earliest tables of this class were 
very ancient, being civil as well as ecclesi- 
astical. There is, however, combined with 
this calendar ecclesiastically a catalogue of 
the saints whose commemorations fall upon 
fixed days in the civil year. Our own cal- 
endar is a most admirably simple and clear 
arrangement for practical use. Tbo follow- 
ing outline gives but the chief points. A 
thorough discussion would require a volume. 
The word calendar is derived from the Old 
Latin caleo, to call, from the custom of 
having the Pontifex announce to the people, 
called together, the holy days. Later tho 
practice of posting in public places the 
proper holidays came in ; hence the title 
calcneUe, and in late Latin calendarium. 
The division of days was necessarily solar ; 
that of weeks by Divine law. The months 
were originally lunar. Now it is remark- 
able that these three modes of marking time 
have no common divisor, yet are constantly 
commingled. It causes a great deal of em- 
barrassment, and yet there is no means of 
making a change. By intercalations and 
arbitrary enactments points of time for new 
eras can be arranged as it was by Julius 
Caesar or by Pope Gregory XIII. (1682 
a.d.), or restorations effected as the several 
rectifications of the calculation for Easter ; 
but these three incommensurable measures 
of time are unalterable. 

To us the week is practically the most im- 
portant, but as it is incommensurable with 
the 365 days 6 hrs. 48' 46" of the actual 
solar year, there must be some mode by 
which we can connect the two without con- 
fusing them. This was simply done by 
using the first seven letters of the alphabet 
for the days of the week, marking the 1st 
day of January as A, and so on. The letter 
for the 81st of December is A. Now as 
Sunday does not fall yearly in tho same 
place, each letter becomes in its turn the 
Sunday letter. If Sunday fall on January 
1, as it will in 1899 a.d., then A will be 
the Sunday letter. Again, if there be a leap- 
year, as the day intercalated falls between 
the 28th of February and the 1st of March, 
the Sunday letter with which the year 
begins, as, for instance, in 1896 a.d., E, will 
fall back, as in the date just given, to D, for 
the Sunday letter being E, and the 29th of 
February lettered D, as also March 1 is 
lettered D, the intercalated day is as it were 
a dies non in the calendar, but carries back 
the Sunday letter. So that the 23d of Feb- 
ruary being E in 1896, the eighth day after 
is March 1, which is lettered D, and this 
will be the letter for the rest of the year. 
"Whenever the Sunday letter for any year 














Is found, the date of any given day of the 
week can be readily found in the calendar 
by this simple contrivance. 

The rule to find the Sunday letter for the 
remainder of this century is very clear, and 
is thus given in the first of the 
Tables for finding Easter-day: 
44 To find the Dominical or Sun- 
day Letter, according to the Cal- 
endar, until the year 1899, in- 
clusive, add to the year of our 
Lord its fourth part, omitting 
fractions, divide the sum by 7, 
and if there be no remainder, 
then A is the Sunday Letter; 
but if any number remain, tnen the Letter 
standing against that number in the small 
annexed Table is the Sunday Letter. 

"Note. — That in all Bissextile or Leap- 
Tears, the Letter found as above will be the 
Sunday Letter from the intercalated day to 
the end of the year." 

But it was a small part of the work to ar- 
range the Dominical Letter. A more diffi- 
cult work was to adjust the proper time for 
the celebration of Easter. Since Easter waa 
the Christian Feast standing in historical 
relation to the Jewidtt Passover, it was 
necessarily governed by similar rules. Then 
Easter, as did the Passover, depended on the 
full moon, or, rather, on the fourteenth day 
of the moon. The Council of Nice, 32o 
a.d., laid down four postulates concerning 

I. That the 21st of March must be taken 
as the day of the vernal equinox. 

II. That the full moon happening upon 
or next after the 21st of March is to bo 
taken for the full moon of the month Nisan. 

III. That the next Lord's Day next 
after that full moon is to be observed as 
Easter Day. 

IV. But if the full moon fall on a Sun- 
day, the next Sunday is to be Easter Day. 

But these are calendar, not astronomical 
full moons, since the lunar cycle being 
29.5305 days, the equation proposed by the 
golden cycle of Meton of alternate twenty- 
nine and thirty days was not accurate 
enough after a lapse of time, and this slight 
error every nineteen years was sufficient to 
produce a serious inconvenience after a time. 
It was with some trouble that the corrections 
were effected. The Paschal term is that 
period within which the moon can pass 
through her lunation before and immedi- 
ately after the vernal equinox. The Paschal 
moon is new at the earliest on March 8, so 
that it is full on the 21st (both days being 
counted), — that is, fourteen days after. But 
should trie full moon fall after tho 21st, the 
latest date is April J8, since from March 8 
to April 5 is twenty-nine days, and April 18 
is the latest full moon, so that the latest 
Sunday on which Easter can fall is April 25. 
Easter-day, then, may fall on any Sunday 
between March 22 and April 25, both inclu- 
sive, immediately after a full moon. Since, 
then, the calendar date of the full moon may 

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be three days even different from the astro- 
nomical full moon, the two modes of calcu- 
lation do not always coincide. The reason 
for this discrepancy is not far to seek, since 
the new moon from which both Jew and 
Christian counted was not the one obtained 
by calculation, but by observation. But 
the calculation of the calendar moon de- 
pended upon the Epact, which was the 
name given to the number of days' differ- 
ence between the current lunar months and 
the solar year. The difference is eleven 
days. At the beginning of the cycle the 
year and the new moon coincide; but at the 
end of the solar year the moon is eleven 
days old. At the end of the second solar 
year the difference is twenty-two days. At 
the end of the third year it is only three 
days, — 1.«., thirty-three days minus the 
thirty days of a full lunation. At the end 
of the cycle of nineteen years the same order 
recurs. Since the true lunar month is 
29.5308 days, to allow thirty days to a luna- 
tion is too much ; therefore upon February, 
April, June, August, September, and No- 
vember two epacts are assigned to a certain 
day in each of these months. This device 
serves to keep the ertor within bounds. The 
principal use of the Epact is to enable one 
to find the age of the moon at any required 
date of the given year, and of course its 
chief use is to determine the Paschal moon. 
The rule is, (1) Add together»the day of the 
month given and the Epact, to be found in 
the third table in the Prayer- Book ; (2) if 
the date given is after March, add the num- 
ber of the month from March inclusive, and 
the sum is the required age of the moon. 
Let us take 1896 a.d. Easter-day for that 
year would be thus calculated : Since an 
Easter can fall between March 22 and April 
25, let us choose April 1 on which to find 
the moon's age. The Epact for 1896 is 15 ; 

April 1 1 

Epact 15 

March and April 2 


The moon will be eighteen days old on April 
1. It was full, therefore, on March 29, and 
April 5 will be Easter-day. 

The Golden Number was really the same 
cycle as the Epact, i.e., one of nineteen 
years ; but there was made no provision for 
the hour and a half of gain in each lunation, 
which amounted to about a day in three 
hundred and twelve year*. Therefore, when 
the Calendar was rectified in the English 
Church in 1752, the Golden Number was set 
aside practically, and tfce Epact substituted. 
For the order of the Golden Number was 
fixed by law, and could not be moved to its 
true place in the column whenever the error 
by increment became serious; so it was 
dropped and the Epact was substituted, 
which could be placed opposite its true 
place in the cycle. The Golden Number is 

apparently different from the Epact, as will 
be seen : 

Kpnct —.. fO 11 K 3 14 25 6 17 28 

Golden Number...- 1 1 8845G789 10 

Golden Number. 

J 20 1 12 23 4 15 2« 7 IS 

-._ \11 12 13 14 16 16 17 18 19 

But the fact is that the Golden Number 
needed the Epact originally; and if the 
Table of Lessons for March and April be ex- 
amined a series of strangely arranged num- 
bers will be noted. These are the Golden 
Numbers, marking the days upon which the 
full moons can fall in those months, so that 
the year on which the Golden Number 
points out the full moon being found, the 
Sunday letter following such Golden Num- 
ber is Easter-day. Take, again, the year 
1896 a.d. The Epact is 15, the Golden 
Number corresponding is 16. This is set 
opposite March 29 as the date of the full 
moon. Easter-day will, therefore, fall on 
April 5. These computations were neces- 
sary to procure an accurate mode for finding 
Easter-day ; yet there will always be a va- 
riation from the astronomical full moon, 
since it is not possible in an ecclesiastical 
calendar to make provision for the minute 
errors which the loss of a few moments or 
seconds will produce in the lapse of cen- 
turies. Therefore a rectification must always 
be made at stated periods. 

Easter determines the dates of all the 
Movable Feasts and Fasts which precede 
and fojlow it. Upon Easter depend the 
number of Sundays after Epiphany, the 
date of Septuagesima, Sexagesima, and Quin- 
quagesima Sundays, Ash-Wednesday, Good- 
Friday, which precede, and Ascension-day, 
Whit-Sunday, and Trinity-Sunday, which 
follow, Easter-day, and necessarily the num- 
ber of Sundays after Trinity are also thus 
determined. Except for the Immovable 
Feasts, which follow the solar calendar, all 
ecclesiastical calculations follow the Mosaic 
precept to regulate the feasts by the moon. 

In fact, no proposed calendar can so well 
meet all the difficulties and nice adjustments 
required as the one we now use. It is a 
memorable example of the truth that God's 
ordinances are immutable. The French at- 
tempted to substitute a new calendar during 
the Revolution ; but they had, in less than 
twelve years, to revert to the Church Cal- 
endar, which is based upon Jewish Law, 
which, again, is based upon the ordinance: 

" And God said, Let there be lights in the 
firmament of the heaven to diviae the day 
from the night ; and let them bo for signs, 
and for seasons, and for days, and for years. 
. . . And God made two great lights" 
(Gen. i. 14, 16). 

Under any system of chronology what- 
ever each historian is inexorably bound bv 
the conditions of Jewish computation, both 
because it is so universally received that he 
cannot escape it, and because, with all the dif- 
ficulties attending calculations under it, it 
conforms to natural terms of time. Many 

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facts of ancient history depend (to take but 
a single instance) upon the calculation of 
eclipses for their verification. 

Calendar of Saints. Vide Maktyrology. 

California, Diocese of, 1850-1884. The 
first Convention was held in Trinity Church, 
San Francisco, in July (1850 a.d.), for the 
purpose of organizing the Diocese of Cali- 
fornia. The opening sermon was preached 
by the Rev. Dr. Ver Mehr, and the Rev. 
Flavel L. Mines was appointed chairman. 

It is a fact in history that the early found- 
ers of the Church on this coast had no idea 
of uniting with the General Church at the 
East. There is no recognition of it in any 
of their proceedings. They ignored the 
name of '* Protestant Episcopal/' and called 
their organization the " Church in Cali- 
fornia." Knowing that while in this posi- 
tion no Bishop would be consecrated for 
them, the question was discussed of at- 
tempting to procure the Episcopate from 
the Greek Church. Abandoning this idea, 
the Convention elected as their Bishop the 
Rt. Rev. Bishop Southgate, who, having 
been consecrated to a foreign mission, had 
lately returned. He, however, declined the 
invitation. Three years passed away, dur- 
ing which time nothing further was done to 
organize the Church. In this time the Rev. 
Mr. Mines, the first minister to the coast 
and the first rector of Trinity, the mother- 
church of the Diocese, had been removed 
by death. The so-called parishes of Marys- 
ville, Stockton, and Sacramento had hardly 
an existence, and there were but two live 
parishes, — Trinity and Grace, of San Fran- 
cisco, these constituting the "Diocese of 
California " 

In October, 1858 a.d., the General Con- 
vention met in New York, and the wants 
of this coast soon claimed their attention. 
Ignoring most wisely the past action of the 
Diocese, which was not in accord with the 
majority of Churchmen in California, the 
General Convention decided to appoint a 
Missionary Bishop for California. The elec- 
tion was held in the House of Bishops, and 
the Rev. William Ingraham Kip, D.D., 
rector of St. Paul's Church, Albany, was 
nominated. The election was so unanimous, 
and the voice of the church so urgent, the 
Rev. Dr. Kip accepted the nomination, and 
was consecrated in Trinity Church, New 
York, on October 28, Festival of SS. Simon, 
Jude, 1858 a.d. The sermon was preached 
by Bishop Burgess, of Maine, and perhaps 
it will not be out of place in this brief his- 
tory to give a few words or passages of that 
eloquent and touching sermon, for in the 
thirty years that have passed it seems like 
the fulfilling of prophecy : 

"In this foremost temple of the great 
mart and metropolis of this new Western 
world wo are assembled for a work which 
cannot be without fruit in distant days and 
in distant regions. From this spot, and from 
the act we are about to accomplish, the 
course, if Providence favors it, is straight 

to the Golden Gate, which opens towards 
Eastern Asia. He who shall enter there as 
the first Protestant Bithop will see before 
him the land which is the treasure-house of 
the republic. Behind it are the vales and 
rivers and snowy mountains, which are 
to our Far West the Farther West. And 
amidst them lie the seats of that abomi- 
nable and sensual impiety, the cry of which 
goes up to heaven, like that of Sodom and 
Gomorrah from the valley of the Dead Salt 
Sea. Still beyond spread the deserts which 
divide, but which will not long divide, the 
Christians of this Continent. 

" Upon the edge of the vast field he will 
stand when he snail place his foot on the 
shore of the Pacific. There he is to be oc- 
cupied in laying the foundations of a Church 
which must be a pillar and ground of the 
truth for wide lands and for unborn millions. 

" Few of the issues can he live to witness. 
But in the years to come, if years are given 
him, he must recall the prospects which 
opened upon him in this hour, and again 
when he first saw the coast of that Western 

To the Bishop-elect : " Yours is an Epis- 
copate to be exercised where fellow-laborers 
are still to bo gathered, where seminaries 
are yet to be founded, where congregations 
are mostly to be begun. You go where thirst 
for gold, impatience of restraint, the vices of 
adventurers, and all the ills of unavoidable 
lawlessness have been before you ; where the 
softening influence of old age and of child- 
hood can as yet be little known, and where 
female piety throws but a small measure of 
its familiar light over the surface and face 
of society. A lover of the world, a pleaser 
of men, a reed shaken by the wind, has no- 
where his place among the standard-bearers 
of Christ ; but least of all on such an out- 
post beleaguered by temptations.' 1 

These passages help to show not only the 
magnitude of the work before the* first 
Bishop of California, but the peculiar diffi- 
culties to encounter. 

At the time of his arrival, January 29, 
1854 a.d., there was but one clergyman, 
Rev. Dr. Wyat, rector of Trinity, actively 
engaged in parochial work. Rev. Dr. Clark 
was prevented by age from assuming the 
duties of a parish, and Dr. Ver Mehr, who 
was nominally rector of Grace Church, was 
engaged most* of the time with his school at 

At the first Convention held by the Bishop, 
three months after his arrival, there were 
but three parishes represented, Trinity and 
Grace, of San Francisco, and St. John's 
parish, Stockton, and the latter existed only 
on paper. 

In December, 1856 a.d., the Diocese hav 
ing strength enough to elect a Bishop, a 
special Convention was called for that pur- 
pose. It met in Sacramento, February 6, 
1857 a.d. There were nine clergy present, 
and nine parishes represented, when the Rt. 
Rev. William Ingraham Kip, D.D., the 

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Missionary Bishop, was unanimously elected 
Bishop of the Diocese of California. 

In 1874 a.j>. the Diocese, by consent of 
General Convention, was divided, and the 
northern portion set off as the Missionary 
Jurisdiction of Northern California, of 
which the lit. Kev. J. H. D. Wingfield, D.D., 
is its Missionary Bishop. 

Instead of two parisli ministers, as thirty 
years ago, now, with the northern portion 
of the State taken off, there are still about 
seventy on the list. 

Never in its history has the Church in 
California been more prosperous than at the 
present. In sympathy, in Churchmanship, 
in loyalty, and devotion the clergy are 
united. Older parishes are awaking to the 
great work before them, while new missions, 
soon to be parishes, are springing up all over 
the Diocese. 

To Eastern people trained in the Church 
and Church principles it might seem that the 
progress here has been slow, and that with 
all the reputed great wealth of California 
there should be Church institutions, largely 
endowed, springing up and reaching out 
aggressively all over the broad State. But 
very little of this great wealth is in the 
hands of Church people, and the Church is 
comparatively poor, and it has been a hand 
to hand struggle at times barely to exist. 

In such a mixed population, the ends of 
the earth thrown together in a lump, as it 
were, with all shades of religion and no re- 
ligion, one might well exclaim, " Who is 
sufficient for these things?" Yet amid the 
lawlessness, even in its early history, there 
have always been some noble souls doing val- 
iant service for Christ and His Church. 
There have been earnest, self-denying souls 
going about doing good humbly, not to be 
seen of men, whose reward will one day 
come from Him in whose memory " no good 
deed is ever lost." Many a pioneer Church- 
man, of both clergy and laity, will be of 
those who shall be had " in everlasting re- 

The Women's Missionary Society of the 
Diocese (Auxiliary) is doing a good work, 
and many of our missionaries are cheered 
by their timely gifts and thoughtful care, 
while the little chapel is beautiful in its 
chancel furnished from the same source. 
With nearly every parish there is connected 
a Parish or Rectors' Aid Society, whose 
visits to the sick and sorrowing, together 
with substantial aid, do much to t^ach peo- 
ple of a living, loving Christ, as well as a 
living Church. 

Trinity, the mother-parish, is a sort of 
rallying-point. Every year in our Diocesan 
Convention she welcomes the scattered chil- 
dren and bids them come once more around 
her altar. Beneath the chancel of this 
church rests all that is mortal of the first 
minister of our Church to the coast, the Eev. 
Flavel L. Mines. 

Grace, formerly called the Cathedral, in 
which the Bishop labored for many years, 

and twice saved from the sheriff's hammer, 
stands upon what is called Grace Church or 
Nob Hill, and can be seen for many blocks 
around, as though inviting all to come and 

Advent, the down-town church, is next 
in age. It has its guilds, its brotherhoods, 
and its great army of choristers ; its doors 
stand open to the weary laborer, as though 
saying, Come in and rest and pray, for this 
is the house of praver. 

St. John's, St. 'Paul's, St. Luke's, St. 
Stephen '8, and St. Peter's, — this cluster of 
saints in these churches are in a certain way 
children of the older parishes, and are ail 
doing good work for the Church. 

Of tne Church institutions, there is the 
Old Ladies' Home. The building was for- 
merly used as St. Luke's Hospital; clean, 
bright, and truly home-like, it is admira- 
bly managed, some four ladies from each 
parish constituting the board. It is em- 
phatically a Home, and its inmates, some 
forty in number, are tenderly cared for and 
their declining years made happy by watch- 
ful care and the comforting services of the 

The Diocese is well supplied with Church 
schools. I will not mention the very excel- 
lent institutions of Benicia, as they come 
under another head, viz., the Jurisdiction 
of Northern California. In this Diocese we 
have, as one of the oldest Church schools, 
St. Matthew's Hall, San Mateo, Rev. A. L. 
Brewer, Principal and Rector, founded in 
1865 A.D. with but three pupils, until its 
rolls number about one hundred, and full. 
The school in all its appointments is well 
arranged ; the stone church covered with 
ivy, the shaded walks and profusion of flow- 
ers, make a picture, one of the most beauti- 
ful in beautiful California. Independent 
of the thorough training, the thorough drill, 
and manly bearing of the cadets, the refin- 
ing, Christianizing influence thrown around 
the boys is an education in itself. 

Trinity School, in San Francisco, Rev. E. B. 
Spalding, Principal, though but five or six 
years in existence, has made splendid prog- 
ress, and does great credit to its founder and 

Irvin School forYoung Ladies, in San Fran- 
cisco, Rev. E. B. Church, Principal, is stead- 
ily growing in favor, as it so well deserves 

There are alsoChurch schools at San Jose, 
Santa Cruz, Alameda, and Oakland, so that 
our Diocese is not only well supplied with 
Church schools, but can be congratulated 
on their high character and efficiency. 

Many of those who helped to lay the 
foundation of the Church in California have 
passed to their reward, — " they rest from 
their labor, and their works follow them." 
Our good Bishop, after thirty years of faith- 
ful doing, is still hale and erect, and as the 
years pass on is more and more beloved by 
nis people. In " journeyings often" he visits 
every parish and mission in the Diocese 
every year, and some of them, as they call 

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upon him, much more frequently, and among 
all the changes that have occurred in this 
changing population is a living oracle, a 
perpetual parish and diocesan register. 

The future historian will look upon this 
little sketch of the Church in 1884 a.d. as in 
still greater contrast than in that first Con- 
vention thirty-one years ago. 

Statistics for 1886 a.d. : Clergy, 65 ; par- 
ishes, 24 ; missions, 26 ; ordinution diac, 2 ; 
priest, 1; baptisms, 826; confirmed, 602; 
com., 4892; contr., $184,944.76. 

R*v. W. L. Githsns. 

Call. Vide Vocation. 

Calvinism. The system of theology of 
John Calvin (1609-1664 a.d.). It was based 
upon Augustine's system of Predestination, 
but was far more systematic, and was based 
less upon the control of the Incarnation over 
men than the subordination of the Incarna- 
tion and Atonement to the logical exigencies 
of a strict dogma of Predestination. Calvin 
was a master of logic, and impressed his 
conclusions upon many who studied his 
works. His system affected many who did 
not agree with him in his ecclesiastical the- 
ories, and Calvinism is held by a great num- 
ber who are by no means in sympathy with 
him, simply because it expresses most logi- 
cally for them the conclusions to be drawn 
from God's justice, prescience, and omnisci- 
ence. The error lies, not in urging these, 
but in unconsciously subordinating to them 
the Atonement and its consequences to all 
men. In this as in so many other things, 
the Church does not interfere with any pri- 
vate opinions that are not pushed to the ex- 
tent of breaking down the Articles of the 
Creed and to the practical denial of any part 
of the teachings of Holy Scripture upon the 
only true principle laid down in the XX. 
Article: "The Church hath power to de- 
cree Rules or Ceremonies and authority in 
controversies of Faith, and yet it is not law- 
ful for the Church to ordain anything that 
is contrary to God's Word written, neither 
may it so expound one place of Scripture 
that it be repugnant to another. Wherefore, 
although the Church be a witness and a 
keeper of Holy Writ, yet, as it ought not 
to decree anything ngainst the same, so, be- 
sides, the same ought it not to enforce any- 
thing to be believed for necessity of salva- 
tion." Therefore, though men may by force 
of their individual temperaments need to 
form systems, the Church cannot form any 
system of theology other than the breadth of 
Scripture and the Creed allow. Calvin's ex- 
treme notions, or rather statements, are not 
now so tenaciously held as formerly. The 
Five Points of Calvinism, as they are called, 
are, — 

I. That God has chosen a certain number 
in Christ to everlasting glory before the 
foundation of the world, according to His 
immutable purpose and of His free gruce 
and love, without the least foresight of faith, 
good works, or any conditions performed by 
the creatures, and that the rest of mankind 

He was pleased to pass by and ordain them 
to dishonor and wrath for their sins, to the 
praise of His vindictive justice. 

II. That Jesus Christ by His sufferings 
and death made an Atonement only for the 
sins of the elect. 

III. That mankind are totally depraved 
in consequence of the Fall ; and by virtue 
of Adam's being their public head the guilt 
of his sin was imputed, and a corrupt nature 
conveyed to his posterity, from which pro- 
ceeds all actual transgression : and that bv 
sin we are made subject to death, and all 
miseries, temporal, spiritual, and eternal. 

IV. That all whom God has predestinated 
to life He is pleased in His appointed time 
effectually to call by His Word and Spirit 
out of that state of sin and death in wnich 
they are by nature to grace and salvation in 
Jesus Christ. 

Y. That those whom God has effectually 
called and sanctified by His Spirit shall 
never finally fall from a state of grace. 

The older Calvinists strenuously defended 
these propositions, but at the present day they 
are held in a much modified form. 

Candlemas. An old name for the Feast 
of the Purification of Saint Mary the Virgin 
(February 2). It was customary in the 
medieval Church upon this feast to bear in 
procession, and to place in the church, a large 
number of lighted candles, typifying the de- 
scription in the Song of Simeon of the Lord 
Jesus, — "a light to lighten the Gentiles, 
and the glory of Thy people Israel;" hence 
the name Candlemas-day. Alcuin (790 a.d.) 
speaks of the custom ; St Bernard also 
(1168 a.d.). ( Vide Feasts.) 

Canon. Apparently it is a name given to 
an officer in the Cathedral staff— a member 
of the Chapter — who held the same general 
rank as the Prebend. They with the Pre- 
bends had their several duties in the services 
and care of the Cathedral. Possibly the 
Prebend enjoyed the income from a special 
endowment or estate, while the Canon was 
maintained out of the common income of the 
Cathedral. However that may have been, 
Canons' and Prebends are now merged into 
the single title of Canons. They are mem- 
bers of, and vote in, the Cathedral Chapter. 
( Vide Chapter.) Minor Canons are not of 
the Chapter. They ought to be all priests, 
skilled in Church music, and are responsi- 
ble for the decent and solemn celebration of 
divine service in daily rotation. 

Canon. The term is from the Greek 
Canon, and means a rule or law, or the term 
is used generally for Canon Law, — i.e., the 
rule of the Church ; Canon of Scripture, t.e., 
the books which the Church accepts as in- 
spired and as binding ; Canon of the Liturgy, 
i «., the rule for the celebration of the Holy 
Communion, which usually begins with the 
versicle, Lift up your hearts (Sursum Corda). 

Canon Law. All the legislation of the 
Church, enacted by her own spiritual right, 
has from the first been embodied in Cbnoft*,— 
a word derived from the Greek, and signify- 

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Ing Ride*. The earliest example of these 
Canons is found in the Acts of tne Apostles, 
where by open consultation, free discussion, 
and joint action of Apostles, Elders, and 
Brethren (or, as we should now say, " Bish- 
ops, Clergy, and Laity"), the first Canons 
were made. At no time in the history of 
the Christian Church has any individual — 
not even the Pope — undertaken to enact 
Canons by his sole authority. The collective 
nature of the act, enduring to the present 
day, is an indisputable proof of the collective 
character of the law-making power from the 
' beginning. 

There are three distinct sources of Canon 
Law for us, — (Ecumenical, Anglican, and 

I. The (Ecumenical Canons, besides those 
already alluded to in the Acts of the Apos- 
tles, include, — 

1. The Apostolic Canons, — a body of 
eighty-live Canons, of unknown antiquity, 
but certainly in large measure embodying 
the rules of action taught everywhere by the 
Apostles themselves, though also with marks 
of later additions. The first two, brief as 
they are, have been the rule of all branches 
of the Apostolic Church in all ages : " Canon 
I. Let a Bishop be ordained by two or three 
Bishops." "Canon II. Let a Presbyter, or 
Deacon, and the other clergy, be ordained by 
one Bishop." These, as well as many others 
of the most important of these ancient Canons, 
are embodied in the " Digest" of the Amer- 
ican Church. 

2. The Canons passed by the undisputed 
General Councils. By the Council of Nice 
20 ; by the first Council of Constantinople 
7 ; by the Council of Bphesus 8 ; by the 
Council of Chalcedon 80 ; — these 66 Canons 
are of highest authority. 

8. Besides these, the Council of Chalcedon 
gave (Ecumenical approval to the Canons 
of several Provincial Synods, as follows : 
of Ancyra, 26 Canons ; of Neo-Csssarea, 16 ; 
of Gangra, 20; of Antioch, 26; of Laodi- 
eea, 60. The last of these Laodicean Canons 
is the earliest that settles the number of the 
books to be received as Holy Scripture. This 
entire body of (Ecumenical law lies at the 
basis of the working system of the Church 
in all ages, though naturally some portions 
of these Canons have become obsolete through 
the many changes of time and circumstance. 

II. The Anglican Canons. The Canons 
adopted in various Provincial Synods in Eng- 
land — Lynd wood enumerates /ytetn— before 
the Reformation remained in force until 1608 
▲ d., and still continue to be of force, except 
where subsequent legislation has expressly 
altered them. Of these Dr. Hook says, 
" The above Canons, made by our Church 
before the Reformation, are, of course, bind- 
ing on our Church now, and are acted upon 
in the Ecclesiastical Courts, except where 
they are superseded by subsequent Can- 
ons, or by the provisions of an Act of 
Parliament." Blunt's "Book of Church 
I aw" says, " The Canons passed up to the 

fifteenth century were collected by William 
Lynd wood (Archdeacon of Canterbury, and 
afterwards Bishop of St. David's) in a work 
called ' Provinciate,' of which the best edi- 
tion is that printed at Oxford in 1679. They 
were published in English in Johnson's 
• Collection of all the Ecclesiastical Laws, 
Canon*, Answers, or Rescripts ... of the 
Church of England, 1 the original edition 
of which was printed in 1720 ad., and a re- 
vised one, edited by Baron, in 1860 a.d. 
Wilkins's * Concilia Magna) Britannia)' con- 
tains all such documents down to 1717 a.d. 
Ayliffo's * Parergon Juris Canonici Angli- 
can!,' or, a Commentary by way of Supple- 
ment to the Canons and Constitutions of the 
Church of England, — a valuable work, the 
character of which is indicated by its title, 
was published in 1784 a.d. An entirely 
new and most trustworthy edition of Wil- 
kins's * Concilia 1 has lately been issued from 
the Clarendon Press under the editorship of 
Professor Stubbs and the Rev. A. W. 

Besidos the above, there was the immense 
" Corpus Juris Canonici," the accumulated 
conglomeration of Church law as set forth 
by the Popes. In addition to the ancient 
Canons, it contains the decrees of Popes and 
Fathers of the Church, a large part of which 
are acknowledged forgeries. As edited 
under Gregory XIII. the bulk of the two 
massive folio volumes in fine print consists 
of the Decretum of G rati an, the Decretals 
of Gregory IX., the Decretals of Boniface 
VIII., the Clementine Constitutions (Clem- 
ent V.), the avagantcs of John XXII., 
and the Extravagantes Communes. In Eng- 
land the adoption of this Roman Canon 
Law was never unrestricted or unreserved. 
More than once the attempt to introduce it 
was successfully resisted ; one such attempt 
bringing from the barons the famous reply, 
Nolumus leges Anglim mutari. Subject to 
the admitted superiority of English law, 
however, many rules of the Roman Canon 
Law have been incorporated with the Eng- 
lish, and the English courts have in recent 
times decided cases on no other authority 
than that of a Canon of the fourth Late ran 
Council, as accepted and recognised by Eng- 
lish Ecclesiastical law. 

At the Reformation settlement of this mat- 
ter, which took place in the twenty-fifth year 
of Henry VIII., it was expressly provided 
that so much of the entire body or ecclesi- 
astical legislation as did "not stand with 
God's laws and the laws of the realm, the 
same to be abrogated and taken away;" 
but "such of them as shall be seen ... to 
stand with God's laws and the laws of the 
realm, to stand in full strength and power." 
A royal commission of thirty-two persons 
was to sift the whole, and put in tangible 
shape that which should continue in force. 
The " Reformatio Legura Ecclesiasticarum," 
issued in the reign of Edward VI., was the 
work of the commission contemplated ; but 
it never received any legal sanction, so that 

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the settlement of Henry VIII. still con- 
tinues in force. 

In 1603 a.d. a body of Canons was pre- 
pared by Convocation and approved by the 
king ; but they were not adopted by Parlia- 
ment, and therefore are not binding on the 
laity. In 1641 a.d. other Canons were put 
forth, but not with as high authority as 
those of 1608 a.d. One Canon, that con- 
cerning sponsors, has been altered since the 
revival of Convocation in our own day. 
Considerable portions of these English Can- 
ons are practically obsolete. 

III. The Canons of the American Church 
(including the Constitution} are found in 
the " Digest," which is divided into four 
titles: Title I. is "Of Vie Orders in the 
Ministry, ana* of the Doctrine and Worship 
of t/te Church,'* including general directions 
for the work of Priests, Deacons, and par- 
ishes ; Title II. is devoted to " Discipline," 
an abundance being provided for Bishops, 
Priests, and Deacons, and very little for any- 
body else; Title III. concerns tbe " Organ- 
ized Bodies and Officers of the C/iurch ;" and 
Title IV. is occupied by "Miscellaneous 

There is no restriction on the power of 
legislation possessed by the General Con- 
vention; but many things are left to the 
Diocesan Conventions, especially the mode 
of trying Priests and Deacons. Each Dio- 
cese, therefore, has a Constitution and Can- 
ons of its own, which are of subordinate 
authority to those of the General Conven- 

As to the present authority of these three 
branches of Canon Law, it may be said : 

I. Of the (Ecumenical Canons, a preg- 
nant recognition is embodied in our Ordi- 
nal, where the Presiding Bishop thus ad- 
dresses tbe Bishop-elect: " Brother, foras- 
much as the Holy Scripture and the ancient 
Canons command," etc. This recognizes a 
still abiding authority in those Canons, as 
well as in Holv Scripture. A very largje 
proportion of those Canons, moreover, is 
embodied in our own " Digest." But no 
specific mention of them is made in that 
Canon which enumerates the causes for 
which a cleric may be presented and tried. 

II. The Anglican Canons have, by many 
of our leading canonists, been declared to be 
still binding in this country, except where 
American Canons have covered the same 
ground differently; others * deny it. The 
House of Bishops, in 1814 a.d., distinctly 
affirmed it. 

This, at least, may be said, that both 
(Ecumenical and Anglican Canons are a safe 
guide to the individual conscience or judg- 
ment, where American Canons are silent. 

III. Among the charges for which a 
Bishop, Priest, or Deacon may be presented 
and tried, our American Canon' specifies 
" Violation of the Constitution or Canons 
of the General Convention," and also 
44 Violation of the Constitution or Canons of 
tho Diocese to which he belongs." 

It would not be safe to take for granted 
that an Ecclesiastical Court would carry its 
penal discipline beyond the two specifica- 
tions here made. 

It has been said that the first Canons 
were passed by the " Apostles, Elders, and 
Brethren." In the case of tho (Ecumenical 
Councils (as in all Provincial Synods), 
though only Bishops (or the representatives 
of absent Bishops) voted, yet the discussions 
were public, ana the voice of the other 
orders of the ministry was freely heard, so 
that the result may fairly be said to be the 
voice of all. Nor had those Canons the 
force of laws until they received the official 
sanction of the emperor, the embodiment 
of tbe lay power. During the mediaeval 
period no Council was held without some 
representation of the same secular element, 
either in the Council itself, or applied after- 
wards. The common rule was, that no bull 
of any Pope, and no Canon of any Coun- 
cil, could be published as binding in any 
country without the consent of the king. 
Under the Anglican system, where the Con- 
vocation includes only Bishops and clergy, 
their acts do not bind as law without the 
approval of Parliament. And, with us, no 
Canon can be enacted without the free vote 
of the order of the laity, as well as that of 
the Bishops and the clergy. The shape in 
which the principle is embodied in our 
American system is the fairest of all, and 
the least liable to any abuse. 

Rev. J. H. Hopkins, D.D. 

Csfnon of Scripture. A point of the 
highest importance from many points of 
view is the determination of the Canonical 
Scriptures. It has been urged latterly that 
the Scriptures are not of the essence of the 
Faith, but only inspired records of it. While 
it is very true that the Faith and the facts 
on which it rests are so woven into the very 
texture of the Christian polity that they 
would exist in all essentials without the 
record, yet the very constitution of our 
nature, our finite condition, and the rela- 
tions of God dealing towards us, necessi- 
tating a Revelation, it follows that the pres- 
ervation of this Revelation could not be 
left to chance, but being to men, for men, 
and deposited with men, for their instruc- 
tion, it must be preserved by them under 
God's general guidance. A slight examina- 
tion of the distortions of the original Divine 
communication which belonged to all men 
at the first, shows us that peculiar guards 
are needed for the accurate conservation of 
such a Revelation. When the family of 
Abraham was chosen there was at first a 
transmission of the Faith by tradition. It 
was a simple plain fact. The unity of God, 
and the blessed mission for which He had 
chosen them and the inheritance of the land 
of Canaan. Doubtless the doctrine of the 
unity of God was obscured by contami- 
nating heathen communications, but the 
tradition was direct. But when Moses re- 
ceived a Revelation and a Law, and an 

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order to write them down >( then prepara- 
tion was also made for their due preserva- 
tion. They were put beside the Ark of the 
Covenant, and were kept wilh the care that 
watched over that. Then the records, not 
the full records of what we may call the 
state papers and public documents of their 
history, but the records that exhibit the di- 
rect line of God's dealings with and care 
for His chosen people, as Joshua, Judges, 
Samuel, and Kings, — written by men whose 
mimes may be traditionally connected with 
them, or which may have been forgotten, 
but who nevertheless were recognized as 
the proper persons to do this, — were also 
published in some authentic way. So, too, 
of the prophetic writings, of Proverbs, and 
Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs, — the 
Psalms as belonging to the Temple ritual 
stands somewhat apart, — these were in some 
sense recognized as holy books, though not 
gathered into an authoritative collection as 
in the present Canon. The Law apparently 
was the only collection which received from 
the first full recognition. After the Cap- 
tivity Ezra took up the work. He caused 
the Law to be read publicly. Jewish tradi- 
tion assigns to him the collection and ar- 
rangement of all the books up to his time, 
and Nehemiah added what was wanting, 
save the books evidently later, as Malachi. 
This tradition of the Talmud shows the 
gradual forming of the collection of the 
sacred books. Later, as we know, the 
whole list underwent severe scrutiny, and 
some, as Esther and the Song of Solotnon, 
were only received after sharp discussion. 
External testimony is not wanting. The 
translation of the Hebrew into Greek, 
though a work extending over a long pe- 
riod, may be assigned to about 270 a d. 
While there are books in it which are not 
from Hebrew originals, and so are rejected, 
the list otherwise corresponds to the Pales- 
tinean Canon. In the ejected books in this 
Septuagint is a confused reference to the 
tradition of the Talmud. We have next the 
indirect testimony of the Alexandrian Philo, 
who quoted largely from some portions of 
the Old Testament, and referred to the laws 
and ora:les uttered by prophets, and hymns 
and the other (books) by which knowledge 
and piety are perfected. This triple division 
into the books of " Moses, the Prophet, and 
the Psalms 1 ' (cf. Luke xxiv. 44) was com- 
mon then, but the contents of the three 
parts varied, from thirteen prophets of Jose- 
ph us to the eight that the prophets now con- 
tain, for the twelve minor prophets must be 
counted as one book. The usual number 
was arbitrarily made to consist of twenty- 
two books, to correspond with the twenty- 
two letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Thus 
Joseph us classes them : The Law five books; 
the Prophets, Joshua, Judges with Ruth, 
Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah with Lam- 
entations, Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra with Nehe- 
miah, Esther, Chronicles, the twelve minoi 
prophets, and Job; and the Hagiographa 

Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of 
Solomon. There was a gradual transference 
of separate books from the section of the 
Prophets to that of the Hagiographa, but the 
triple division was still the current one, and 
so accepted. It in truth represented not only 
the gathering of the books into one formal 
list, but the gradual growth of it among 
the Jews, and the appreciation of the rela- 
tion of the Canon to their national history. 
But this is the state of the Old Testament 
at the time of our Lord. His references to 
it with approval, and His quotations from 
it, place its authority for us beyond any 
question ; and, further, His quotations were 
not from every book, for from a lew there is 
no quotation. Yet since He referred to this 
triple division, the Law of Moses and the 
Prophets and the Psalms, after His Resur- 
rection as containing all things to be fulfilled, 
and as He opened their understanding to re- 
ceive these Scriptures, we have a special 
seal placed upon their authenticity and au- 
thority. We have only to notice here that 
the lists given by Origen (220 a.d.), and Je- 
rome (400 a.d.), and by the Talmud (560 
a.d.), completely correspond. Other lists in- 
clude somo or all of the apocryphal books, but 
Origen, Jerome, and the Talmud adhered to 
the Hebrew text. These larger lists merely 
traced their lists through translations to 
the Septuagint, itself a translation, with addi- 
tions, as we have seen. It follows that the 
Apocrypha is to be rejected as uninspired. 

Thehistory of the Canon of the New Tes- 
tament is parallel. The Revelation of Jesus 
Christ, recorded by chosen men, was first 
published and authenticated and gathered 
into a Canon, after thorough testing. It 
holds precisely the same relation to the Chris- 
tian Church that the Old Testament held to 
the Jewish Church. Through sixty years 
its writings were produced as the Hebrew 
writings were produced during the fourteen 
centuries of their production, — *.«., as the 
circumstances of the Church demanded. 
Persecution and difficulty of intercommuni- 
cation for such purposes kept the formation 
of the Canon in abeyance. The Gospels 
and other writings were circulated, exam- 
ined, used, tested and criticised, doubted of, 
and finally accepted as we now have them. 
The list as we now have it was the gener- 
ally-accepted one made by the Council of 
Laodicea (363 a.d.). But there were com- 
plete collections made much earlier, though 
there were so many of the books which were 
still under doubt in one part or another of 
the Church that there was no general readi- 
ness to accept any one catalogue, till the 
cessation of persecution gave the Church 
leisure to examine this most necessary ques- 
tion ; and when it was done satisfactorily, 
though by a Provincial Council only, it was 
at once received and restated by other Coun- 
cils. It is out of place here to do more than 
to indicate the various lines of evidence 
which go to corroborate the genuineness of 
the several books so received as inspired and 

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canonical. The first and most valued is the 
long series of quotations— made, as from 
books as inspired and of ultimate authority 
and of the highest value, to settle other 
points — to be found in the Christian writers, 
beginning with Clement, the fellow-worker 
of St. Paul, in his letter to the Corinthians, 
and continually increasing and widening till 
the date of the Council above referred to, 
later than which it would not be necessary 
to trace the quotations. Indeed, every verse 
in the New Testament, it is said, save one, 
can be found in the ante-Nicene Fathers, — 
i.e., in the first two hundred and thirty years 
of Christian history. It is not that anyone 
writer quoted from all the books, but all 
thfse writers together did do so. And this is 
the more remarkable not merely from the 
comparatively slight means of circulating 
tho&e writings, but from the manifold diffi- 
culties which persecution created for the 
diffusion of the books, and the studied con- 
cealment and protection of them. The sec- 
ond line of evidence is the translations 
which were made at an early date, as the 
Peschito and the Itala. The third line is 
tt*e use of them in the public services, show- 
ing how they were received as of inspired 
authority in the worship of the Church. 

The 6th Article, after concisely stating 
the authority of Holy Scripture and the 
relation of the Apocryphal books to the in- 
spired Scriptures, gives the lists of the books 
of the Old Testament. This was done be- 
cause of the reverence which the Latin 
Church showed to the Apocryphal books, 
and to decide the question authoritatively. 

Authorities: Browne on XXXIX. Arti- 
cles, Smith's Dictionary, Wordsworth on the 
Canon, Wescott on the Canon of the New 
Testament, Schaff-Herzog Cyclopaedia. 

Canonization. The papal act of pro- 
nouncing upon the full sanctity of a holy 
person. In beatification the Pope only pro- 
nounces upon his (or her) blessedness, but 
does not decide whether he (or she) is a saint 
or not, and allows a certain cultus to be paid 
him. But in canonization the Pope ex cathe- 
dra announces the enrollment of the name 
upon the Calendar of "Saints and the privilege 
to receive the cultus of the faithful in the 

In early times local fame for sanctity 
placed the name upon the roll. It was a 
continuation of the still more ancient rite of 
reciting the names of the faithful departed 
in the celebration of the Eucharist. ( Vide 
Dipt Yens.) But often, after the name was 

Eut upon the roll, papal sanction was sought. 
>ut the Roman See did not claim the exclu- 
sive right till the pontificate of Alexander 
III. (1181 a.d.). This right was not com- 
pletely established till 1625 a.d., when Urban 
VIII. issued a bull (and a second 1634 a.d.) 
detailing the manner of procedure. The 
saint was entitled to the invocation and 
adoration of the whole Church. " The cul- 
tus of the beatified is permitted, the cultus 
of the canonized is enjoined.' 1 

Canticles. Vide The Song ot Solomon. 

Cantor. The office of the singer was very 
anciently recognized in the Church, and he 
was set apart for his office with the charge, 
u See that thou believe in thy heart what 
thou say est witlfehy mouth, and approve in 
thy works what toou belie vest in thy heart. 11 
The choir being divided into two parts, the 
Cantoris, or north side was the Precentors, or 
leaders, and was the leading side in the an- 
tiphonal singing, while the Decani side, in 
the opposite stalls, responded. 

Capital. Vide Architecture. 

Capitulary. A name for a section of the 
laws enacted by the states-general which 
Charlemagne used to gather to advise upon 
the empire. The whole series was called 
The Capitularies, from capitula — chapters — 
of such a Diet. These capitularies of Char- 
lemagne and his successors are well known, 
and are very important documents in the 
history of these times. They treated of 
every topic, from private matters to constitu- 
tional principles and ecclesiastical affairs, 
being'often civil re-enactments of Provincial, 
and even (Ecumenical, Canons. 

Cardinal. The title of the highest digni- 
tary under the Pope of the Roman Church. 
Its origin lies far back in the history of the 
Church in Rome, but in the form and rank 
it now holds it dates only from the sixteenth 
century. Each parish in the city had its 
own mother or baptismal church, and the 
incumbent was called intitulatus incardi- 
tuttus, thence cardinalis. There were seven 
Deacons appointed for the charitable work 
in the several wards or parishes, a Deacon 
to each Church. These formed a council to 
the Bishop. Afterwards Stephen IV. {771 
a.d.J added the suffragan Bishops of the 
neighbor cities. These, with the people, 
had the right to nominate the Bishop of 
Borne ; but the right to confirm was exercised 
by the Franco-German emperors; finally, 
the right to elect was secured to the Cardi- 
nals only (1068 a.d.). The number of Car- 
dinals varied. In the time of Innocent III. 
there were over thirty. Death, and politi- 
cal intrigues and difficulties in nominating, 
of course, all had their force. The Council 
of Basle fixed the number at twenty-four. 
In 1559 a.d., under Pius V., there were as 
many as seventy-six. Sixtus V. (1590 a.d.) 
fixed the number at seventy-six Bishops, 
fifty Priests, and fourteen Deacons. A Car- 
dinal priest of a city church in Home may 
also be a Bishop of a See elsewhere. 

The Pope nominates the new Cardinal in 
one secret Consistory, who is confirmed in a 
second by vote of the Cardinals present; 
when the creation is publicly announced, 
installation with the red hat, the ring of 
office, etc., takes place. There must be 
some regard paid to the rights of other na- 
tionalities to a share in holding the office, 
but the majority of the Cardi nals are Italians. 

A Cardinal is alone eligible to election 
to the papal throne; his title is Eminentis- 
simus. Offense against him ranks as trea- 

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son. The oldest resident Cardinal Bishop is 
Dean of the College of Cardinals. 

Carthage. The Councils of Carthage and 
the Councils of Africa are frequently inter- 
changed by historians, and as they were 
often composed of the u0ne BUhops and 
gathered in the same place, and even in the 
same year, it is possible that independent 
partial accounts of the same Council may 
nave come to be reckoned as accounts of sep- 
arate Synods. It will not be necessary to 
notice more than two or three in any detail. 
A Council was held at Carthage, or rather 
several Councils were held, in the year 255 
a.d., on the question of baptizing those who 
bad already been baptized by heretics. The 
uniform decision was that there was no valid 
baptism out of the Catholic Church, and 
that all who bad once been baptized by her- 
etics must be baptized again for admission 
to the Church. St. Cyprian maintained 
this opinion without wavering, and there 
was a long dispute between him and Pope 
Stephen on the matter of rebaptism, which 
was decided finally at the Council of Aries 
in 814 a.d. In the year 411 a.d. a Council, 
or perhaps a Conference, was held at Car- 
thage on the schism of the Donatists. After 
considerable discussion, decision was made 
that the Donatists were entirely refuted by 
the arguments of the Catholics, and though 
their leaders appealed from this decision, it 
was in vain, and the sect from this time de- 
clined in number and influence. Several 
Councils were held in Carthage in the years 
412, 416, 418, and 419 a.d. Some of these 
are called Africa, some Carthage, some by 
both names ; and as they were composed 
largely of the same Bishops, they are more 
like several sessions of one Council than sep- 
arate Councils. In the Councils of Car- 
thage, held in 412, 416, and 418 a.d., the her- 
esy of Pelagius was discussed and answered, 
and Pelagius and his disciple, Celestius, were 
condemned and excommunicated. From 
the last of these assemblies the Bishops ad- 
dressed a very strong letter on the heresy of 
Pelagius to Zosimus, the Pope, who seems to 
have been imposed upon somewhat by Pela- 

fius and Celestius. The Council of Africa, 
eld in 419 a.d., is also called Carthage, and 
is numbered by some the fourth, by others 
the sixth, of Carthage. Aurelius, Bishop 
of Carthage, called the Council and presided 
over it. There were present two hundred 
and seventeen Bishops, among whom were 
the Primate of Numidia, St. Augustine, 
Bishop of Hippo, and St. Alypius, of Tha- 
gaste. A legate of the Pope was also pres- 
ent The business of the Council was on 
the question of appeals to the Pope. Faus- 
tinus, the legate, produced a Canon, pur- 
porting to be one made at the Council of 
Nice, to show that all Bishops have a right 
of appeal to the Pope; it was denied that 
there was such a Canon, and in order to de- 
termine the dispute, authentic copies of the 
acts of Nice were sent for from Alexandria 
and Constantinople. In the mean while 

the affair of A pis ri us, a priest of Sicca, was 
discussed. He had been deposed and ex- 
communicated by his Bishop, but had ap- 
pealed to Pope Zosimus, who had received 
the appeal, contrary to the decisions of sev- 
eral Council?, and readmitted him to com- 
munion. The African Bishops refused to 
admit this pretension of the Pope with re- 
gard to the right of appeal to Rome, and 
freat contentions arose upon the subject, 
'ive years later another assembly, or per- 
haps the 8a me Bishops, came together on 
the business of Apiarius. It appears that 
he had been a second time excommunicated, 
and had afterwards fled to Rome, where he 
was received by Pope Celestine (for Zosimus 
was dead, and his successor Boniface), who 
gave credit to his statements, received him 
into communion, and gave him a letter to 
the Bishops of Africa. Accordingly, Apia- 
rius appeared at this Council with Fausti- 
nus, who wished to have him received into 
communion. But the Council proceeding to 
inquire into his conduct, Apiarius confessed 
his crimes and was cut off from the body of 
the Church. By this time an answer had 
been received from Cyril of Alexandria and 
Atticus of Constantinople, certifying that 
the Canons cited by Zosimus were not made 
at Nice; so the Council addressed a letter to 
Pope Celestine, in which they complained 
of nis conduct in the matter of Apiarius ; 
begged him not to listen so easily to those 
who came to him from Africa ; not to re- 
ceive into communion those whom they had 
excommunicated, as this was contrary to 
Nice, which decided that all cases should be 
settled in the province where they arise, and 
could not be carried elsewhere without the 
especial direction of the Church ; they 
added that the aid of the Holt Spirit 
might be hoped for to assist several Bishops 
together as much as one alone ; and finally 
they begged the Pope to send no more leg- 
ates to Africa to execute his judgments, as 
likely to introduce too much of the pride 
of the world into the Church of Christ. 
A hundred years later, a Council was held 
at Carthage under Bonifacius, when certain 
Canons were passed forbidding without dis- 
tinction all appeals beyond the sea. The 
Church of Africa maintained her right of 
judging her priests without appeal until the 
time of Gregory the Great. 

Cassock. A long straight gown of some 
kind of stuff, or cloth. In the Church of 
Rome it varies in color with the dignity of 
the wearer. Priests wear black ; Bishops, 
purple ; Cardinals, scarlet, and Popes, white. 
In the Church of England black is worn by 
all the three orders of the clergy, but Bishops, 
upon state occasions, often wear purple coats. 
The lxxiv. English Canon enjoins that 
beneficed clergymen, etc., shall not go in pub- 
lic in their doublet and hose without coats or 
cassocks, Jtbb. (Hook's Church Diction- 
ary. ) 

Casuistry, or Cases of Conscience. Casu- 
istry is the name that is given to that science 

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which aims to show how to resolve " cases 
of conscience/ 1 as they are called. They are 
cases in which we are in doubt as to what is 
our duty, the doubt or hesitation arising 
from the fact that there are two or more du- 
ties, each of which has claims upon us, 
which are so situated that we can perform 
orJy one of them. The aim was legitimate 
and good ; but the science, this branch of 
Moral Philosophy and Christian Ethics, — 
for it was included in both alike, — has fallen 
into neglect and some measure of disrepute, 
so that it is now seldom or never included in 
any treatises on these subjects. Tne disre- 
pute into which it has fallen has resulted 
from two causes. In the first place, the 
views of Christian life and duty taken by 
Protestant denominations generally give 
but little occasion for the application of any 
of the principles of casuistry a* it was taught 
by writers before the Reformation, and as it is 
still taught in the books of Roman Catho- 
lics on the subject. The other reason, which 
was perhaps much the most influential on 
the whole, was the fact that casuistry was 
too often used and regarded as a means of 
finding out how to escape the performance 
of some duty that was distasteful or incon- 
venient, rather than as a means for finding 
out in a conflict of several duties, which 
one of them was really the duty that ought 
to be performed. 

Still, however, casuistry, properly regarded 
and properly treated, has its place and its 
use, and it ought not to be omitted from any 
work that undertakes to show a man what 
his duties, are, or to help him to find out how 
he ought to deport himself, and what he 
ought to do under all- conditions and in all 
the circumstances of life, whether it claims 
to be a treatise of Moral Philosophy based 
on reason and the light of nature alone, or 
a treatise on Christian Ethics based chiefly 
on the truths and doctrines of Revelation. 

In the one case, that of Moral Philosophy, 
the rule is one of law, the fulfillment of 
which is exact and complete righteousness, 
with always a possibility of going beyond the 
requirements of duty and doing what will 
thus become works of " supererogation." 
In the other case, — Christian Ethics, — where 
the attention is directed both to the purity of 
heart and the uprightness of the motives, it 
is hardly recognized as a possibility that one 
can go beyond the requirement of the law — 
the law of liberty and of grace — and do more 
than is needed to fulfill one's obligations. 
Nay, only one Being in " the form of man" 
is supposed to have ever done so much as to 
fulfill the requirements of the law. In this 
code there are but two great duties, — love to 
God and love to man ; these, when properly 
understood, can never be in ceaflict by any 
possibility or in any case. No human being 
can, in fact, come fully up to the require- 

Still, however, there is a place and a 
inhere for casuistry even here. For although 
there can be no conflict between our duty to 

God and our duty to our fellow-men, when 
both are rightly understood, there will be 
many cases in the life of an earnest and con- 
scientious man when he will be in doubt 
about his duty, even from a Christian point 
of view. 

As specimens of the questions that have 
been discussed under the head of casuistry 
take the following. Under the head of the 
duty of truthfulness, " how far is one justi- 
fiable in withholding the truth and mislead- 
ing others by telling what is known to be 
false, when the telling of the truth would 

Imt the man who tells it to inconvenience or 
oss, or damage to his friends, his country, 
or his Church ?" Or, again, as coming under 
the head of honesty, " how far may a servant 
whose wages are either insufficient to sup- 
port him and his family or below what they 
ought to be, take the property of his em- 
ployer without his knowledge or consent to 
make up the deficiency ?" It will readily be 
seen how and why the subject of casuistry 
should fall into disrepute when it is occupied 
with such questions. 

Still, however, as we have already said, 
there will be occasions for the exercise of 
genuine casuistry in its proper and higher 
sense, whether we regard the matter as one 
purely of Moral Philosophy or as one of 
Christian Ethics. 

As a matter of Moral Philosophy I think 
we may get a very important help from a 
recognition of the fact that our duties may 
be referred to those classes, with reference to 
their grade of importance or claim to prefer- 
ence in making our selection. In the first 
place, we may speak of those duties which 
each one of us may be said to owe to himself; 
second, those that he owes to his fellow-men; 
and, thirdly, those that he owes in the sev- 
eral orders to his country, to humanity, and 
to God. 

Among the duties that one owes to him- 
self are temperance, sobriety, care of health, 
moral and intellectual culture, and such like. 
Now it is hardly possible that there should 
occur any conflict between those duties one 
owes to himself and the duties of either of 
the higher grades. On the contrary, the per- 
formance and perfection of these duties are 
a help towards the performance of the higher 
duties. Health, temperance, purity, and a 
high state of culture make us more valuable 
to others and enable us to render duties of a 
higher grade, or to perform them more fully 
and more acceptably, than we could i f we were 
deformed and degraded by the vices which 
are the opposites of those virtues and accom- 
plishments. Then as between our duties to 
our families, our friends, and our country, 
humanity, and to God, there is less often a 
conflict than we are apt to imagine. But 
when there is really a conflict, there can be 
no doubt that the objects rise in superiority 
the one to the other, in the order in which 
they are named above. One who is fit to be 
a martyr for truth, for his country, and his 
God should have no hesitation about being 

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a martyr. But do man of a mean or cow- 
ardly disposition has any such call, or any 
qualification for the calling. Men who are 
worthy to be martyrs are always the men 
who have the respect and esteem of their 
fellow-men, for their moral excellence and 
mental superiority. Of the foremost and 
most worthy of all the martyrs the world has 
ever had it was " He who has done nothing 
amiss,' 1 there was no cause of death in Him, 
" not even so much as a word of guile was 
ever found in His mouth." No one can 
render effective and acceptable service to 
any cause as a martyr who does not com- 
mand the respect and confidence of his fel- 

We can well understand how one should 
enter upon a course of heroic devotion to his 
country or the service of God without even 
a regret for the comfort, the ease, and the 
occasions for selfish and sensual indulgence 
which the duties he undertakes to perform 
may compel him to sacrifice. But we can- 
not understand how any one should enter 
upon such a course without regret and pain at 
the thought of the sacrifices which others must 
make, or the losses which this course may 
entail upon them, — the loss of society and 
companionship, and, as it will often happen, 
the loss of much needed help and support. 
Hence one should well scan nis motives be- 
fore entering upon such duties, involving, 
as it docs, the neglect or non- perform anc&of 
other duties that are in a way and to a cer- 
tain degree, at least, due to one's relatives 
and neighbors. He should carefully consider 
whether any help that he can render to the 
higher cause will compensate in the general 
balance for the loss of those duties which by 
a different course he could certainly perform 
for the good of man and the glory of God. 

As a matter of Christian ethics the solu- 
tion of questions of conscience or of duty 
becomes a very different thing. Here we 
have not only the Scriptures but also the 
Church in general, and each one his own 
immediate and particular Christian pastor, 
to inform, advise, and to guide him. But 
the Scriptures themselves have put the mat- 
ter in such a light that the solution of such 
questions becomes comparatively easy. Chris- 
tianity directs attention to the motives by 
which one is actuated in what he does as a 
chief and controlling element. It distinctly 
recognizes the fact that one may do from the 
best of motives wbat ought not to be done, 
and may, on the other hand, do from very 
bad motives the very thing that ought to be 
done. St. Paul will furnish us an example 
of both cases, — the one in his own person, 
and the other in that of some of the people 
with whom he was brought into contact in 
the course of his ministry. Before his con- 
version, and when he whs persecuting the 
Christians, in a spirit of determined opposi- 
tion to the very Gospel which he afterwards 
so effectively preached, he, as he himself in- 
forms us, did it from a zeal for God and the 
truth. The act was about the worst that 

could be done as he came to regard it after- 
wards, while the motive was ot the highest 
order, and that one which of all others he 
regarded as the most holy and commendable. 
For an example of the other class of cases 
we may refer to his Epistle to the Philip- 

Eians, chap. i. 15, where he says that some 
ave preached Christ " of envy and strife," 
"not sincerely," but from mere "conten- 
tion," supposing and intending to add "af 
fliction to his bonds." " What then ?" he 
asks, " notwithstanding, every way, whether 
in pretense, or in truth, Christ is preached ; 
ana I therein do rejoice, yea, I will rejoice." 
Hence manifestly the motive was bad, al- 
though the act was a very proper thing to 
be done. And so in fact in a large share of 
what we undertake there is always the pos- 
sibility of some element of bad motive. 
However good and commendable the work 
in which we engage, the enforcement of law 
and the administration of discipline may be 
prompted or pursued more intensely than it 
would otherwise be from motives of anger 
or dislike towards those who are the objects 
of our activity and our zeal. So too in 
the highest, noblest works we can under- 
take,— even those that seem most noble and 
heroic, even in those cases where martyrdom 
may appear to be the inevitable result, there 
may be something of an unholy feeling, 
something of pride, of ambition, some 
thought of the halo of glory that will accom- 
pany our name in all the future generations 
of men. 

Christianity does not teach, as it is some- 
times claimed, that the character of our 
acts depends wholly and exclusively on our 
motives. It recognizes the fact, as we have 
just said and seen, that the motive may be bad 
while the act is good, and the reverse, which 
will happen far more frequently. The mo- 
tive may be perfectly pure and good, while 
the act we perform is one that ought not to 
be done. And although we may hope for 
pardon from God, as St. Paul did, and ob- 
tain it, as he assures us he did, there are 
often certain natural consequences that will 
follow our acts which no repentance can 
avert, and from which, so far as we know, 
God will not grant us any exemption. The 
broken constitution that comes trom a life 
of dissipation and vice will not be restored, 
although, as we may hope and believe, the 
final penalty for the transgression which is 
to follow in the next world will be remitted, 
and in fact many of the purely essential 
and psychical consequences may be averted 
by Divine grace, so that peace and hope will 
come as the result of the Divine favor and 

We have spoken of three guides which 
the Christian believer has to a knowledge 
of his duty in the order of their authority 
and importance, — the Holy Scriptures, the 
Church, and the immediate pastor of each 
one as a member of some congregation of 
Christians. Ample provision is thus made 
for all classes and conditions of men. For 

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the very lowest in the scale of culture, the 
most ignorant and least intellectual, per- 
haps, this order should be reverted, no as to 
put the pastor first, then the Church, and 
finally the Holy Scriptures ; for, as a mat- 
ter of fact, what these people learn of Christ 
and of duty they learn from their pastor, 
and through him they may come to know 
of the teachings of the Holy Scriptures or 
of the Church, without distinguishing or 
knowing any difference between the two 
elements, or in fact that these are the 
two sources from which this instruction 
has come to them. Such is the provision 
for the very lowest and those who have the 
least opportunity to learn and judge for 
themselves. Now we may well believe that 
for such persons God will not hold them re- 
sponsible, to any considerable extent at least, 
for the errors that may be taught them, if 
any such should have entered into the in- 
struction that has been given them. But 
for those of larger endowments there cun 
be no doubt that God will hold them respon- 
sible for any errors thev may hold, whether 
in doctrine or in regard to their duty, which 
they might have avoided by such a study of 
the Church and the Holy Scriptures as it was 
in their power to make. The Bible is for all, 
and all who can do so should read it. But 
it needs interpretation, and there are none, 
even the most learned and the wisest, who 
do not find in it many things that are " hard 
to be understood,' 1 and for the right under- 
standing of which they would be glad of 
•help that they have not yet received. But 
with regard to duty — the minor details of 
our actions — I think there are two princi- 
ples or rules of the greatest importance. I 
speak now not of doctrine, or the doctrines 
of the faith, but of duty, what we are to do, 
and chiefly of those minor points of duty in 
regard to which there is most likely to be 
doubt, difficulty, or in which there may arise 
conflicts of duties, so that we are in doubt 
which to perform in order to serve God 
most acceptably. 

1. The first principle is that it is always 
better to err, if we must err at all, or are in 
danger of erring, on the side of self-denial 
and generosity than in the direction of self- 
indulgence and selfishness. Most of us 
need restraint in the indulgence of our ap- 

?etites and the enjoyment of our pleasures, 
'eriods of prayer, abstinence, and self-denial 
are prescribed, and they are found necessary 
for most persons, and beneficial, I doubt not, 
for all. Now whenever a case of doubt oc- 
curs, in which it is merely a question of a 
little more enjoyment or ease on our part, 
and a duty of charity or of forbearance for 
the good of others, this principle will help 
us to a very ready solution. By abstinence 
and self-denial in order to do a deed of 
charity or to promote the happiness and 
welfare of some other person, wo may be 
doing a double duty and conferring a two- 
fold benefit,— -one on ourselves and one on 
some brother in this common humanity of 

ours, on some one of those in reference to 
whom Christ has said, ** Inasmuch as ye 
have done it unto one of those ye have done 
it unto me." 

Of course there is a possibility of carrying 
our abstinence and self-surrender, not to 
say self-sacrifice, too far. There may be an 
abstinence and self-neglect that will impair 
the health or endanger the life. And there 
are cases of courso in which one will have 
duties to perform that will require self-sacri- 
fice to that extent. In the case of the parent 
and the professional nurse, as well as that of 
the physician, it sometimes becomes a clear 
duty to do what the case requires even at the 
risk of health and of life. And there are cases, 
as we cannot doubt, in which persons who 
are not supposed, and cannot be supposed 
on any general principles of duty to run 
such risks, have nevertheless done so, with 
the approval of God, and, as we doubt not, 
the approval of all right-minded persons and 
with, at any rate, the admiration of all sub- 
sequent ages. 

And so with generosity. If in a matter 
of doubt whether I owe a man six pence or 
ten pence, on the principle I have stated it 
is safer, and, in a Christian point of view, it 
is better, to pay the ten pence. Most of us 
have constitutionally and naturally quite 
enough of selfishness. We need rather to 
check than to cultivate and encourage it. By 
acting on the rule suggested we may, and 
most likely we shall, be gaining more in a 
spiritual way than we lose in our temporal 

This principle, however, should not be so 
understood and applied as to inculcate sub- 
mission to wrong and extortion when the 
right is clearly known. We are speaking 
of cases of doubt, and not at all of those in 
which the right is clearly seen and known. 
How far we may submit to what is clearly 
wrong and unjust is another question, and 
one, too, that we are not considering now. 
There are cases, doubtless, in which it is a 
duty to resist wrong, not necessarily from 
any motives of self-interest or hope of gain 
or advantage to ourselves, but in the cause 
of truth, and of those great principles of 
righteousness without which there can be 
no peace on earth and on which happiness 
in the kingdom of heaven itself is founded. 

2. The other great principle to which I 
referred is that of spiritual guidance in an- 
swer to prayer. In the state of nature our 
natural instincts are suggestive. In almost 
anv circumstances, and in view of our duty 
before us, which is to be either done or to 
be left undone, those instincts will suggest, 
each one according to its nature, what we 
shall do. The instincts of a generous man 
will suggest and incline him to act gener- 
ously, and he will decide and act accord- 
ingly; while the man of a different nat- 
ural tendency in this respect will as readily 
choose and act in the other way under pre- 
cisely the same circumstances. In this way 
we all show what is our natural disposition. 

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And these differences in natural disposition 
constitute the difference in natural character 
which we all exhibit in daily life, and 
which, to some extent, remain and underlie 
as a basis and the ground-soil the character 
that we carry or maintain through life, 
notwithstanding all the natural culture we 
may receive. But Christianity and Chris- 
tian conversion changes our nature in this 
respect. It implants new instincts, gives 
new aims in life, and especially does it es- 
tablish the idea of Goo, as omnipresent, 
knowing the very secrets of our thoughts 
and hearts, as a Being to be supremely loved 
and to be feared more than all else that we 
can have thought or conception of, and this 
puts its natural instincts and propensities to 
a very large extent into abeyance or into a 
state of inactivity, just as one mav be so ab- 
sorbed in some earthly pursuit tnat he be- 
comes unconscious of pains, and even of 
bodily needs. One may even be so much 
overcome by fear as to be incapable of anger 
or of lust. Now, whatever of supernatural 
there may be in the religious experience, there 
is a change of this kind in our thoughts and 
feelings in consequence of the rise into ac- 
tivity of the religious emotions awakened 
in us by our Christian faith. Through the 
influence of this faith, and by perseverance 
in the acts and mode of life which Christi- 
anity prescribes and requires, these new mo- 
tives become constantly prominent and pre- 
dominating. They become habits, and super- 
sede the old, constitutional, and natural 
instincts of the individual, so that after a 
period of confirmed experience and acquired 
habit, he acts as promptly, as unconsciously 
of his motives, and in a certain sense m nat- 
urally in the new way as he did in the old 
way — " after the flesh," as the Apostle calls 
it — before the change. 

Now, the Bible teaches that in and along 
with this change the Holy Ghost works on 
our hearts. And not only so, but Divine 
guidance, the sacred influence of the Holt 
Spirit, will be given to guide us in all 
questions of doubt and uncertainty in an- 
swer to our prayers. "When we pray for 
specific objects we are apt to confine our de- 
sires for those objects, and to encourage and 
strengthen our hopes of realizing them. But 
when we subordinate our wills to the will of 
God, and in praying for any object, pray 
also, and still more earnestly, that His will 
may be done, whatever may become of the 
object we desire, this is pretty sure to cause 
a clear, settled, and abiding conviction as to 
what we ought to do. On such a conviction 
we find that we may act, and have no cause 
to repent of our action ; and seldom, per- 
haps never, if wo want to see all the conse- 
quences of our act, shall we come to regret 
it or to wish that we had done otherwise, or 
in any respect differently from what we 
were led, as we shall believe, to do by the 
guidance of God, working within by His 
Holy Spirit, and without and around us 
by His overruling providence. In the light 

of Christian Ethics, therefore, one does 
wron^ only when (1) before the conscious 
adoption of the Christian Faith he follows 
those natural instincts which are bad, or in 
the degree and form in which they are bad, 
or (2) when, after having come under the 
influence of the Christian Faith and the 

fuidance of the Holy Spirit, he allows 
imself to choose an act without consulting 
and allowing himself to be guided by the 
Divine influence; and the only practical 
difficulty in this latter stage of our experi- 
ence seems to be in silencing our own hearts 
and its promptings, — the promptings of that 
"corruption of our nature," "the infection 
of which doth remain even in those that are 
regenerate," and will remain until we are 
wholly transformed into the image of " Him 
who is our Resurrection and our Life." 
Ret. Wm. D. Wilson, D.D. 

Catechism. To give instruction, to teach, 
is an essential part of the spiritual teaching 
every Christian should receive. It was based 
upon the rule our Lord gave the Apostles : 
44 Go ye, therefore, and make disciples of all 
the nations, baptizing them into the name 
of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost : teaching them to observe all 
things whatsoever I commanded you" (St. 
Matt, xxviii. 19, 20). Whenever the Church 
made converts she instructed each specially 
in the doctrines of the Faith. From this 
grew up the Creed, and for this schools were 
everywhere established for the training of 
the catechumens. Several of these schools, or 
rather the teachers of them, became famous. 
The Alexandrian and Antiocbean schools 
bore an important part in the early Church 
teaching, and most disastrously since Arius 
the heretic was trained in Antioch under 
Lucian the martyr, where he imbibed those 
principles of dialectics which resulted in his 
heretical doctrines, and was master for a 
time in the Alexandrian school, before his 
heresy became so flagrant. Pantamus, Clem- 
ent of Alexandria, and Or i gen, were famous 
instructors in this school. Cyril of Jerus- 
alem delivered in the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre the valuable Catechetical Lectures 
that have come down to us. Everywhere the 
office of the Catechist was an important one, 
intrusted to him who was fittest. It was 
not properly confined to any order ; a Lay- 
man, Deacon, Priest, or Bishop, as he had 
the gift and the opportunity, could fill it. 

So St. Augustine wrote for a Deacon his 
elements of catechising (Do. Rud. Catech.). 
There was ever a watchful care to see that 
children were properly catechised, and we 
have frequent enactments by Councils and 
Synods upon this important duty. The rough, 
strong missionary sermons of St. Boniface 
(740 a.d.) have a catechetic force and direct- 
ness. So, too, in a missionary journey into 
Pomerania, Bishop Otho catechised the con- 
verts to the number of seven thousand, it is 
said (1124 a.d.). A great activity in this 
work was developed by the Reformation, 
and nearly every leading Reformer compiled 

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a catechism which contained hit own pecu- 
liar doctrinal views. Injunctions were made 
by Cranmer, and issued by Henry VIII. 
(1536 a.d.), enjoining the clergy anew to 
train the, children in the Creed, Lord's 
Prayer, and Ten Commandments. In Ed- 
ward VI. Primer (1553 a.d.) a long cate- 
chism was set forth. In the Confirmation 
Office was prefixed the first half of our present 
Catechism. Who its author was is not cer- 
tain. It has been claimed for Alexander 
Howell, second master in Westminster 
6chool in 1549 a.d., but Dean of St. Paul's 
from 1560 to 1602 a d. ; also for Bishop 
Poynet, who was Bishop of Rochester in 
1550 a.d. Bishop Goodrich, of Ely, has 
also been urged as its author, since the duty 
towards God and the duty towards my neigh- 
bor are on tablets in the walls of a spacious 
bow-window which he added to the Palace 
of Ely. The catechism in Edward's Prayer- 
Books ended with the explanation of the 
Lord's Prayer. At the Hampton Court 
Conference, 1603 A.D., the Puritans com- 
' plained that the Catechism was too short. 
In consequence the latter part, upon the Sac- 
raments, was drawn up. Its author is claimed 
by Bishop Cosin to have been Bishop Over- 
all, at that time Dean of St. Paul's. It is 
probable that he translated from some Latin 

The present system of Sunday-schools 
usurps too much the place of proper catechet- 
ical instruction or thorough drill in the Cate-i 
chism. It should be made a much more 
im ( x rtant part of the parochial work, in 
accordance with the plain language of the 
rubric at the end of the Catechism. The 
failure to do this lies of course mainly upon 
the rector, but the laity are not free. But 
little pains are taken to see that the children 
are so instructed at home that they can be 
profitably sent to the church to be catechised, 
and but little more care is taken to see that 
they do go at all whenever there is this 
duty discharged. Were the parents them- 
selves to come, or were the open catechising 
directed by the Prayer-Book held after the 
second lesson in the evening service, when 
the parents and guardians could make it a 
duty to be present, there would be more 
energy and zeal s-hown. It is true that not 
all have the gift to catechise happily, but it 
can always be made most profitable to .all 
engaged. The rubrics demand the earnest 
attention of every layman : 

14 g The minister of every Parish shall dili- 
gently, upon Sundays and Holy-days, or on 
some other convenient occasions, openly in 
the Church instruct or examine so many 
children of his Parish sent unto him as he 
shall think convenient in some part of this 

" $ And all fathers, mothers, masters, and 
mistresses shall cause their children, servants, 
and apprentices who have not learned their 
Catechism, to come to the Church at the 
time appointed, and obediently to hear and 
to be ordered by the minister, until such 

time as they have learned all that is then 
appointed for them to learn. 

" % So soon as children are come to a com- 
petent age and can say the Creed, the Lord's 
Prayer, and the Ten Commandments, and 
can answer to the other questions of this 
short Catechism, they shall be brought to 
the Bishop. 

" i And whensoever the Bishop shall give 
knowledge for children to be brought unto 
him for their Confirmation, the minister of 
every Parish shall either bring or send in 
writing, with his hand subscribed thereto, 
the names of all such persons within his 
Parish as he shall think fit to be presented to 
the Bishop to be confirmed." 

The plan of the Catechism is very obvious. 
It is a most comprehensive summary, setting 
forth clearly the Baptismal Covenant, and 
our duty to assume it; the Creed and its 
summary ; the Covenant of duty in the Ten 
Commandments, with a noble exposition of 
it ; the Law of Prayer, and the grace of the 
Sacra m en ts. As the Bishops at the Savoy 
Conference replied to furitan objections, 
" The Catechism is not intended as a whole 
body of divinity, but as a comprehension of 
the Articles of Faith and other doctrines 
most necessary to salvation." 

Catechumens. In the early Church those 
who were preparing for baptism, or who 
sought instruction in Christian doctrine for 
that end, were admitted into a class by some 
significant rite, by the laying on of hands 
and the sign of the cross. They were, be- 
sides receiving special instruction from the 
catechist, allowed: to attend the public ser- 
vice and to listen to the Scriptures and to 
sermons, probably from some allotted place 
in the church. They were dismissed from 
the church with some special prayer, as this, 
from St. Chrysostom's Liturgy : 

" Lord our God whodwellest on high and 
beholdest the humble, who didst send forth 
the salvation of the race of man, Thine only- 
begotten Son, our God and Lord Jesus 
Christ, look down upon Thy servants the 
Catechumens who have bowed their necks 
unto Thee ; and make them worthy, in due 
sexson, of the laver of regeneration, of the for- 
giveness of sins, of the robe of immortality; 
unite them to Thy Holy Catholic and Apos- 
tolic Church, and number them together 
with Thy elect flock, that they also together 
with us may glorify Thy honorable and 
majestic Name, Father, Son, and Holt 
Ghost, now and ever and to ages of ages. 

As they were better prepared they were 
instructed in the great facts and dogmatic 
truths, but were not intrusted with the 
words of either the Creed or the Lord's 
Prayer till just before baptism. The teach- 
ing was clear and as full as the condition of 
the catechumen would permit. But if the 
catechumen was approaching death or was 
in danger of martyrdom, the regular season 
of baptism was anticipated, and he was bap- 
tized without hesitation or delay; or if bap* 

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tism could not be administered in cases of 
martyrdom, the Church heM that the baptism 
of blood supplied the grace of the laver. 

Cathedral. Society in the first of the 
Christian centuries was urh»n, and the poli- 
tical organization was municipal. A man's 
country was not a region but a city; his 
patriotism did not embrace a whole nation of 
the same language and blood as himself, but 
those only who with him were shut up within 
the walls of a single town. A man was not 
a Greek or Italian, but an Athenian or a 
m Roman. Within the walls of each city were 
" the schools of philosophy, the political assem- 
bly, the sharp activities of commerce, the 
glorious works of art, and the magnificent 
temples and the worship of the gods. They, 
who lived in the midst of all this urban cul- 
ture, exoitement, and strife could but grow 
in mental vigor, sensitiveness of spirit, and 
eagerness for what was new. On the other 
hand, they who were shut out and con- 
demned to the drudgery of daily and endless 
toil, born to labor and with children doomed 
to the same hard lot, grew with the years 
and the generations more and more stolid, 
clinging unreasoningly to the past and unapt 
to adopt what was unwonted and new. 

When they to whom the august com- 
mand was given, to go into ail the world 
and preach the Gospel to every creature, set 
about its obedience, they followed of neces- 
sity the lines on which they found society • 
organized. They passed through the fields 
and villages, and the scanty and stolid pop- 
ulations there, into the city. They did so 
because here the multitudes were gathered. 
And these multitudes by education, culture, 
refinement, and long, daily, and anxious 
reasoning about the soul, its nature and des- 
tiny, had outgrown the mythology of their 
fathers and were ready to hear, heed, and 
accept a new solution of the mysteries of 
life, death, and immortality. But an itiner- 
ant apostleship, that blessed one city for a 
little while, and then, before what there had 
been won was well assured, was under the 
necessity of passing on to another, was un- 
equal to the exigencies. As each city was a 
whole country unto its citizens, and com- 
manded of them a patriotism as enthusiastic 
and narrow as the love of home, it followed 
that a local, stationary resident and muni- 
cipal Episcopate was the only institution 
which could effectually work upon such pop- 
ulations. A Bishop of Greece or Italy was 
impossible. The autonomy of a Church in 
each city was a necessity by reason of the 
nature of every municipality. It was for 
this reason that the Apostles appointed elders 
in every city. 

The actual work of obedience to the Divine 
command was conducted in the way we 
should expect. Going to his own city, the 
Bishop established himself in a certain place 
of residence and ministration. Here he 
gathered about him his Priests and Deacons 
in numbers according to circumstances ; all 
living together, their hearts aflame with a 

common seal, their intense activities devoted 
to a common life and work and destiny. 
Each of those whom he had gathered around 
him was assigned by him to some special 
task r — e.g., labor among a class of the people 
whom he could more readily reach, or a sec- 
tion of the city which he could more con- 
veniently serve, or a function of preaching 
or teaching or disputing or writing to which 
he was specially fitted. Each goes to his 
place and work, and returns to the Bishop 
with reports of what he has done and seen 
and heard, and to receive new orders, in- 
structions, and assignments to duty. This 
common home of all his people, where all 
the ways of all their work begin and end, 
whither, after all toils and dangers and per- 
secutions, they turn their weary feet for rest 
and their weary hearts for solace, is the 
Cathedral. It was not only the first Church 
in order of time : It was long the only Churob, 
and it held its primacy among the institu- 
tions of the Christian state because it was 
the focus of all the work of the Diocese. 

In Saxon England society was very dif- 
ferently organized. There were few towns. 
The population was sparsely scattered over 
the country. Each family, with its branches 
and dependents living by itself, held wide 
tracts of land, and much of the country lay 
vacant. The people were devoted to agricul- 
ture and pasturage. Their manners were 
rude and simple, and they were disinclined 
to the exactions of compact society. The 
polity was loose and easy ; the country was 
divided among many tribes with indefinite, 
democratic institutions. Each had its kins:, 
but he was king in little else than name, ex- 
cept for purposes of defense and war. 

The Bishop entering upon the work of 
converting a tribe fixed his seat, his Bishop's 
stool, as it was called, at any convenient 
place of his choice, and with no regard to 
population. Sometimes, as, for instance, at 
Ely, he planted it by itself in a vacant re- 
gion, the religious colony afterwards draw- 
ing the people around it. Accordingly, he 
was the Bishop, not of a city, but of a tribe. 
This is illustrated by his title. On the Con- 
tinent the Bishops were called after their 
city, as the Bishop of Jerusalem, of Antiocb, 
of Rome. On the island, on the other hand, 
society beins: rural and the polity tribal, the 
Bishops took their style from their people. 
For instance, there was a tribe called the 
Somorsaetas, from which the name Somerset 
comes. The Bishop, whose seat was at 
Wells, was the Bishop, not of Wells, but of 
the Somersaetas. There was also the tribe 
of the West Saxons, who had the royal 
city of Winchester. Their Bishop was not 
the Bishop of Winchester, but of the West 

But, however interesting this difference 
in circumstances, the work in Britain was 
the same as elsewhere, and was carried on 
in the same way. The Bishop having made 
choice of the place where he should live, 
built there tho church, houses, gardens, 

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farms, and all necessary conveniences for 
hit clerical colony. Here be gathered-abmH 
him his Priests and Deacons in considerable 
numbers, giving them homes in his own 
bouses, and supporting them from his reve- 
nues. The life was not necessarily celibate, 
nor under one roof, nor at one table ; but it 
was in community. He was the head of the 
family, and he ruled it as a father bis house- 
bold. He apportioned the work among his 
clergy, giving to each his place, office, and 
task. To this one he gave this circuit to 
travel in the country of the tribe, and to 
another that ; to one he appointed this sta- 
tion or mission, and to another that; and so 
on through all the work of the Diocese. The 
sphere of duty whose centre was here era- 
braced all ministrations, charities, instruc- 
tions, and interests ; and the service whicb 
went forth hence was circumscribed only bv 
tbe boundaries of the whole Diocese. This 
centre of work was the Cathedral. For four 
centuries this was the polity of the Church, 
as well among rude and rural tribes of Eng- 
land as in the intense life of the great cities. 
Everywhere the polity of the primitive 
Church was the Diocesan system, just as 
everywhere the administration was Episco- 
pal. The centre of the Diocese was the 
Cathedral, and from thence the work was 

Throughout all the course of history, in 
all parts of the world, the polity of the prim- 
itive times has controlled the whole of the 
development of the constitution of the Chris- 
tian Church. Its principles, modes, and ad- 
ministration have at all times been founded 
on what the Apostles and their immediate 
successors adopted and established. Under 
the pressure of circumstances there have been 
modifications in incidents and details, but 
never in what was essential and organic. 
When Christianity became the religion of 
the people, and the Cathedral could not con- 
tain them, nor be served directly from it, 
parishes sprang up as separate independent 
points of work. But the Bishop exercised 
his jurisdiction from his own Church as 
from the cwpitol of his Diocese. Thence 
proceeded the authority, the administration, 
the service by which the Diocese in city and 
country alike, and all the people, urban and 
rural, were ruled and served The body of 
the clergy who hitherto had held a direct, 
personal, and constant relation to the Bishop, 
became now divided into two classes, one 
the Parochial, the other the Cathedral, 
clergy. The active work among tbe people 
was assumed by the former; the powers 
which all the Presbyters had exercised in 
assisting the Bishop' in the administration 
of his office devolved upon the latter. The 
Diocesan system became accordingly sepa- 
rated into the Parochial and tbe Cathedral 
system ; each of which was the complement 
of the other, and the whole still 'having a 
perfect union in tbe Episcopal function. - 

The Clergy of the Cathedral were now 
consolidated into a compact and highly-or- 

ganised body. We shall define their duties 
and* powers hereafter. We ha%*e now to 
direct our attention to their organization. 
They were first called Canons in the eighth 
century. Their corporation was called the 
Chapter. Their number differed at differ- 
ent Cathedrals and at different times. At 
Wells there were in the tenth century four 
or five ; in the twelfth at first ten, then 
twenty -two; afterwards the number was 
raised to fifty. At St. Paul's, London, there 
were thirty, and at Lincoln fifty-two. It 
was necessary that these great societies should 
have officers charged with special duties. 
The principal officer of the Cathedral body 
after the Bishop was called the Dean. Dean 
Milman in his Annals of St. Paul's, Lon- 
don (p. 182). thus defines his duties and 
office : " The Dean had supreme authority ; 
was bound to defend the liberties of the 
Church ; was bound by his oath to observe 
and to compel others, from the Canons down 
to the lowest officer and servants, to observe 
the laudable customs of the Church, to 
watch overall the possessions of the Church, 
and to recover what might have been lost or 
alienated. He had authority also over all 
who inhabited the manors and estates ; an 
authority which singularly combined the 
seignorial and spiritual jurisdictions. He 
was the guardian at once of the rights and 
interests of the poorer tenants, and, it may 
also be said, vassals, as well as of their 
morals and religion. The Dean presided in 
all causes brought before the Chapter and 
determined them, with the advice of tho 
Chapter. He corrected, with the advice- of 
the Chapter, all excesses and contumacies. 
Lighter offenses of inferior persons were 
punished by the Chancellor. The Bishop 
had no authority in capitular affairs, except 
on appeal. The Dean, for more heinous of- 
fenses, could expel from the choir, and cut 
off all stipends and emoluments, with dis- 
cretion, to the edification, not the destruc- 
tion, of the Church. These words are in 
Colet's unaccepted code ; but the same spirit 
prevails throughout the older statutes, only 
in different forms. The Dean had a Sub- 
dean to perform his functions when abroad 
or incapacitated from dutv, with authority 
over all the inferior members of the Church 
except the Canons." 

Next in rank to the Dean was the Pre- 
centor, who had charge of the choir of the 
Cathedra), and all the services which were 
performed in it, and the schools of music. 
He directed the music and had the discipline 
of all the choristers and singers. His deputy, 
where he had one, was called the Succentor. 

Next after the Precentor came the Chan- 
cellor, who was charged with the care of 
the library, and the grammar and divinity 
schools. It was also his dutv to lecture to 
the Cathedral clergy on divinity, and to 
organize theological instruction given by 
others. In some places, as at St. Paul's, he 
had " charge of education, not only for the 
Church, but for the whole city ; all teachers 

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of grammar are subject to him." His dep- 
uty was the V icerChanoellor. 

•The last of the officers of the Chapter was 
the Treasurer. " The Treasurer was the 
.responsible guardian of the treasures of the 
Church, and ample indeed they were. Rel- 
iques, first in value and importance ; books, 
of which there is a curious catalogue ; ves- 
sels of gold and silver, vestments, cbalicf-s, 
crosses, curtains, cushions, and palls. He 
was answerable to the Dean and Chapter 
for the safe custody of all these precious 
things, and could not lend any of them 
without the consent of the Dean and Chap- 
ter. Under the Treasurer was the Sacrist. 
His office was to superintend the tolling of 
the bells, to open the doors of the Church at 
the appointed times, to dress the altars, and 
take care that the vessels and vestments 
were clean and in good order. The SacrUt 
was to take care that there was in the 
Church, even on the festivals, no crowd, 
noise or singing, neither talking, quarrel- 
ing, nor jesting, neither business nor sleep- 
ing. He was to maintain order and con- 
duct every one to his proper place." 

There was another body of the Cathedral 
clergy who cannot be passed over, namely, 
the Vicars. When non-residence became 
common it was required of each Canon that 
be provide a clergyman who should take his 
place in his absence ; and the rule sprang up 
making it his duty to always have a deputy. 
Just as the -Dean had his Subdean, the Pre- 
centor his Succentor, and so on, each Canon 
had bis deputy, who was called his Vicar. 
There were therefore as many Vicars as 
there were Canons. When the Canons for- 
sook the Cathedral for their prebends, the 
Vicars carried on tho services and work per- 
haps as efficiently and decorously as those 
whom they represented. An old writer of 
those times, seeking to show the superiority 
of the monks uver the secular Canons, 6ays 
that tho former praise God with their 
mouths, the latter through their Vicars. 
There is a story of Thomas a Becket, when 
Archbishop of Canterbury, sending a man 
with a bull of excommunication against the 
Bishop of London, who went to St. Paul's 
Cathedral on Ascension-day, and on that 
great festival found the officiating priest 
neither Bishop, Dean, nor Canon, but only a 
Vicar. The Vicars of each Cathedral hav- 
ing common employment, interests, and life, 
were naturally drawn together. First, they 
acquired estates separate from those of the 
Canons ; then they had houses of their own, 
dormitories, refectories, and chapels ; at 
last r unmarried and living a purely colle- 
giate life, they were formed into a corpo- 
ration, so that, as there was the corporation 
of the Dean and Canons, so there was a cor- 
poration of the Vicars. They were now 
no longer each the deputy of a Canon, but 
were the assistants of the residentiaries in 
the service and work of the Cathedral. Then 
a distinction came in,— there were priest 
Vicars and lay Vicars. But the latter were 

not merely singing men paid each as stipen- 
diaries, but members of the college, with 
equal rights with their clerical brethren. 

For many centuries all the Canons resided 
continuously at the Cathedral, and found 
their sole occupation in service there and in 
service proceeding therefrom. But after a 
time the Chapters acquired the right to a)t- 
point the Priests of certain Parishes, wiio re- 
ceived its tithes and other revenues, and 
naturally they appointed their own members 
to thcWplaces. Clergy holding such bene- 
ficiaries had thus two offices, — one, that of 
Canon ; the other, that of Parish Priest, his 
title in the latter capacity being that of Pre- 
bend. The two functions were united in 
one person, but were distinct. By and by 
some of the Canons lived most of their time 
in their Parishes, leaving their duties at the 
Cathedral to their Vicars. Others lived most 
of the time at the Cathedrals, leaving their 
parochial duties to Priests whom they em- 
ployed. At length the separation between 
the two classes became so fixed that the 
name of Canon was borne only by the 
Cathedral clergy, while that of Prebend was 
applied to those who remained on the benefi- 
ciaries. The distinction was further marked 
by the names residentiary Canons, that is, 
those who retained duties at the Cathedral, 
and non-residentiary Canons, that is, those 
who had only incidental or slight or no duties 

The Chapters were composed only of the 
residentiaries. But there was also a general 
Chapter to which the non- residentiaries of 
most Cathedrals were summoned. The duties 
of this larger body were those of electing 
Bishops and representatives in Convoca- 

This highly-organized system existed in its 
perfection in the twelfth, thirteenth, and 
fourteenth centuries throughout Europe and 
in Great Britain without material differences 
between them. But some of the Cathedrals 
were Monasteries, the Abbot holding the 
place of Dean, and the monks the places of 
the Canons. 

When Henry VIII. suppressed the Mon- 
asteries in England he made no exceptions 
of the Cathedrals which were served by 
monks. These were Canterbury, Winches- 
ter, Worchester, Durham, Norwich, Roch- 
ester, Ely, and Carlisle. He found him- 
self compelled to re-establish Chapters at 
these Cathedrals. The organization which 
he provided for them was much simpler than 
that which we have described. Each had a 
Dean and from four to twelve resident Can- 
ons, who formed the Chapter. Each also 
had honorary Canons, but this was only an 
empty title. Instead of Vicars there were 
Minor Canons, who performed the same 
duties. There were no Precentors, Chancel- 
lors, or Treasurers, but their duties were im- 
posed on the Minor Canons. These Cathe- 
drals are called Cathedrals of the new founda- 
tion. The others are called Cathedrals of 
the old foundation. The latter are London, 

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York, Exeter, Salisbury, Wells, Lincoln, 
Lichfield, Hereford, and Chichester. 

In 1840 a.d. Parliament passed an act re- 
ducing the number of Canons at each Cathe- 
dral to four, except at Canterbury, Durham, 
and Ely, where there were to be six, and at 
Winchester, where there were to be five, and 
the endowments of all other Stalls were di- 
Terted to other purposes. The act also di- 
verted the prebendal estates, leaving the Pre- 
bends in Cathedrals of tht* old foundation 
without compensation. The number of 
Minor Canons or Vicars was to be not more 
than six nor less than two. In 1874 a.d. an 
act was passed permitting the endowment of 
new Canonries by the munificence of private 
individuals and the appointment thereto of 
encumbents. The appointment of Deans is 
in the Crown, of the Canons, Prebends, and 
Honorary Canons, as a general rule, in the 
Bishop, and the Minor Canons in the Dean 
or the Chapter. 

During the last fifteen years the attention 
of English Churchmen has been drawn to 
the Cathedrals, and an agitation has been 

Ering on with a view of giving them a 
rger place in the practical activities of the 
Church. A royal commission is now sitting. 
Its reports upon the several Cathedrals con- 
tain the statutes of their organization and 
government which are to bo adopted by the 
Queen in Council, and are a vast body of in- 
teresting matter. Perhaps the most notice- 
able feature of the new statutes is the sev- 
eral provisions looking to a more direct and 
active relation of the Cathedrals with the 
Diocese and its administration. 

In all except those for St. Paul's, London, 
provision is made for three Chapters ; one 
called simply the Chapter, composed of res- 
identiaries; one called the General Chapter, 
composed of the non-residentiaries, whether 
they are called Prependiaries or Honorary 
Canons, the Archdeacons, and (generally, 
but not always) of the Proctors in Convo- 
cation; and a third called the Diocesan 
Chapter, composed of the members of the 
General Chapter and all of the Diocesan 
officers. This latter body, newly created in 
these statutes, is a revival of the Chapters 
of the times when the Cathedrals were the 
most active and efficient agencies of the 
Church. It is so in its organization, and 
more especially in its functions. It is con- 
vened by the Bishop, and its duties are to 
advi*c and assist him in the administration 
of his office. In some of the statutes the 
same duties are enjoined upon the Chapters 
and the General Chapters ; in others they 
are imposed on the General- Chapters alone, 
but these provisions do not supersede the Dio- 
cesan Chapter. Provision is made for that 
body in all of the statutes except in those for 
St. Paul's, London, where the General Chap- 
ter is charged with the duties and service else- 
where committed to the Diocesan Chapter. 

The importance of the introduction of 
tne»e provisions into the statutes of the 
Oathedrate of England cannot be over-esti- 

mated. But they are on 1 v formulated state- 
ments of opinions which have been set forth 
in many writings of very eminent men, and 
especially in communications of Cathedral 
Authorities to the commission, which are 
appended to its reports. In these writings 
the contention has been earnest in behalf of 
the essentially Diocesan character of the 

In the statutes for Truro, provision is made 
for a force of men called Miesioners, whose 
duty is to go up and down the Diocese as- 
sisting the parochial Clergy by preaching, 
lecturing, holding missions and other simi- 
lar services.. The first Bishop of Truro, 
now the Archbishop of Canterbury, origi- 
nated the idea of this body, and speaks of 
them as the successors of the Prebendaries 
of the earlier times in the services above 

We pass now to consider the proper func- 
tions of the Cathedral and its Clergy. The 
first and most obvious of them is the mainte- 
nance of the constant, elaborate, and impres- 
sive worship of Almighty God. Speaking 
on this subject, Dean Goulburn, of Norwich, 

" I trust that I have opened a way by 
tbese remarks for the discernment of the 
true character of the Cathedral Church. It 
is a building specially and prominently ded- 
icated to the glory of Almighty God. I 
say specially and prominently ; and it is by 
this specialty and prominence that I believe 
a Cathedral to be distinguished from other 
Churches. All Churches are, of course, in 
one aspect of them, offerings to God for the 
honor of His Name. But then this is not the 
leading, but the subordinate idea in a paro- 
chial Church. The primary object there is 
the dealing with human souls, the convert* 
ing and softening of human hearts, the stir- 
ring and awakening of human consciences, 
the initiating the worshiper into the knowl- 
edge of God, and the gradual drawing of 
him up into communion with God. Nor is 
this end in the least degree foreign to the 
functions of a Cathedral ; rather it is a part 
of its function ? t only not the most promi- 
nent part, not the great characterizing idea. 
The Cathedral is a place rather where God 
is worshiped than where man is impressed, 
though it is a most blessed thing indeed 
where the latter end is secured along with 
the former. The very core of its work is 
the daily office in the choir, solemn, effect- 
ive, dignified ; rendered as perfect as possi- 
ble by the accessory of beautiful music, and 
ever striving and yearning to represent 
more perfectly upon earth the adoration 
which ceaselessly goes on in the courts of 
heaven. The anthem is quite in place in 
such worship ; nor surely should anthems 
ever be discontinued in Cathedrals, though 
unsuited (in my judgment) to the worship 
of parochial Churches. To discard anthems 
from Cathedrals would be to discard some 
of the grandest efforts of music to praise 
the Creator, Redeemer, and Saactifier, from 

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those very houses of prayer which are, in a 
more especial manner, dedicated to the cele- 
bration of the glories of His Name. 11 This 
is a service which has been always faith- 
fully discharged by the Cathedrals and does 
not need further remark. 

The second function of the Cathedral 
Chapter is to aid the Bishop by advice and 
labors in the administration of the Episco- 
pal office. We have already seen how the 
Christian community was gathered by the 
Bishop about himself and directed and ruled 
by him in all their work. By the very cir- 
cumstances of the situation it was a compact 
body : its members were all driven from the 
ouUide into the society for help and comfort 
and support. Without, society was unut- 
terably corrupt and vile ; sensuality, super- 
stition, atheism, were on every hand. Popu- 
lar amusements were altogether ungodly ; 
the gravest thought, the noblest aspirations, 
were of the earth, earthy. The national 
religion, which multiplied the divinities, 
deified the emperors, and denied the one 
only and true God, was abhorrent. Against 
this wickedness it was the mission of the 
early Christians to protest with their life- 
blood. Their Lord of Lords, and King of 
Kings, was the Eternal Trinity worshiped 
through the Incarnate Son ; and in propor- 
tion as the Roman state was leagued to up- 
hold its adulterate cultus, so the Christian 
Commonwealth was banded around the uni- 
versal Church of Christ. Their very depths 
of veneration and passionateness of devotion 
made these men and women recoil from the 
touch of the vile world, and drove them to- 
gether and bound them by the most sacred 
ties. Their society, isolated in the midst of 
the multitudes, took a corporate character 
and had a polity of its own, and was in truth 
a eivitas Dei, 

In this sacred family the Bishop was the 
father, and all were his children. It was 
not only love they gave him for his tender- 
ness and wisdom, but veneration also for his 
high office and his character, which the 
office sanctified. Now let us ask how this 
holy man must have carried himself among 
his brethren. He shared their intensity of 
devotion ,* he shrank with them from the sin 
without ; he awaited the same destiny that 
they foresaw for themselves; and besides, 
ever in his ear rang the voice of Jesus, 
"Feed My Sheep"; " By this shall all men 
know that ye are My disciples, that ye love 
one another." He was their ruler. Did he 
lord it over them ? Being what he was, and 
they what they were, all brethren together, 
he could not help but take them, or at least 
those who were competent, into his counsels, 
and listen patiently, respectfully, reverently, 
gladly, to what each had to say. There, in 
those first days, under the pressure of the 
sin without and the love within, this custom 
grew up, of the Bishop taking counsel of his 

When afterwards the purely Diocesan 
system became modified by the parochial 

system, the Clergy who were about the 
Bishop at his Cathedral succeeded to this 
right to share the Episcopal consultations, 
as they succeeded to almost all the other 
corporate rights of the whole clerical body. 
It became universal Canon Law that the 
Bishop must on certain subjects consult his 
Chapter before acting upon them. 

Hence the Chapter has been called " the 
Senate of the Diocese," and the Canons have 
been called " Brothers of the Bishop." In 
some statutes the duty of the Chapter is 
declared to be, " to aid the Bishop when the 
See is full, to supply hi3 place when it is 
vacant." One great writer on Ecclesiastical 
Law concludes from a mass of evidence, 
that everywhere " the Clergy of Cathedral 
Churches formed one body with the Bishop, 
and entered into their share of the anxiety 
and into some association with his sacred 
sway." Another speaking of the Canons 
says, " their principal duty was to assist the 
Bishop by their work and their counsels 
in the government of the Church." Regi- 
nald Pole says, " the rationale and ground 
of instituting Canonries and Prebends in 
Churches was, that they who are appointed 
to them, may assist the Bishop and aid him 
with counsel and work in the discharge of 
his office and divine things," 

A third function of the Cathedral Clergy 
was to supplement and reinforce the paro- 
chial Clergy in their active and practical 
labors among the people. This includes the 
strictly missionary work, of which, as done 
by the Cathedral Clergy in the early days, 
enough has been already said. And of the 
assistance they did, and may render to the 
parochial Clergy, nothing need be added to 
the explanation of the society of Mission ers 
formed by Archbishop Benson, at Truro, in 
the Diocesan Kalendar for 1881 a.d. 

"Cathedral Mission era. Sanctificatio in 
veritate. The object of this association 
is to provide a staff of preachers, who, not 
being bound by parochial or other ties, may 
be entirely at the disposal of the Bishop for 
any work to which he may see fit to send 
them, at the call of the parochial Clergy. 
Besides undertaking and arranging for mis- 
sions (technically so called), where the 
Bishop and parochial Clergy think desir- 
able, they will endeavor, as far as their num- 
bers may permit, to give courses of sermons 
or lectures at populous centres, to supply 
spiritual ministrations during the absence or 
sickness of encumbents, and to help in the 
gathering of Candidates for confirmation ; in 
the formation of branches of the Church 
Society for the advancement of holy living, 
or other societies approved by the Bishop ; 
in the instruction or supervision of Lay 
preachers; in the promotion of Mission 
Chapels, and in other works which aim at 
the spiritual and moral improvement of the 
people. " 

A fourth function of the Cathedral was 
the establishment and maintenance in close 
connection with it of institutions of charity 

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Mid education. The custom bat been uni- 
versal to establish grammar schools for boys 
in connection with the Cathedrals. In Eng- 
land some of these schools have attained 
very great reputation. So, too, readerships 
and lectureships on divinity were general. 
The duty of hospitality was enjoined upon 
the Clergy, and this intruded care of the 
sick and unfortunate. These duties and ser- 
vices have devolved upon the modern insti- 
tutions and cannot consistently be neglected. 
They are not essential, but they are practi- 
cally so related to them that they ought to 
find a place in every scheme for their effi- 
cient organization. 

After this review we are able to answer 
the question, what, then, is a Cathedral ? How 
does it differ from any other Church ? The 
name is derived from the Latin. The seat 
of a Bishop in a Church was his Cathedra. 
In and from this his seat he especially exer- 
cised his office. He had but one seat in his 
Diocese, which was in his Church ; he had 
none in parish Churches. Soon what was 
peculiar to one Church gave it a distinctive 
name, and the Bishop's Church was called a 
Cathedral. Properly, the word is an adjec- 
tive and Qualifies Churoh . Speaking exactly 
we would say Cathedral Church, CathedraUs 
eeelesia. In common parlance the adjective 
is used as a noun, and dropping the word 
Church we say Cathedral. 

The Cathedral, then, is the Church in 
which is the Cathedra, Sedes, See, or Seat of 
the Bishop. It is his Church. He is sometimes 
said to be the pastor, and sometimes the 
rector, of his Diocese. And his Cathedral 
ha3 been called the parish Church, and the 
matrix of the Diocese. These words may be 
not always descriptive of the fact, but they 
convey one idea, that the Cathedral is the 
Bishop's Church and has relations of some 
sort to and connection in some way with the 
Diocese. Many suppose that it must be a 
large and beautiful building ; that the ser- 
vices must be choral, and that the Clergy 
must be numerous. It is natural to expect 
all these of a Bishop's Church. But the 
Anglo-Saxon Bishops generally built their 
Churches of wood, small in size and rude 
in construction ; and they were truly Cathe- 
drals. The choral service has long since 
ceased to be peculiar to Cathedrals, and one 
priest serving at the altar with his Bishop 
may be the only clergyman. Size of build- 
ing, mode of service, and number of Clergy 
are accidents, accessories, circumstances; 
they are not essential to the Cathedral. 
What is essential is that the Church should 
be the peculiar place of the Episcopal func- 

But when the Bishop has planted his See 
in any Church, other things naturally and 
necessarily gather around it. Especially 
will be collected a number of Clergy to whom 
fee will resort for aid and advice in carrying 
an his work. The Episcopal function is the 
primary, and a number of Clergy, larger or 
smaller, who assist him in the administra- 

tion of the Diocese is the secondary, element 
of a Cathedral. 

In the scheme upon which the Church in 
this country was organised the Cathedral 
had no place. Several reasons may be as- 
signed for this departure from Catholic 
usage, but it is not within our purpose or 
our space to mention them. About thirty 
years ago an attempt was made to engraft 
the Cathedral upon the organisation of the 
Church. Not long after he was sent out to 
California, Bishop Kip placed his Episcopal 
chair in Grace Church, of San Francisco, 
and called that Church his Cathedral. He 
did this in bis right as rector of the parish, 
and when his incumbency ceased, the name 
of Cathedral was dropped. He afterwards 
held the rectorship of the Church of the 
Advent, and there again set up his Episcopal 
seat and gave its edifice the same name, and 
withdrew both when he resigned the position. 

Afterwards other Bishops set up their Epis- 
copal chair in parish Churches. Usually 
they have secured from the parochial or- 
ganization the right to occupy the seat, to 
preach, to direct the ritual, and to use the 
building for Episcopal services. Examples 
of Cathedrals of this class are St. Paul's, 
Buffalo, and St. Paul's, Indianapolis. To 
the same class may also be referred other 
Cathedrals, such as St. Peter and St. Paul, 
Chicago, and Our Merciful Saviour, Fari- 
bault. At these institutions, the title to the 
property, and the entire power of administer- 
ing it, and directing the services and work, 
are in the Bishop. But beyond this, these 
Churches have little to distinguish them 
from parish Churches. They have no Chap- 
ter or function not local to the building ; nor 
organic relations to the Diocese. This is ex- 
plained by Bishop Whipple in a letter to the 
writer. He says the Cathedral " should be 
solely in the Bishop's care, that he may set 
forth such a ritual as may be a model for 
the Diocese. It needs only such machinery 
as may help him." 

A second class of Cathedrals have Chap- 
ters but no Diocesan relations. The Epis- 
copate, as in the class first mentioned, is the 
primary, active, and central function, but 
not the sole and unqualified authority. The 
Bishop holds his office apart, sharing it 
with none, and aided in its exercise by 
none, but within the precincts of the Ca- 
thedral he has the aid of his Presbytery. 
All-Saints', Albany, and Davenport, Iowa, 
are examples of this class. In the institu- 
tion at Albany there is a Chapter composed 
of the Bishop, Dean, Precentor, Chancellor, 
Treasurer, four Minor Canons, and six lay- 
men. None of them except the Bishop has 
any Diocesan relations, duties, or rights other 
than those possessed by any clergyman or 
layman. The body has no care of the Mis- 
sions of the Diocese, and whatever it at- 
tempts in that service is in subordination to 
the Diocesan Board of Missions. The funds 
and property of the Diocese are not in its 
bands, but in those of special Committees 

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P 1 

of the Diocesan Council. The Schools and 
Hospitals are independent of it ; there is no 
duty on the part of the Bishop to ask the 
Chapter for advice in the administration of 
his office, nor on its part any duty to give 
him advice when asked for it. It is a body 
as local in its character and service as any 
parish Church. There is what is called a 
Greater Chapter, composed of the Archdea- 
cons, the members of the Standing Com- 
mittee, of the Board of Missions, and of the 
deputations to General Conventions, the 
ameers of the Diocesan Council, and the rec- 
tors of the two oldest churches in the city. 
In its personnel it is Diocesan; but the 
only function of this body is to elect the 
members of the Chapter proper and to at- 
tend the Bishop upon certain special occa- 
sions. It has no direct and active relations 
with the Diocese. 

The same is true of the scheme of the 
Cathedral at Davenport. Bishop Perry, 
retaining in his own hands the title to the 
>roperty in order to preserve it as a Bishop's 
Jhurch, has erected a Chapter, with a Dean, 
who is the head of the educational institu- 
tions, a Senior Canon, who has the pastoral 
care of the congregation, other Canons whose 
special duties are in the parish Churches 
of the city and in the schools, and Curators 
of the Cathedral, who are laymen charged 
With the temporalities. Its work is, first, 
to maintain the worship in the Cathedral in 
rich, abundant, and appropriate services ; 
secondly, to conduct the work of the parish 
Churches and missions in the See city; 
thirdly, to carry on the schools there; 
fourthly, to extend missionary efforts into 
the Diocese as fully and as far as possible. 
But the Diocesan administration is here, as 
at Albany, distributed among the Board of 
Missions, the Trustees of the funds of the 
Diocese, and the Trustees of the Episcopate 
funds. It is not proposed to bring the pow- 
ers and duties of these bodies within the 
jurisdiction of the Chapter. 
. Cathedrals of the third class are equally, 
with those last described, local as to the ser- 
vices or public worship and of charities; 
hut they also have direct practical and con- 
stant relation with the Diocese. The Omaha 
Cathedral is an example. Its Chapter con- 
sists of the Bishop, Dean, three Canons, five 
honorary Canons, the Standing Committee, 
and all the other officers of the Diocese. It 
is charged with the care of the missions, 
funds, property, schools, and hospitals of the 
Diocese. It meets quarterly ana deals with 
every subject of administration. In several 
Missionary Jurisdictions and also in several 
of the younger Dioceses it has been adopted. 
It comes much nearer to a restoration of the 
polity of the early Church than either of 
the two classes of institutions above de- 

We have to-day in the American Church 
Cathedrals organized on three plans. The 
first are those based on the Episcopal office 
alone. The second are those based on the 

See principle, and have Chapters but no Dio- 
cesan relations. The third have the Episco- 
pate as the primary element, with Chapters 
for the assistance of the Bishop in the ad- 
ministration of the Diocese. 

In order to an intelligent view of the con- 
ditions in which the Cathedral in this coun- 
try must be developed into a vigorous, 
efficient, and practicable agency in the 
American Church, something more than 
these descriptions are necessary. We have 
seen that the essential object of the Chapter 
is to provide from the Presbytery a compe- 
tent body to assist the Bishop in the exercise 
of his office : which assistance is first by ad- 
vice, and, secondly, by labors not parochial. 

As the Cathedral was not recognized by 
those who framed the Constitution of the 
American Church, so nobody was provided 
for the assistance of the Bishop by advice. 
The need of such body was not felt at first. 
We need not concern ourselves with the rea- 
sons. But after a time it began generally 
to be felt that some authority ought to be 
provided to which the Bishop might resort, 
and which should also to a degree control 
the Episcopal function. Accordingly, in 
1885 Jl.d. the General Convention by Canon 
provided that " in every Diocese where there 
is a Bishop the Standing Committee shall 
he a Council of Advice to the Bishop. They 
shall be summoned on the requisition of the 
Bishop whenever he shall wish for their ad- 
vice, and they may meet of their own accord 
agreeably to their own rules when they may 
be disposed to advise the Bishop. 1 ' 

This was the restoration of the Chapter 
under another name. And if the functions 
of the Bishop extended to all the matters 
properly belonging to the Chapter, there 
would be little need of reviving it But 
such is not the case. The duties of the 
Standing Committee are of the very highest 
and most solemn nature; but they are very 
limited. For instance, the Committee does 
not have the care of the missions of the 
Diocese. That is an interest the most ac- 
tive, urgent, and pressing of all. It is in- 
trusted to the care of another separate, dis- 
connected, and independent body called 
variously the Board of Missions, the Com- 
mittee on Missions, or the Missionary Soci- 
ety. When a question touching missions 
has been determined by the body charged 
with their care, it would be not only un- 
seemly, but mischievous in every way, for 
the Bishop to go to the Standing Committee 
for advice on the subject. It would be rais- 
ing the Committee to an appellate jurisdic- 
tion, and subordinating to it all other bodies. 
Confusion and irritation would follow which 
would be intolerable. And what is true of 
missions and the Board charged with them, 
is true of all other interests of the Diocese, 
which are parceled out among different sim- 
ilar bodies. It thus appears that most of 
the administration of the Diocese being 
given into the hands of other bodies than 
the Standing Committees, it is impractica- 

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ble for it to be a Council of Advice to the 
Bishop on only a modicum of the subjects 
in the discussion, consideration, and deter- 
mination of which he needs assistance. It 
is verv clear, therefore, that the Standing 
Committee of a Diocese does not answer all 
the needs which the Bishop may have for 
assistance in the way of advice. As his 
Council, as the Senate of the Diocese, it does 
not fill the place of the Chapter. 

We pass on to consider the assistance 
which the Chapter may give the Bishop by 
clerical labors not within the province of the 
parochial Priest. A body of Clergy resi- 
dent at the Cathedral, under the personal 
and active direction of the Bishop, going 
out to the missionary stations, serving tbem 
and returning to him for report and new 
orders, works in the same way as the forces 
by which the world was first conquered to 
the sway of the Church. It is a mode not 
only sanctified by primitive and Catholic 
Usage, but in its nature fitted to the condi- 
tion of modern missionary labor. Let this 
be explained by a view of the work done in 
this way. Suppose there were at the Ca- 
thedral a hall, and twice, or four times,' or a 
dozen times a year, as should be appointed 
him, the Missionary should come up for a 
brief residence in it. Here he would meet 
and know and learn to love those who, like 
him, wore devoted by vow and. habit and 
zeal to the service of their common Lord ; 
here he would find companionship and sym- 
pathy and affection and a freshened life and 
an animated spirit, such as come only from 
the warmth and fervor of association ; here 
he would find the guidance and direction 
and counsel of his Bishop, and the elder and 
wiser of the Clergy ; here he would see the 
need of reading to keep pace with the prog- 
ress of others by whose conversation he 
would be stimulated to exertion ; here, 
above all, he would have the altar at which 
to kneel in the highest act of worship and 
the splendid services of the temple. And 
so he would be strengthened against the 
trials of his lot among the people to whom 
he is sent, and against those other trials of 
the spirit. His stay need not be long ; even 
a few days might suffice to return him to his 
work a new man. 

But the Missionary is not the only person 
who would be blessed by this relief. Com- 
ing up at stated times, he would, either by 
express rule or in the natural course, report 
to the Bishop of his work, his field, and his 
life. The peculiar needs of the stations he 
serves, and his aptness to answer them, would 
become known ; and he would be instructed 
by wise counsels and encouraged to go on, 
or be reinforced by others or withdrawn to 
some other place for which he would seem 
better fitted, as the case required. Mission- 
aries thus organized and working from the 
Cathedral would in a very few years be- 
come a homogeneous body, having com- 
mon interests, modes, sentiments, and aspi- 
rations. There would soon grow up among 

them an esprit de corps, without which no 
society was ever efficient. 

The uses to which the Cathedral Clergy 
may be put in sections where the Church is 
well planted and rooted is admirably ex- 
plained by Bishop Sweatman, of Toronto, in 
Canada, in his address to his Synod in 1881 
▲.D. He says, " Supposing that I had resident 
in Toronto, say four Canons, men of thorough 
practical parochial experience, of true mis- 
sionary spirit, of a high order of pulpit power, 
of intense sympathy, and, above all, full of 
earnest spiritual life, — for they would need 
to be all this,— the value of such a body of 
men would be incalculable, as counselors 
and advisers. But—here is the point I wish 
to bring out — a mission in the Diocese is, 
for some cause, evidently in an unprospefous 
condition ; the clergyman complains tnat he 
cannot obtain support from the people ; or 
the Church is losing ground, and so forth. 
I direct one of my Canons to go to this 
place, to inquire into what is wrong, to 
stay a week, two weeks, or three weeks, to 
rouse up the people, and put new life 
into the Church's work. A young and 
inexperienced clergyman meets with dif- 
ficulties he does not know how to deal with ; 
he needs advice and guidance; another 
of the Chapter is sent to help him, to put 
him in the way of doing his work better y ; 
with the loving words and mature wisdom 
of an elder brother to give him confidence 
and cheer. Or a clergyman writes me for 
help in an emergency ; his parish is invaded 
by a new sect, preaching strange doctrines 
and drawing his people away from the faith ; 
he had spent himself in labors to counteract 
the mischief, but finds that it is an unequal 
task to cope with single-handed, or his argu- 
ments are exhausted, and he wants another 
mind to reinforce him with fresh arguments. 
Here is help for the emergency, — a well- 
learned, and well-equipped, and zealous 
member of the Cathedral Staff ready to go to 
the rescue. Have I justified my assertion ? 
I feel sure that every earnest and faithful 
parish clergyman will confess that such a 
system, by which the clergy might occasion- 
ally be stirred up to more diligence, cheered 
in their isolation, aided in their difficulties, 
by a visit from a brother such as I have de- 
scribed, would go along way to break down 
the Congregationalism, to awaken the spirit- 
ual torpor of the people, to arouse to activity 
the missionary indifference, to systematize 
the inefficient diffusion of forces, — the chief 
difficulties and evils under which we suffer. 
To carry out this system fully will require 
mean 8 and time ; but a small beginning may 
be made. I shall not touch this question of 
means ; but I cannot forbear a concluding 
remark, that it is tantalizing to be taunted 
with aping titles and dignities, and at the 
same time to feel that no colonial Diocese 
ever had so nearly within its grasp the power 
to erect and maintain a real living Cathedral 
Establishment, with its active Chapter and 
Staff of officers, as the Diocese of Toronto 

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with its richly endowed Church in the capi- 

It needs no words to show the advantages 
of bringing the schools and charities of the 
Diocese together at the Cathedral, and con- 
ducting them by its Clergy under the eye of 
the Bishop, 

It is a vision which may not be vouch- 
safed to us of this generation, but not beyond 
our reasonable hope : a Cathedral once more 
the Bishop's Church, in which the Episco- 
pate shall be the primary function, but 
surrounded by a band of Clergy for its assist- 
ance, a body of well-learned, experienced, 
devout men, maintaining in its due dignity 
and beauty the worship of God ; sharing the 
sacred sway and labors of the chief pastor in 
His administration in spreading the knowl- 
edge of the truth in new parts, and holding 
up the hands of those who are set among the 
people teaching and vindicating the great 
truths of the Gospel to those who are igno- 
rant or perverse, training the children in the 
knowledge they need in this world, and the 
knowledge that fits them for another world, 
and serving the poor, sick, and unfortunate 
in Homes, Asylums, Hospitals, and Retreats 
of whatever sort. 

The numbers vary according to the needs 
of each place, its organization as may be 
found convenient, the apportionment of 
work among them as their fitness and other 
conditions may require ; but the whole form- 
ing a community co-operative, compact, effi- 
cient) with one heart and one mind, serving 
the great Bishop and Shepherd of souls with 
a holy fervency. 

Authorities : " The Cathedral ; its Neces- 
sary Place in the Life and Work of the 
Church," by Edward White Benson, Lord 
Bishop of Truro, late Chancellor of Lincoln. 
London, John Murray, Albemarle Street, 
1878. "The Principles of the Cathedral 
System vindicated and enforced upon Num- 
bers of Cathedral Foundations. Eight Ser- 
mons preached in the Cathedral Church of 
the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Nor- 
wich," by Edward Meyrick Goulburn, D.D., 
Dean of Norwich. Kivington's, London, 
Oxford, and Cambridge, 1870. " The Eng- 
lish Cathedral of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury/' by, A. J. B. Berresford Hope, M.P. 
D.C.L. With illustrations. London, John 
Murray, Albemarle Street, 1861. " Essays 
on Cathedrals by Various Writers/' edited 
by the Very Reverend J. S. Howson, D.D., 
^Dean of Chester. London, John Murray, 
Albemarle Street, 1872. "Annals of St. 
Paul's Cathedral," by Henry Hart Mil- 
man, D.D., late Dean of St. Paul's. John 
Murray, Albemarle Street, 1869. "The 
Cathedral in the American Church," by 
James M. Woolworth, LL.D., Chancellor 
of the Diocese of Nebraska. New York, E. 
P. Dutton & Co., 1883. 

Hon. Jas. M. Woolworth, LL.D. 

Catholic. The word Catholic, as its 
etymology shows, was of Greek origin. It 
is* compounded of two words {Rata and 

o&>«, JLatt Mm), and means literally " on the 
whole," or, as applied to the Church, " Uni- 
versal." St Cyril, Patriarch of Jerusalem, 
before the middle of the fourth century, and 
Alexander, Patriarch of Alexandria earlier 
in the same century, both used it. It prob- 
ably came rapidly into use throughout the 
Church after the second General Council, 
held in Constantinople 881 a.d., which gives 
the whole article, as follows: " In One Holy 
Catholic and Apostolic Church." 

Catholic was used commonly as one of the 
names of the Church from the* time of tho 
first General Council, held at Nice in 
Bithynia 825 a.d., though it does not appear 
in the original Creed of N ice. It designated 
those who adhered to the ancient faith as 
defined at Nice. They called themselves 
Catholics, but named the Heretics after their 
most prominent leaders, — e.g., Ceriuthians, 
Marcionites, Montanists,Arians, Nestorians, 
Eutychians, etc. 

Catholic was not long coming into all 
forms of the Creed, and became a signifi- 
cant and distinguishing title of the Church 
in common use both among Greeks and 
Latins. It was and still is accepted as one 
of the four notes of the Church. *« The 
Body of Christ," from fts very nature and 
constitution, was, is, and ever must continue, 
One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic; One, 
as being the organic body in mystical but 
real union with " Him, who is Head over 
all things to the Church:" Holy, as tift^ 
depositum of the truth and dispenser of the 
sacraments, by which holiness is begun, nur- 
tured, and increased : Catholic, as sent into 
all the world to preach the Gospel, to bap- 
tize and feed with the " Bread of Heaven" 
every one, and all who would be saved : and, 
finally, Apostolic, as built upon the founda- 
tions of the Apostles and Prophets, Jksus 
Christ Himself being the chief corner- 
stone. " 

The word has been sadly misused in the 
course of history, and most signally by the 
assumptions of the Roman Church. In very 
early times the Bishop of Rome was ac- 
counted one of the five Patriarchs of the 
Catholic Church, each one officially equal to 
the other. These patriarchates differed in 
numbers and influence ; those of Rome and 
Constantinople being the greatest. Indeed, 
so long as Christian emperors ruled the 
Roman Empire, from the throne in Byzan- 
tium, the See of Constantinople was the 
chief in power, though on account of the 
dignity of old Rome a kind of respectful 
priority was allotted to the Roman Bishop. 
Still the assumption of the exclusive right 
to the name Catholic was never made by 
Rome in early times, and is not yet even in- 
cidentally confessed, much less allowed, in 
the East. Incidentally it has come into com- 
mon use in the West, so that sectarians and 
the world call the Roman Church Catholic ; 
but no careful and well-taught English or 
American Churchman ever gives her that 
ancient, significant, and almost sacred title. 

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Although the Continental Reformer* did 
not take the term Catholic to themselves, 
yet the Church of England and her daughter, 
the American Church, have adhered to it 
most tenaciously. It sets forth their claim 
to oneness with the primitive Church. It is 
the sign, warrant, and assurance that their 
ministry is derived in unbroken descent 
from the Apostles ; that the faith they pro- 
mulgate and bear witness to is the one faith 
which hus been from the beginning ; that 
the sacraments they administer are Christ's 
own, wherewith He is ever present to bestow 
specifically the grace He attached to each ; 
and that the Holt Spirit continually in- 
dwells Her, making Her witness acceptable 
and Her ministrations effectual. 

The term Catholic is so set forth among 
the gems of truth in the Creed that it de- 
mands solemn use. They who make it a 
designation of party, either do not recognize 
or feel its devotional significance, or do not 
perceive the fullness of its meaning. It 
may be contended for earnestly when de- 
nied us, as even the very name of our Lord 
may be ; but its ordinary use is a devotional 
one. When spoken it should bring up in 
grateful souls the rich and dear conscious- 
ness that 

M Living nintt and dead 

But one column nion make, 
All Join in Christ, their liriug Heed, 
And of Hie lif* partake." 

The ancient, though not primitive, appli- 
cation of the name Catholic to the Church 
and its universal use for more than fifteen 
hundred years, have induced the desire, which 
has been often warmly expressed on the floor 
of General Convention, to change the title 
of the American Church from the present 
" Protestant Episcopal" to "The Catholic 
Church in America." It is argued that we 
do not weakly protest against Home, but 
that we firmly and resolutely reject her un- 
catholic assumptions. It is said that Epis- 
copal, as a distinctive appellation, may be 
interpreted as a negative confession that the 
Episcopacy is not essential to the legitimate 
propagation of the Church. However the 
controversies about the name may fare, it is 
at least a fact that the American Church is, 
as the Creed she recites sets forth, a true and 
unsevered outgrowth from the ttem of the 
One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church ; 
and that she has the right, whether she ex- 
ercise it or not, to call herself by the old 

Her children are not disposed to lose the 
title to their own legitimacy. The growing 
knowledge and serious appreciation of the 
fact that they are born through and nur- 
tured by the Bride of Christ is causing a 
wide and deep perception of the value of 
their Catholic heritage. They are more 
and more accounting the Church as in 
truth Catholic, and thereby perceiving 
more intelligently and feeling more pro- 
foundly their common union with all the 

early and late Christians, in life or death, 
who are in the immortal Catholic Church, 
of which Christ was, is, and ever will con- 
tinue the Living Head. 

Catholic Epistles. The Epistles of St. 
James, the two of St. Peter, the three of St. 
John, and the Epistle of St. Jude are so 
called. There is no very satisfactory reason 
(or the title, which yet is felt to be most 
appropriate. Perhaps the title as it is trans- 
lated in our Authorized Version gains its 
true explanation, The General Epistles, as 
encyclical and not to local Churches; and 
since it may be objected that this cannot 
apply to the second and third of St. John, it 
may be naturally not refused to these short 
epistles, since it is proper to the longer first 

Celibacy. The virgin state; hut the word 
is now used generally to denote the vow of 
never marrying exacted from members of 
the Roman Church, who enter either some 
monastic order, or take ecclesiastical office. 
It has no real defense, and is productive of 
much evil. It is true, however, that under 
some circumstances even St. Paul com- 
mended the unmarried state, but this has 
no true relation to the question. The New 
Testament says nothing that bears upon this 
except that several of the Apostles were mar- 
ried, and in the direction to Timothy (I 
Tim. iii. 12), that the Bishop should be the 
husband of one wife. But there arose at an 
early date a strong feeling that the clergy 
should remain unmarried. Voluntary vows 
of virginity were common and increased as 
the Church grew, till the women were numer- 
ous enough to be put into a general organi- 
zation under Episcopal rule. The tendency 
was strong to urge the clergy to remain un- 
married. This increased so that the clergy 
were usually unmarried ; but there was no 
imperative rule beyond continuous efforts by 
the Bishops, both East and West, to carry 
out this purpose, till the Civil Law forbade 
the priest to marry after ordination. It is 
needless here to recount the conditions per- 
mitted or the disabilities incurred. The 
Eastern Church was contented with this re- 
striction ; but the Latin Church went fur- 
ther, and after a long and severe struggle 
broke up the marriage of those in orders. 
It was disastrous in many ways, and the 
only gain was the dependence of the clergy 
upon the Church alone by the severance of 
all family ties. The Reformation was the 
only shock the system has received. The 
Church of England at once threw off the 
yoke, and permitted marriage to her clergy. 

The person in the Roman Church who 
takes a monastic vow is bound by this 
promise, and so too every Deacon, Priest, 
and Bishop. It is probable that many clergy, 
living in apparent concubinage, were secretly 
bound by a marriage vow ; at least, there is 
proof that many on their death-bed, by ac- 
knowledging the woman, attempted to es- 
tablish a marriage and to salve their con- 

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Cemetery. A sleeping-place. This name 
was used by Christians to denote the place of 
burial. It was a new and beautiful use 
of a word that Christianity introduced. 
{" Death is not death among Christians, but 
is called a sleeping and a resting.") It was 
in use before the year 222 a.d. The early 
Church was very careful, if possible, to sep- 
arate its dead from those of the heathen, and 
so acquired burial-grounds at the earlie»t op- 
portunity. In Rome the burials were made in 
the underground galleries of the catacombs. 
The cemeteries were seized in times of per- 
secution, but were very generally promptly 
restored. The word has long since lost its 
old sense, and now means simply a burial- 

Censer. A light vessel, swung by chains, 
and in which incense is burnt. In mediaeval 
and later times in the English Church, at 
the time of the celebration of the Holy Com- 
munion it is always used. 

It was one of the vessels used in Jewish 
worship. It contained the live coals upon 
which incense was put to incense the altar 
and the sacrifice, morning and evening. 
The censer was specially used when the High- 
Priest, on the great day of Atonement, went 
into the Holy of Holies. Its use in the 
Christian Church, while indicated, is not de- 
fined at an early age. The earliest censers 
(thurible) mentioned weighed thirty and 
fifteen pounds respectively, and so could not 
have been swung. They were said to be 
gifts of Constant hie to the Church of Rome. 

Censures, Ecclesiastical. The penalties 
by which, for some notable sin, Christian lay- 
men are deprived of communion, or clergy- 
men are prohibited to execute their sacred 
office. These censures are excommunica- 
tion, suspension, and interdict, and (lesser in 
rank) irregularity. All sentences incurred 
by any disobedience or sin are censures of 
the Church. They involve the withholding 
of those gifts for the spiritual life which she 
has to give ; and if the sentence be justly 
incurred, the loss to the guilty party of all 
that they would convey. The Church may 
cut off from communion, or inflict lesser 
punishment, but she cannot expel from it 
and deprive the sinner of the entrance into 
the visible Church which the sacrament of 
baptism has given. She can discipline, and 
that, too, severely, but she cannot Anally 
disinherit: that is the sole privilege of 
Christ alone at the day of judgment. 

Central New York, Diocese of. In 1865 
a.d., Bishop Coxe called the attention of his 
Convention to the need of greater provision 
for Episcopal work in the limits of his See. 
During 1866 a.d., the subject was further 
discussed, and in 1867 a.d. it was reported 
to the Convention by a committee appointed 
for that purpose that steps be taken to have 
„he General Convention permit the erection 
of the counties of Broome, Cayuga, Chemung, 
Chenango, Cortland, Jefferson, Lewis, Mad- 
ison, Oneida, Onondaga, Oswego, Seneca, 
Tioga, and Tompkins into a new See. A 

further resolution was offered looking to a 
Federate Council of the Dioceses in the 
State. The General Convention of 1868 a.d. 
concurred, and a primary Convention was 
called at Utica on November 10, 1868 a.d. 
Fifty clergy and eighty-seven lay depu- 
ties met in Trinity Church, Utica, to effect 
the organization. Rev. Dr. F. Rogers was 
ohosen President, and Rev. A. B. Goodrich, 
Secretary. A minute upon the separation 
and cordially recognizing the pastoral care 
of Bishop Coxe in the past and tendering 
him their thanks was passed. On Novem- 
ber 11 the election of Bishop was made the 
order of the day. After five ballots Rev. 
Dr. A. H. Littlejohn was duly elected. 
Dr. Littlejohn declined the election, and a 
special Convention was summoned on Jan- 
uary 13, 1869 a.d. Bishop Coxe presided 
over fifty-seven clergy and one hundred and 
forty-seven lay deputies; Rev. Dr. Little- 
john preached the open ins; sermon. At the 
third ballot the Rev. Dr. F. D. Huntingdon 
was elected. He was consecrated in the 
parish church which he was leaving, Em- 
manuel, Boston, by Rt. Rev. Bishop Smith, 
on April 8, 1869 a.d. Bishops Eastburn, 
Potter, Clark, Coxe, Neely, and Doane joined 
in the act of consecration. 

The Constitution which had been proposed 
and acted on in the previous special Con- 
vention was adopted June 14 at a special 
Convention in Grace Church, Utica, which 
Convention immediately adjourned and or- 
ganized as the second Annual Convention. 
The reports at that Convention were chiefly 
upon the needs of the Diocese in the work 
of education, a work which has been pushed 
forward in that See with great energy. An 
excellent report was made upon Education 
in the Family, the Means of Church Educa- 
tion, the Practicability of Parochial Schools, 
and a statement of the resources of the Dio- 
cese in this important work. The following 
pregnant resolutions were adopted : 

" Resolved, That the chief seminary of 
Christian education is the Christian family, 
and that all parents connected with the 
Church should endeavor to realize the priv- 
ileges and obligations of the baptismal cove- 
nant, both as respects themselves and their 
children; should aim to fulfill its pledges 
by the faithful inculcation of those things 
which a Christian child ought to know and 
believe for its soul's health : by a watchful 
supervision over their children's studies, 
reading, and associations ; and by such care, 
in reference to their places of resort for secu- 
lar teaching, as may be necessary to guard 
them not only against contamination of 
morals, but also the undermining of their 
faith in the doctrines and practices of the 

11 Resolved, That we recommend the es- 
tablishment, whenever practicable, of paro- 
chial, infant, and grammar schools, at least 
for children from seven to twelve years of 

" Resolved, That the clergy be requested 

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to take cognizance and to include in their 
parochial reports the mention of such pri- 
vate schools in their parishes as may be con- 
ducted or controlled by communicants of 
the Church, provided toe proprietors of such 
schools shall give their consent to the pub- 
lication of such statement. 

44 Resolved, That as the fear of the Lord 
is the beginning of wisdom, and all true 
morality is founded upon religion, in the 
judgment of this Convention any system 
of secular education that is not supplemented 
in some manner by an inculcation of the 
fundamental doctrines and precepts of Chris- 
tianity, must in the end tail to secure the 
real welfare of society and the permanent 
prosperity of the State." 

Principles as outspoken and as strongly 
stated as these show now thoroughly awake 
the Diocese of Central New York is to the 
current evils in the popular education, and 
how miserably the present system fails in 
meeting all the needs of a Christian common- 
wealth, and of giving what the Church is 
bound to try to give her children, the lambs 
of the flock of Christ. It is in this line that 
the Bishop has recently written upon the de- 
fects and dangers of the system of education 
the State attempts to provide. It is under 
such leadership that the educational efforts 
in the Diocese have increased and deepened. 

In 1869 there were 98 parishes and mis- 
sions ; in 1888 there were 188 ; in 1869 there 
were a total of 83 clergy at work ; in 1888 
there were 96 clergy ; in 1869 there were 877 4 
communicants ; in 1883 there were 12,848 ; 
in 1869 there were 1074 confirmed ; in 1888 
there were 1880; in 1869 there was a total 
of $249,116.20 contributed; in 1883 there 
was a total of $292,664.76 offered for God's 

Summary of Statistics (from Living 
Church Annual) for 1886 ad. : Clergy, 96; 
parishes and missions, 140 ; lay readers, 10 ; 
deaconesses, 2; families, 7866; baptisms, 
infant?, 969, adults, 893, total, 1362; con- 
firmed, 8"j2; communicants, 13,164; mar- 
riages, 453; burials, 861; Sunday-school 
teachers, 1072; scholars, 8427; contribu- 
tions, $247,627.89. 

Central Pennsylvania, History of the 
Diocese of, 1871-1883 a.d In 1866 A.D., 
at the next Convention after the formation 
of the Diocese of Pittsburg within the orig- 
inal limits of the Diocese of Pennsylvania, 
the subject of another division of the latter 
Diocese was brought up by a resolution and 
referred to a committee of seven, to report 
thereon at the next annual Convention. 
The report of the committee, when pre- 
sented in 1867 a.d., showed that out of 76 
parishes in the district proposed to be set 
off, only 29 wished division, and out of 68 
clergymen, only 26 approved the measure. 

At that Convention it was resolved, the 
Bishop of Pennsylvania concurring, that 
consent be given to the proposed division of 
the Diocese, on condition that two-thirds of 
the clergy and of the parishes now entitled 

to representation therein, and being in that 
portion of the Diocese proposed to be set off, 
do give official information to the Standing 
Committee of their desire for such divis- 
ion, and that they have provided sufficient 
means for the support of their Bishop, the 
proposed division being all that portion of 
the present Diocese of Pennsylvania which 
lies outside of the counties of Philadelphia, 
Chester, Delaware, Montgomery, and Bucks. 

By the same Convention, all the docu- 
ments touching the division of the Diocese 
were referred to the Committee on Division, 
appointed at the last Convention, and the 
said committee continued. It was also re- 
solved that the committee confer with the 
Bishop of the Diocese of Pennsylvania and 
embody the result of their conference in a 
report to the Convention. This the com- 
mittee did in 1868 a.d., and the consent of 
the Convention was given to a division on 
what is called the fourteen-county line upon 
certain conditions and restrictions. The con- 
ditions were not complied with, and the plan 

The Bishop of Pennsylvania, in the Con- 
vention of 1870 a.d., again called attention 
to the subject, and asked for a division of 
the Diocese, declaring that he should not 
withhold his consent from any line which 
the Convention, after full discussion, should 
in its wisdom fix upon, provided that it 
thould leave in the Diocese of Pennsylvania 
not less than the five counties aforesaid. 
* In accordance with this portion of the 
Bishop's address the Convention of 1870 
a.d. gave consent to the formation of a new 
Diocese to be thus composed ; and also in- 
structed their deputies to the next General 
Convention to present their resolution, duly 
authenticated, to that body, and request its 
consent to, and ratification of, the same. In 
June, 1871 a.d., the Bishop of the Diocese 
of Pennsylvania appointed the following 
gentlemen a Committee of Clergymen and 
Laymen to take charge of the preparation 
of the necessary documents concerning the 
division of the Diocese, and to lay the same 
before General Convention, viz. : The 
Rev. Messrs. A. A. Marple (chairman), 
Wm. P. Lewis, D.D., Leighton Coleman, 
R. J. Keeling, D.D., and Wm. P. Orrick; 
the Hon. Messrs. Frederick Watts, T. R. 
Franklin, Judge Riwell, Messrs. A. Rick- 
etts and Henry Coppje, LL.D. (secretary). 

In General Convention, held at Balti- 
more during the month of October, 1871 
a.d., the House of Bishops and the House 
of Clerical and Lay Deputies duly concurred 
in giving consent to and ratifying the for- 
mation of the new Diocese from date of the 
6th of October, 1871 a.d., admitting it into 
union with the General Convention from 
and after the 8th day of November, 1871 a.d., 
and directing that the name of the new 
Diocese be determined by the Primary Con- 
vention thereof, with the consent of the 
Bishop of Pennsylvania. 

Canonical action being thus complete, the 

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Bishop of Pennsylvania issued a call for the 
assembling of the Primary Convention of 
the new Diocese at St. Stephen's Church, 
Harrisburg, on Wednesday, the 8th of No- 
vember, for organization, and appointed 
Robert A. Lamberton, Esq., of Harrisburg, 
to act as temporary Secretary. 

In the Primary Convention 69 of the 
clergy were entitled to seats, of whom 67 
were present, and 193 of the laity, of whom 
184 were present, representing 76 parishes, 
situated in 26 counties. The Ru Rev. Wm. 
Bacon Stevens, D.D., LL.D., Bishop of 
Pennsylvania, was President. There were 
present also the following-named visitors 
from the Church of England : the Rt. Rev. 
Dr. Setwyn, Lord Bishop of Lichfield (the 
Apostle of New Zealand), with his son, the 
Rev. John R. Selwyn, and the Very Rev. 
Dr. Howson, Dean of Chester, and the Rev. 
J. H. lies, Rector of Wolverhampton. The 
Bishop of Lichfield delivered the sermon, 
and divine service being concluded, the 
clergy and lay delegates present and claim- 
ing seats in the Convention were called to 
order by Bishop Stevens, who introduced 
the English Churchmen, the Convention 
rising to receive them. On proceeding to 
name the new Diocese, the following desig- 
nations were put forward by various mem- 
bers, viz., Central Pennsylvania, Harris- 
burg, Williamsport, Bethlehem, Eabtern 
Pennsylvania, Lichfield, and Middle Dio- 
cese of Pennsylvania. On the fourth ballot 
the first name was chosen bv a concurrence* 
of both orders, and received the consent of 
the Bishop of Pennsylvania. On the even- 
ing of the first day the Lord Bishop of Lich- 
field and Dean Howson addressed the Con- 
vention on " The Work of Women in the 

The Committee on the Endowment of the 
Episcopate of the Diocese made report that 
they had obtained $41,000 in cash and 
pledges j that they considered it expedient 
to raise the sum to the amount of $76,000. 
The Convention resolved that until the in- 
come from the Endowment Fund should 
fully meet the Bishop's salary (which was 
fixed at $4600), an equitable assessment 
should be made upon the parishes for the 
whole amount of the same, each parish being 
credited upon the said assessment with the 
interest accruing on its subscription to the 
Endowment Fund ; and the committee was 
requested to solicit additional subscriptions 
to that Fund. 

Nominations for a Bishop being in order, 
the Rev. Dr. Keeling nominated the Rev. 
Hark Antony De Wolfe Howe, D.D. f rec- 
tor of St. Luke 's Church, Philadelphia ; 
the Rev. Dr. Paret nominated the Rev. 
George Leeds, rector of Grace Church, Bal- 
timore. The vote of the clergy having 
been taken, on the first ballot the Rev. Dr. 
Howe was declared duly nominated by the 
clergy to the laity ; and on the first vote of 
the laity, a majority having voted for ap- 
proval, the Chair declared that the Rev. 

Mark Antony De Wolfe Howe, D.D., was the 
choice of the Convention for Bishop of Cen- 
tral Pennsylvania. Whereupon the Rev. 
Dr. Paret moved anc^ it was 

" Resolved, That the members of this 
Convention, clerical and lay, do unanimously 
accept the election of the Rev. M. A. Do- 
Wolfe Howe, D.D., to be the first Bishop of 
this Diocese ; and do, without exception or 
reserve, earnestly entreat his acceptance of 
the same, pledging him in his work for 
Christ and the Church their zealous and 
loving co-operation." 

The Convention also elected the following 
Standing Committee of the Diocese : Cleri- 
cal members — the Rev. Messrs. A A. Mar- 
pie, D. Washburn, William P. Orrick, Wil- 
liam C. Leverett, and R. J. Keeling, D.D. 
Lny members — the Hon. Messrs. J. W. 
Maynard, V. L. Maxwell, E. O. Parry, Asa 
Packer, and Mr. R. A. Lamberton. 

The Constitution and Canons of the Dio- 
cese of Pennsylvania were adopted by this 
Diocese with such few alterations as were 
necessary or expedient. 

The Standing Committee having been in- 
structed by the Primary Convention to take 
the necessary steps for the consecration of 
the Rev. Dr. Howe, appointed the Rev. Dr. 
Reeling to make the proper communications 
to the Standing Committees of all the Dio- 
ceses in the United States, and to the presid- 
ing Bishop. When the canonical consents 
had been received, the presiding Bishop, the 
Rt. Rev. Benjamin Bosworth Smith, D.D. 
(a maternal uncle of the Bishop-elect), ap- 
pointed his consecration to take place on the 
Feast of the Innocents, in St. Luke's Church, 
Philadelphia. Of the House of Bishops 
there were present and taking part in the 
consecration on that day the presiding 
Bishop and Bishop of Kentucky, the Rt. 
Rev. Drs. Lee, of Delaware, Mcllvaine, of 
Ohio, Bedell, assistant Bishop of Ohio, Pot- 
ter, of New York, Kerfoot, of Pittsburg, 
Clark, of Rhode Island, and Morris, Mis- 
sionary Bishop of Oregon and Washington 
Territory. The attendant Presbyters of the 
Bishop-elect were the Rev. Mr. Washburn 
and the Rev. Dr. Paret. The sermon was 
delivered by the Assistant and Bishop of 
Ohio, and the presentment made by the 
Bishops of Rhode Island and of Pittsburg. 
The Rev. Mr. Marple read the testimonial 
of the Convention of Central Pennsylvania, 
the Rev. Mr. Leverett, the certificate of the 
consent of the majority of the Standing 
Committees, and the Kev. Benjamin I. 
Haight, D.D., that of the majority of the 

During the twelve years of its existence 
the Diocese has increased in the number of 
its clergy from 69 to 96. Twenty-eight 
new church buildings have been consecrated, 
some of which stand noted among the rural 
Dioceses of the United States for their cost- 
liness and remarkable beauty. In the same 
period 13,946 baptisms have been adminis- 
tered by the parochial and mission clergy, 

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and Bishop Howe has confirmed 8217 persons 
within hii own jurisdiction. The wholo num- 
ber of parishes and mission stations is 114, 
containing 7486 communicants, and 12,068 
Bible-class attendants and Sunday-school 
pupils. Forty-eight of the parishes possess 
rectory-houses, 12 have also school-houses, 
and 10 own cemeteries. In the same twelve 
years the total sum of offerings made in the 
young Diocese for all Church objects is 
$2,531,790.10. So vastly has the work of 
this jurisdiction increased that in consid- 
eration thereof, joined with the advanced 
age of the Bishop, who has declared his 
inability to fulfill all the duties of his office 
without the help of a coadjutor, the last 
Annual Convention, 1888 A.D., appointed a 
committee to report at the next Convention 
on the subject of the election of an Assistant 

Central Pennsylvania is divided into four 
Convocations, named respectively the Read- 
ing, the Harrisburg, the Williamsport, and 
the Northeastern ; the Presidents of which 
constitute the clerical members of the Board 
of Diocesan Missions. The Secretary of Con- 
vention is Mr. R. A. Lamberton, LL.D. ; 
the Treasurer of the Convention and Episco- 
pal Funds is Mr. P. R. Stetson ; of the Board 
of Missions, Mr. Root. H. Sayre ; the Regis- 
trar of the Diocese is Mr. Wm. H. Chandler, 
Ph.D. ; and the Chancellor, Hon. Thomas 
E. Franklin. 

The Diocese has seven Church institutions, 
viz. : the Lehigh University, at South Beth- 
lehem, founded and endowed by the Hon. 
Asa Packer, of Mauch Chunk, in 1866 a.d., 
of which Robt. A. Lamberton, LL.D., is 
President, with a faculty of thirteen mem- 
bers. The library building, which is one of 
the finest and most substantial in the coun- 
try, was built by Judge Packer in memory 
of a deceased daughter, Mrs. Lucy E. Linde- 
man, and is called the " Lucy Packer libra- 
ry." It contains at present 85,000 volumes, 
and is endowed with $500,000. Judge 
Packer also endowed the university with 
$1,500,000. St. Luke's Hospital, at South 
Bethlehem, incorporated in 1872 a.d., re- 
ceived from the same great benefactor of the 
Diocese an endowment of $300,000. The 
Bishopthorpe School for Girls, also situated 
at South Bethlehem, was founded in 1867 
a.d. Selwyn Hall, at Reading, is the Dio- 
cesan school for boys. Cottage Hill Semi- 
nary, Tork, is a home school for young ladies 
and children. The Teates Institute is a 
Church school for boys, at Lancaster. The 
Church Home and Orphanage, the latest es- 
tablished institution, is at Jonestown, Le- 
banon Co. 

The Bishop resides at Reading, where he 
has a Cathedral church, the front elevation 
of which is regarded as being one of striking 

Statistics for 1886 a.d. : Clergy, 98 ; par., 
90; miss., 81 ; can. for H. O., 4 ford., D. 1, 
P. 3; bap., 1415; con., 886; com., 8260; 
contr., $228,476.6*. Rev. W.B.Morrow. 

Ceremony. The primary meaning is that 
of a corporeal act giving expression to a 
spiritual act. For instance, in marriage, 
the whole office is a series of ceremonies, 
but is itself a rite. In Confirmation the im- 
position of hands is the ceremony, but the 
whole conduct or action of the office is a 
rite. So of the other offices and sacramental 
acts of the Church. But this distinction 
cannot be always accurately followed from 
the lax usage of the proper terms ; and the 
ritual is often called the ceremonial of wor- 
ship. These rites, or ceremonies, are prop- 
erly completely under the control of the 
Church, and while we may not alter aught 
that Christ has instituted by word and ex- 
ample, yet the Church, as a living power, 
and ministering to the spiritual needs of all 
men, must have power to alter, amend, or 
control rites and ceremonies suitable to the 
tendency of the peoples she ministers to. 
The ceremonial of one part of the Holy 
Catholic Church maybe an example for, but 
is not an authority to, another independent 
part, ministering to a population with to- 
tally different habitudes. 

The charge so often made, that the Church 
seized upon and used pagan festivals, while 
much exaggerated as to the facts, is rather a 
mark of her wisdom and adaptability, that 
she is to save men, not to cast them through 
soma single mould. This rule holds under 
all circumstances. Therefore, however much 
individual tastes may regret the departures 
made in our Prayer-Rook from the exact 
English order, the changes themselves were 
made upon this first and proper principle, 
and the fathers of the first General Conven- 
tion, which adopted our present book, are to 
be commended for their wisdom and moder- 
ation, and were surely under the guidance 
of the Holy Spirit. 

Chaldee. The language • spoken by the 
peoples inhabiting the alluvial plains of the 
Euphrates and Tigris. It was a cognate 
language, or more nearly a dialect of that 
family of the Shemitic language to which 
the Aramaic and the Hebrew belonged. It 
could not be readily understood by the He- 
brews (2 Kings xviii. 26, 28). They came 
in direct and continuous contact with it dur- 
ing the Captivity. Parts of Jeremiah (ch. 
x. 11), of Daniel (ch. ii. 4; vii. 28), and 
Ezra (ch. iv. 7 ; vi. 18; vii. 12-26) are pure 
Chaldee, but many words and phrases are to 
be found in the later portions of Holy Scrip- 
ture which are closely connected with the 

Chalice. The Cup used in the administra- 
tion of the wine in the Lord's Supper. The 
word is from the Latin calyx. It was made 
of any material accessible. At first, of glass, 
of wood, of silver, or of gold ; but soon wood 
was forbidden (though still used in places 
till a late date), and glass, pewter, gold, 
silver, bronze were used. These chalices 
were often of very beautiful workmanship, 
finely polished and chased, and in many 
cases in crusted with precious stones. 

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Chancel. The space in a church which 
contains the choir and sanctuary, and which 
was generally separated from the nave by a 
rail or grating (cancel li), from which it 
derives its name. It is a characteristic dif- 
ference between the Eastern and Western 
Churches that in the former the distinction 
between the bema, or sanctuary, and the 
choir is so much more strongly marked 
than that between the choir and the nave, 
in the latter the distinction between the nave 
and the choir is much more strongly marked 
than that between the choir and the sanc- 
tuary. (Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, 
Smith & Cheetham, tub voc.) Legally, the 
chancel is the parson's freehold, and he is 
obliged to keep it in repair by English Ec- 
clesiastical Law. 

Chancellor. In England he is the law 
officer to the Bishop, advising him in all 
legal matters and holding courts for him. 
He may be either a layman or a clergyman 
(Blackstone, i. 882). It was not of very an- 
cient introduction into the English Church, 
being rather an imitation of the like title by 
the state. It includes two other offices, — 
Official Principal and Vicar-General. " The 
Official hears causes between party and party 
concerning wills, legacies, marriages, and 
the like . . . The proper work of the Vicar- 
General is the exercise and administration 
of jurisdiction, purely spiritual, by the au- 
thority and under the direction of the 
Bishop, as visitation, correction of manners, 
granting institutions, and the like, with a 
general inspection of men and things, in 
order to the preserving of discipline and 
good government in the Church." (Burns, 
Ecclesiastical Law, vol. i. 289.) 

In fifteen of our Dioceses there is a law 
officer bearing this official title of Chancel- 
lor, who is appointed or elected to advise the 
Bishop and the Standing Committee upon 
all legal matters which affect the interests 
of the Church as his professional counsel 
may be asked or required. But his duties 
are by broad construction often so extended 
as to make him also law adviser to the Dio- 
cesan Conventions 

Chant. Vide Music. 

Chantry. In the English Pre-reformation 
Church, the endowment or founding of a 
small chapel or separated place in the 
church, for saying Masses for the soul of 
some person departed this life. Wolsey was 
in the beginning of his career a chantry 
priest. "When such foundations were given 
Dy act of Parliament to the king, in the last 
year of Henry VIII. (1645 a.d.), at his 
death Cranmer tried to obtain from Edward 
VI. the remnant that had not been confis- 
cated for the relief of the poor parochial 
clergy, but failed. 

Chapel. The derivation of the word 
is very doubtful. It may be from the fact 
that the kings of France upon their cam- 
paigns carried with them St. Martin's cloak 
(canpa), and the tent in which it was kept 
and where service was held was called the 

Capella. The English Church distinguishes 
between chapels royal, domestic en a pels, 
collegiate chapel, chapels of ease for those 
parishioners who live at a great distance 
from the parish church, parochial chapels, 
which are endowed apart from the motner- 
church, free chapels, — 1.«., exempt from 
Episcopal jurisdiction, — chapels belonging 
to guilds and corporations, ana chapels which 
were built adjoining to the church building. 

Chaplain. Originally a Priest attached 
to a chapel. Then a Minister rendering 
service to some person empowered to em- 
ploy one, as an Archbishop, who may 
have eight chaplains, and so too others who 
according to their rank may maintain a 
proper number. Clergymen officiating in 
the army and navy, or in prisons, hospitals, 
or public corporations, who are serving Leg- 
islative bodies, are called Chaplains. So too 
the clergy who are appointed to examine 
candidates for Holy Orders are called Ex- 
amining Chaplains. In fact, it is a general 
title applied to any clergyman serving any 
corporate body in his ministerial capacity. 

Chapter. (Vide Bible.) The word is 
derived from the Latin Caput It is the 
name for one of the principal divisions of a 
book ;— in the Bible, one of the larger sec- 
tions into which the separate books are di- 
vided. It was the work of Cardinal Hugo 
(1240 a.d.), who divided the Bible into con- 
venient sections for the purposes of a Com- 
ment which he wrote upon it, and his divis- 
ion has been the one followed ever since. 

Chapter. Vide Dean, and Cathedral. 

Character. In theological language " the 
seal." The special graces stamped upon the 
soul by the gifts and graces of the various 
means of salvation given to us in the 
Church. The seal of the Spirit of the 
Lord is spoken of in such connection by St. 
Paul, and in one or two places in the Rev- 
elation. (Compare 2 Cor. i. 22 ; Eph. i. 13 ; 
iv. 80; Romans iv. 11 ; Rev. vii. 8-8; Rev. 
ix. 4 ; 2 Tim. ii. 19 ; in all of which a spir- 
itual impress of some indelible character 
is more or less clearly asserted. Of these, 
2 Cor. i. 22; Eph. i.*13; and iv. 30, refer 
clearly to confirmation.) It is not to be 
doubted that there is an impress made upon 
our spiritual nature by the gifts of Baptism, 
of Confirmation, and of Ordination. If the 
grace is given, it is bestowed once for all, 
however we may afterwards misuse it or 
abuse it. 

Charge. The address of the Bishop to 
his Clergy and Laity. In the English 
Church Archdeacons do also deliver charges. 
In the American Church it is usually a 
weighty discussion of some important ques- 
tion relating either to the Church at large 
or to the Diocese. It is generally delivered 
separately, but is sometimes read, together 
with the address, containing his report of 
work done during the conventional year, to 
the Clergy and Laity in convention. Often, 
apart from their ability, these charges make 
a step forward in the Church's work. 

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* Chasuble. An ancient vestment which 
was and is often worn by the Priest at the 
celebration of the Holy Communion. The 
chasuble was at first the out-of-door dress of 
the ecclesiastic when it had become distinct- 
ively a Church garb. But by the ninth 
century it became a part of the Vestment 
worn at a solemn service. It was circular, 
with an aperture in the centre by which, 
slipped over the head, it could be worn upon 
the shoulders, and it was wide enough when 
falling from the shoulders to cover the hands. 
It is one of the Vestments ordered by the 
famous Ornaments Bubrio of Edward VI. 
to be worn at the celebration of the Holy 
Communion. It was laid aside for a long 
time, but has in recent years been revived. 
The use of it is not very general in this 

Cherub. The wondrous spirits of Ezek- 
iel's vision who spake not, though the beat 
of their wings was as the voice of speech ; 
but there was a Voice from the firmament 
above them. The number in Ezekiel is 
four. The Cherubim were* sot in front of 
the Garden of Eden to keep it Two were 
imaged over the mercy-seat of the Ark in 
the Tabernacle. Two of colossal size over- 
shadowed it in Solomon's Temple. The 
Cherubim are first mentioned as guarding 
the gates of Eden. Their images were to 
be put upon the mercy-seat, probably in 
solid wrought- work. They were spoken of 
in the Psalms xviii. 10 ; Ixxx. I. In Ezek- 
iel'8 first vision they are called Living Crea- 
tures and described as similar to the four Liv- 
ing Creatures in Bev. iv., but are identified 
both as Cherubim and as the Living Crea- 
tures of the first vision in Ezekiel 's second 
vision (ch. x. 20). Mysterious and incom- 
parable, yet likened to creatures of earth, 
the bearers of the Throne, voiceless, yet 
with harmonious flight, whose beat is as the 
voice of a mighty host 

Cherubic Hymn. This name is often 

fiven to the Tersanctus. But, in fact, it is a 
ynin which has no parallel in the Western 
Church. The Hymn and its preface, as it 
stands in the Liturgy of St. Chrysostom, is 
this : " Let us who mystically represent the 
Cherubim, and sing tne hymn to the quick- 
ening Trinity, lay by at this time all 
worldly cares, that we may receive the Kino 
of Glory invisibly attended by the angelic 
orders. Alleluia! Alleluia! Alleluia!" It 
really is later than St. Chrysostom's day, 
and is an insertion, as it was composed in 
the time of Justinian (580 a.d.). It also 
has its place in the service of the protheses, 
and therefore cannot be identical with the 
Tersanctus which is sung in the Canon. 
Chimere. The upper robe of a Bishop. 


Choir. In the Church, the place of the 
choristers without the chancel-rail, but upon 
the dais between the nave and the chancel. 
But the name is transferred popularly with 
us to the band of singers who have charge 
of the music of the Sanctuary. They have 

a long history behind them, for they are the 
representatives of the organisation of the 
singers and musicians under David (1 Cbron. 
xxv.) and under Solomon. They were reorga- 
nized by Nehemiah (ch. xii. passim). Every 
choir, properly appointed, should be large 
enough to be divided into two parts, that 
whenever necessary there may be antiphonal 
singing. Its members, if possible, should 
be communicants, and should have set before 
them, very clearly, the duty and the glory 
of their work in the worship. It was cus- 
tomary in the early Church to set apart the 
singers with the charge, " What thou be- 
lievest in thine heart that sing with thy 
lips." There are two or three fundamental 
principles too often lost sight of that should 
rule the conduct of the music bv the choir. 
They are the leaders of the musical part of 
the service of God's Sanctuary; therefore 
they should lead in such music only as the 
congregation can follow. They are under 
the authority of the Rector; and his will 
should be their wish. When they are ready 
to keep out all light and unseemly music, and 
to repress all indecency and irreverence in 
the performance of it, they will find his au- 
thority but a name. The music, at least of 
the hymns and chants, should be only from 
some one well-known book, with which such 
of the congregation as choose to do so can 
provide themselves. It is sometimes allowed 
the choir to select an elaborate setting for 
the Tr Deuif , and to sing an anthem or an 
offertory sentence as an offering of their mu- 
sical skill to the Giver of their talent, — a 
very appropriate and devout custom when 
it is kept within due limits. 

The composition of the choir is often so 
difficult to arrange satisfactorily that it may 
be impossible to put any hint here given 
into practice. But it would be welf, whenever 
it can be done, to select boys with a musical 
ear and good voice for the choir. Two 
men and four or six boys would make a 
go<>d basis, though it is the least number 
that could be used. Sixteen voices form 
such a mass of sound that, whenever suffi- 
cient enthusiasm is shown, the congregation 
will always join in. But if not, devout 
women can more readily be obtained who 
will make an offering of their work and 
skill. There are two or three desiderata 
which should be attended to in country 
choirs, — to have but one Hymnal from which 
to sing ; to be taught the responsibility rest- 
ing upon them; to have full punctual at- 
tendance at practice; to feel that it is little 
short of an insult to Him, before Whom the 
innumerous choirs of heaven arc ever sing- 
ing, to offer a nasty, ill-prepared, irrever- 
ently-performed service of sons'. 

Chorepiscopus. Local Bishops in the 
•ancient Church. They were Bishops hav- 
ing a jurisdiction in the country unde** the 
Bishop of the city who had supreme juris- 
diction, but was himself under the Metro- 
politan. It was, in fact, a local missionary 
extension of the Episcopate. Its powers 

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were defined to be nearly what our Bishops 
now practically exercise upon a Visitation. 
They confirmed, consecrated churches, ap- 
pointed readers and subdeacons, but could 
only ordain by license from the Bishop, — i.e., 
they had spiritual authority, but by the 
terms of their work and jurisdiction only 
exercised it by special license. They could 
not administer the affuirsof the Diocese, and 
could not intrude for any official work into 
a city Parish. Individual chorepiscopi as- 
sumed so much at times, and cave so much 
trouble latterly in the West, that they were 
*" suppressed. In the East, the Council of 
Laodicea (360 a.d.) dealt a blow which was 
followed up, till in about a century or a little 
more they disappeared. But there was a 
long, stout struggle in the West, and finally 
they were destroyed as an order by the 
tenth century, though there are instances of 
the office as late as the thirteenth century. 
Theirs was essentially a missionary exten- 
sion of the Episcopate, which was suppressed 
with more or less difficulty when the Church 
became National. But an attempt to estab- 
lish this order, the memory of which seems 
to have lingered in England, was made 
under Henry VIII. (1534 a.d.) bv appoint- 
ing several towns as seats for such Bishops, 
entitled Suffragan Bishops. The act, after 
slumbering nearly three hundred and fifty 
years, has been revived and has been acted 
upon. There are four Suffragans, — Dr. 
Parry, of Dover, under the Archbishop of 
Canterbury; Dr. How, of Bedford, under 
the Bishop of London ; Dr. Trollope, of 
Nottingham, under the Bishop of Lincoln ; 
and Dr. Bloom field, of Colchester, under the 
Bishop of St. Albans. 

Chrism. An anointing oil used from 
early time in the Church in Baptism and in 
Confirmation. It was more prominently 
used in mediaeval times in the Oriental and 
Latin Churches. In Confirmation it has 
often been held by Latin ritualists that 
chrism is of the essence of the rite ; but 
from the inspired record (Acts viii. 18, 19 ; 
xiz. 6 ; Heb. vi. 2) it is certain that prayer 
and imposition of hands are only essential. 
In the Oriental Church the Priest confirms 
with the chrism blessed bv the Bishop. 

Chri8ome. In the office of Baptism it 
was a white vesture which the priest put 
upon the child, saying, " Take this white 
vesture for a token of innocency," etc. It 
was ordered in the Anglo-Saxon Church 
(736 a.d.) that chrisomes be used for mend- 
ing surplices or for the wrapping of chal- 
ices. The Prayer- Book of 1549 a.d. orders 
that the woman shall offer the chrisome 
when she comes to be churched. But if the 
child died before her churching she was ex- 
cused from offering it. It was the custom 
to bury the child in the chrisome, but by an, 
abuse of words the chrisome child meant a 
child that died before it was baptized. 

Christian. The name given (possibly in 
jest) by the people of Antioch to the Disci- 
ples; but it was so perfectly appropriate 

that it supplanted the earlier name entirely. 
A Christian is a baptized member of 
Chr st's Holy Church. He can only be- 
come so by Baptism, for Baptism is the sac- 
rament of entrance, the Door, by which we 
are admitted. But there has arisen a too 
common perversion of the term Christian 
in modern times, referring to the unchris- 
tian, inconsistent conduct of too many who 
bear the name but practically deny its power. 
Baptism makes a person the Child of God 
whether he is an obedient or a disobedient 
child, as birth makes a child a citizen of the 
state whether he prove to be a good citizen 
or not ; or as the oath of allegiance makes 
an alien a citizen and gives him the protec- 
tion of the state whether he prove faithful 
to his oath or not. Therefore to say, as 
many Christian people do, when bewail- 
ing their short-comings, "I wish I were a 
Christian," is a serious misleading phrase 
at least, if not involving much more. To 
say, "Would I were a better Christian I" is 
but a confession that we all should devoutly 

Christianity is usually defined as the Re- 
ligion of the Lord Jesus Christ. This is 
correct, but not in the same senso as when 
we say the Religion of Buddha or of Mo- 
hammed. The origin of Christianity was, 
in fact, the founding of the organized 
Church from which, in its beginnings and 
in its continuance, it is not rationally sepa- 
rable. There can be nogreater error than to 
regard Christianity as derived from the 
Bible, or the Church as a development of 
Christianity. It Is strange that these relations 
are not generally or clearly understood, so 
patent are they to any thoughtful examina- 
tion. Even the elementary doctrines com- 
mon to all orthodox believers, those con- 
tained in the Apostles 1 Creed, were not all 
originally taught by the Divine Founder of 
Christianity in any recorded words. His 
birth of the Virgin Mary He does not allude 
to, and the great facts of His life, death, res- 
urrection, and ascension were at most only 
predicted by Him. He never substituted 
Christianity for Judaism, nor declared the 
formal repeal of the law of Moses. What 
He did was to choose twelve men, organize 
them as a corporation in perpetuity, endow 
them with a charter, authorize them to teach 
certain doctrines which He had privately 
taught them, and which the Holt Ghost 
was to recall, and intrust them with the 
mysterious sacramental rites of initiation 
(Baptism) and full membership (Holy Com- 
munion) in the society thus formed. He 
then made them a promise, to be and co-oper- 
ate with them until the end of the world. 
" Receive ye the Holy Ghost. As my 
Father has sent Me, even so send I you." 
There was the Charter with its enabling act. 
" Go ye into all the world and make disci- 
ples of all nations, baptizing them," etc. 
These were the mission and authority to in- 
itiate. " Lo, I am with you alway, even 
unto tho end of the world." There was the 

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promise of perpetuity and continued-author* 
ity. T/tat was Christianity when He left 
the world. Nothing more whatever. But 
that was the Church. It is clear that if all 
this was said to the Apostles only as indi- 
viduals, no other individual could ever lay 
claim to any rights or privileges under it, 
or to any promises made only to them. It is 
equally clear that if it was said to them as a 
chartered corporation, the rights, privileges, 
and promises so given can belong only to 
" them, their heirs and assigns," on condi- 
tion of the charter not being vitiated and 
the corporation not lapsing. It is clear also 
that as the individuals were not to exist 
until the end of the world, the promise to be 
with- them until the end of the world must 
have been mado to them as a perpetual cor- 
poration. It is thus evident that all author- 
ized and authoritative Christianity is neces- 
sarily bound up in that corporation, which 
is the Church. But further, it was this cor- 
poration, and this* only, that formulated, 
elaborated, and propagated Christianity, and 
upon this authority alone its doctrines have 
been accepted. A very singular and solem n 
authority had been conferred upon it: 
"Whosesoever sins ye remit, they are re- 
mitted unto them ; and whosesoever sins ye 
retain, they are retained." It matters not 
what the exact meaning of these words may 
have been. They certainly convoyed a 
most solemn and unique authority of some 
kind upon those to whom they were said. 
That authority was to withhold or inflict 
some penalties upon those who should be- 
come members of the organization. But 
the individuals did not at once proceed to 
exercise such functions or to perform the 
duties assigned. They passed fifty days in 
close consultation, during which, as a rec- 
ognized duty, they elected a new member to 
complete their corporate number. Then, al- 
ways acting together, they perfected the or- 
fanization of the society by selecting and or- 
aining Deacons, Presbyters, and Apostles 
(as Timothy and Titus), and by instructing 
these and sending them out with authority 
to teach doctrines and initiate members. 
These new Apostles were authorized to pro- 
coed in the same way to perpetuate the cor- 
poration, the original twelve exercising dis- 
cipline, organizing and administering the 
Church, and putting into writing, personally 
and by the aid of two authorized assistants, 
the whole body of Truth now accepted as 
Christianity. In this organization, therefore, 
Christianity consisted, and must continue to 
consist. If the corporation has lapsed, — if 
the original organization has ceased to exist, 
or become essentially altered in its form and 
methods, — there can he no authorized or 
authoritative Christianity now among men. 
All this is recorded in the Bible. But it 
amounts to nothing unless we remember 
that Christianity is not derived from the 
Bible, and further remember how it is that 
we know the Bible to be true. The simple 
fact is, that when the Church of Cubist 

was organized the Bible did not exist. Even 
the Old Testament, as accepted by the Jew- 
ish Church of our Lord's time, was not the 
Old Testament of the " Protestant" Bible. 
It contained what is known as the " Apoc- 
rypha;" not all together in separate hooks, 
but dispersed among the Canonical Books, 
and in some cases interpolating their text. 
It is to be carefUUy noted that our Lord 
Himself used and quoted this interpolated 
Septuagint Version without one recorded ' 
word of dissent. The New Testament Scrip- 
tures were not yet written. These consist of 
Four Gospels, written by two Apostles and 
two Evangelists working under their imme- 
diate oversight ; the book of " Acts," writ- 
ten bv one of these Evangelists to record 
the doings of the Apostles; twenty-one 
Epistles, being letters addressed by five of 
the Apostles at various times to organized 
Churches, or to individuals, or to the Chris- 
tian society at large ; and one book of " Rev- 
elation," whether a poem, a prophecy, or a 
rhapsody has never been fully determined. 
This also by the last of the original Apos- 
tles. But these " Books" were written dur- 
ing a period comprising at least forty years, 
and after probably twenty years of oral 
teaching. In this period there were extant 
(as St. Luke tells us) " many" other Gos- 
pels, and at least one other Epistle, i.e., that 
to the Laodiceans. Thus there was cer- 
tainly no " Bible" up to the time when the 
last Apostle died. But there was Christi- 
anity. Hence Christianity is not derived 
from the Bible. But after that last Apostle 
was dead sortie organized authority — cer- 
tainly not the simple agreement of the mass 
of Christian people — determined what was 
and what was not God's revealed truth to 
man ; rejected all the Apocryphal books and 
passages of the Old Testament, — which our 
Lord Himself had not done, — all extant 
" Gospels" save four, and all Apostolic Epis- 
tles except twenty -one. The same author- 
ity determined the " Revelation" to be in- 
spired Scripture. Could that authority be 
aught else than the continued Corporation, 
the Church? Not possibly. Could any 
higher power he claimed or exercised by a 
human organization, or could such organ- 
ization thus act except by a conceded Di- 
vine authorization ? Clearly, then, it is the 
Church which is acknowledged by all Chris- 
tian people to have given the Bible to the 
world, and the terms Christianity and " the 
Church" are convertible. But this being 
so, the definition of Christianity is not com- 
plete until we determine what is meant by 
»* the Church." About this there can be no 
uncertainty or indefinitencss. It must be 
the perpetuated Corporation established and 
chartered by our Lord in person, which has 
come down in unbroken succession from the 
original Corporators, with its charter un- 
vitiated and its constitution diligently ob- 
served and regarded. It must possess the 
essential form of the original organization; 
it must hold and practice the faith and sacra- 

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merits intrusted to the Apostles for preser- 
vation, dissemination, and perpetuation ; it 
must show its authority ana that of its offi- 
cers derived in unbroken succession and 
in the prescribed form from those Apos- 
tles ; and it must prove its faithful perform- 
ance of all the objects for which it was or- 
ganized and perpetuated. Otherwise there 
can be no Christianity and no divinely-ad- 
ministered religion or reliable Divine prom- 
ises left to mankind. Wherever these notes 
are found there is the historic Church of 
Christ, which in its universal organization 
is identical with Christianity, and upon the 
unbroken testimony of which rests the only 
authority for believing and accepting the 
Christian Bible with all that it contains. 
No Christian sect or communion which 
lacks the Apostolic form and constitution 
of Bishops (or Apostles), Priests (or Pres- 
byters], and Deacons, no properly organized 
Church which has vitiated the Creed or aban- 
doned the two original sacraments of Bap- 
tism and the Lord's Supper, nor any single 
and separate part of the Corporation, whether 
Koman, Greek, or Anglican, can justly 
claim to be that Church whose charter and 
mission was " to all nations." The Church 
Universal in her integrity, in her authorita- 
tive Episcopal order, in her orthodox and 
pure faith, and in her duly administered 
sacraments is the perpetuated corporation in 
which Christianity consists, and thus when 
we express our belief in Christianity we 
only express our belief in the One, Holy, 
Catholic Church. 

Rev. Robert "Wilson, D.D. 
Christmas. This Feast falls on Decem- 
ber 25. Though this date is now uni- 
versally observed, yet at first there was a 
diversity of practice. In Egypt April 20 
and May 20 were observed. In Palestine, 
and the East generally, the 5th of January 
was kept, while the "West observed the 
present day. But about the first part of the 
fifth century the East accepted the West- 
ern feast-day, and it became universal. St. 
Chrysostom has a homily which is very im- 
portant upon this topic. The outline of the 
reasons for supposing the 25th of December 
to be the true date is this : Most probably 
Zacharias took the place of the High-Priest 
upon the great day of Atonement (such sub- 
stitution, when some unforeseen accident 
prevented the High-Priest from executing 
his office himself, has been abundantly 
proven out of Josephus and Maimonides), 
which fell that year upon September 23. It 
was while he was within the veil the message 
of the angel came to him. This would place 
the nativity of St. John Baptist on June 24 ; 
and as he was six months older than our 
Lord, his cousin according to the flesh, 
it places the nativity of our Lord upon De- 
cember 25. The celebration has always 
been observed with great solemnity and re- 
joicing, though too frequently with other 
than sacred and festal customs. There are 
in other than the English Church two cele- 

brations of the Communion, with separate 
Collects, Epistles, and Gospels. Whenever 
there are two with us, it is because of the con- 
venience of the communicants and to shorten 
the length of the services. Three festivals 
stand in immediate connection with it: 
those of St Stephen (December 26), the first 
martyr ; of St. John (December 27), " whom 
Jksus loved;" of the Innocents' day (De- 
cember 28), the cocetanei of our Lord. 

Christology is the doctrine contained in 
the Scriptures concerning the Person and 
office of Christ. The subject may be con- 
veniently considered under two heads ; the 
first containing the prophecies of the Mes- 
siah in the Old Testament, and the Mes- 
sianic hopes of the Jew based upon them ; 
and the second the revelation of the Christ 
made by Jesus in the Now Testament, and 
the teaching of the Church upon the relation 
of the divine and human natures in His Per- 
son, together with some mention of the here- 
sies which were the occasion of the more 
exact definition of this teaching. 

1. The Christology of the Old Testament 
falls naturally into the three divisions of 
Patriarchal, Legal, and Prophetic Christol- 
ogy ; just as the history of the chosen peo- 
ple presents the same stages, and just as the 
history advancing along these stages passes 
from outlines covering long intervals to 
more minute details of shorter periods, so 
does the doctrine of the Messiah in the 
successive divisions become more frequent, 
more definite, and more precise. To treat 
this topic at any length would require a vol- 
ume, and it must suffice here merely to men- 
tion some of the chief passages of Scripture 
which are understood to form a connected 
chain of promise and prophecy concerning 
the Christ, and to indicate the outlines 
of the conception of the Messiah and His 
office inferred from them. The first of these 
passages is found in the story of the fall of 
man, where, with the curse pronounced upon 
the serpent, is joined the promise of the seed 
of the woman to be at enmity with the ser- 
pent : ** it shall bruise thy head, and thou 
shalt bruise his heel." This promise of a 
deliverer, which, no doubt, had a fuller and 
deeper meaning (than its form now con- 
veys) to those who received it, was for them 
the basis of faith and hope in a Saviour to 
come, until the promise was renewed in the 
blessing pronounced upon Shem, " blessed 
be the Lord God of Shem" (Gen. ix.), and 
in the blessing of Abraham, " in thee shall 
all families of the earth be blessed" (Gen. 
xii.J, which are remarkable as having their 
fulfillment not at the time spoken, nor for 
those to whom they were addressed, but in 
the far future and for others, oven the whole 
family of man. But the promise becomes 
much clearer in the inspired words of the 
dying Jacob addressed to Judah, " The scep- 
tre shall not depart from Judah, nor a law- 
giver from between his feet until Shiloh 
come; and unto him shall the gathering of 
the people be" (Gen. xlix.), centering as it 

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does in one Person, who is to be a man of 
peace (Shiloh), to be a prince, and to whom 
the nations shall be obedient. The prophecy 
of Balaam (Numbers xxiv.), and the passages 
of the Pentateuch, which relate to the angel 
of the Lord (Gen. xii. 7; xviii. 1, etc.), 
have been thought also to refer to the Mks- 
biah. But the next step in the revelation 
of the Messiah, is the typical meaning of 
the Mosaic law of sacrifices, and of the 
High-Priest who offered them. Sacrifices 
were not a new thing with Moses, and no 
doubt the patriarchs who offered them did 
so with a sufficient conception of their hid- 
den meaning ; but the full system and 
elaborate ritual appointed by Moses were 
designed to be a shadow of the good things 
to come (as St. Paul declares), and to serve 
unto the example and shadow of heavenly 
things. Again, after a long interval, prob- 
ably because primitive tradition was forgot- 
ten, and typical meanings had become ob- 
scure, the promise is renewed by messages 
to tho prophets continually more definite 
and precise. In the Psalms (xxii., lxxii., 
etc.), and in the prophets (Isaiah xi., liii., 
lxiii. ; Jer. xxiii. ; Zech. ix., xiii., etc.), we 
read fuller and more personal descriptions 
of the Messiah, which, joined with the for- 
mer revelations, furnish a conception of 
Him as a Person who should rescue His 
people from sin by making an expiatory, 
offering for it, Himself at once Priest and 
Victim, and after triumphing over the ene- 
my of righteousness, and destroying his 
power, should rule forever as the Prince of 
Peace. But in this conception there were 
such contradictory points that tho Jews, 
despairing of reconciling them in one per- 
son, came to the conclusion that the prophets 
foretold two Messiahs, one to suffer and the 
other to triumph ; and missing the true sense 
of their Scriptures, it is probable that in time 
they came to look for an earthly king only, 
who should triumph over the nations which 
bad conquered and oppressed them, and 
restore again a temporal kingdom to Israel. 
2. But in the fullness of time God sent 
forth His Son, made of a woman, made 
under the Law, to fulfill all the Father's 
promises, and to reconcile in His own Per- 
son the conflicting predictions of the birth, 
rank; and appearance, of the reception and 
treatment, of the death and burial of the 
Messiah. Him the Jews rejected, refusing 
to sec bow He made true in Himself all the 
words of promise ; but Him have Christians 
— His faithful followers — ever honored with 
divine worship as the Messiah, the Christ 
of God, yet God Himself; as the Saviour 
of men, yet a true Man. The New Testa- 
ment, i.e. the words of our Lord in the Gos- 
pels, the doctrines published by St. Paul and 
his brother Apostles in their Epistles, supple- 
ment the revelation contained in the Old 
Testament, and furnish the key to the true 
interpretation of the prophets, as well as 
the basis for tho Christian doctrine of the 
Person of Christ, of the Son of God be- 

come the Son of Man. The reader will not 
need any reference to these Scriptures, nor 
any analysis of their contents, before admit- 
ting this statement ; and he will as readily 
admit that they contain the premises from 
which follow as logical consequences the 
decrees of the first general Councils defin- 
ing the right faith concerning the Person 
of Christ. The definition of this faith, in 
the first days of Christianity, was negative 
rather than positive; the earlier Fathers 
contenting themselves with combating the 
errors of heretics on the one hand or on the 
other, and denying that the doctrine of the 
Christ was not as stated by them ; while 
they did not undertake to set forth exactly 
what the true doctrine was, more fully than 
in tho words of St. John, "the Word was 
made Flesh.' 7 Still the process of logical 
inference and development went on, and 
men saw more and more clearly how to sum 
up the separate assertions of Scripture — the 
faith once delivered to the saints — in a care- 
fully defined philosophical statement. This, 
however, was not done at once, but as it 
were step by step, as the vagaries of heresy 
made more explicit definitions necessary ; so 
that it was six or seven hundred years before 
the Person of Christ ceased to form the 
chief question in the Councils of the Church. 
The decisions of the first six general Coun- 
cils (Nice against Arius, 825 A.D. ; Con- 
stantinople again st Macedonius, 881 a d., 
Ephesun against Nestorius, 481 a.d. ; Chal- 
cedon against Eutyches, 451 a.d. ; Constan- 
tinople supplementary of Ephesus, 553 a.d.; 
and Constantinople supplementary of Chal- 
cedon, 680 a.d.), the substance of which is 
expressed by the (so-called) Nicene Creed, 
set forth the Person of Christ as embracing 
truly and perfectly both the nature of God 
and the nature of man, inseparably and with- 
out confusion. It will be observed that this 
was tho work of the Eastern Church ; in the 
West, however, thinking men were not idle, 
and in like manner as the faith of the 
Church concerning the Person of Christ 
was thus gradually expressed with accuracy 
and precision, so the doctrine of His offic« 
and work was from time to time more 
clearly defined, as philosophical speculations 
ending in heresy made it desirable to do so, 
until the Christology of the Church was 
completed by the doctrine of Christ in His 
office as the Atonement for sin, tho Restorer 
of man to the original dignity of his naturo 
lost in Adam, and by the doctrine of Divine 
grace repairing human sinfulness. The 
subject of Christology, the doctrine of the 
Person of Christ, is sometimes treated as 
the development of a purely natural Mes- 
sianic idea, of subjective or self-originated 
conception, to which there was no corre* 
spondent Divine Promise. Or it is discussed 
as the development of a Messianic idea 
which was both natural and supernatural, 
which was not purely subjective or self-origi- 
nated, but had its origin in a Divine reality, 
and was fostered by a supernatural Provi- 

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dence until the revelation of that reality in 
the Incarnation, — God manifest in the flesh. 
Add to this second mode of considering 
Christology the teaching that the doctrine 
of the Person of Christ was made known 
to the patriarchs and prophets from the 
earliest ages by some knowledge of what 
His work bhould be, and the third and true 
method is reached; a method which has 
been called dogmatic, and is that commonly 
adopted bv theological writers on Chris- 
tology. For anything like a proper treat- 
ment of this subject the reader must turn 
to special works on Christology (Dorner, 
Hengstenberg), and on such subdivisions of 
it as the Atonement (Magee), or tho Divin- 
ity of Christ (Liddon's Bampton Lectures) : 
but the articles in Smith's " Dictionary of 
the Bible" on Messiah, Jksus Christ, Son 
of God, Son of Man, etc., may be consulted 
with advantage. 

Authorities : Dictionary of the Bible, Ha- 
gen bach's History of Doctrines, Chambers' 
Cyclopaedia, Blunt's Dictionary of Histori- 
cal and Doctrinal Theology. 

Chronicles, First and Second Books of. 
These two books, like those of the Kings, were 
in the Hebrew originally but a single book, 
but in the Greek translation they were di- 
vided for convenience, and so the Vulgate 
received them ; thence they passed into the 
modern translations as two books. They 
have been attributed, with almost positive 
certainty, to Ezra ; and all the circumstances 
and the contents of the books agree very well 
with this. They contain genealogies, espe- 
cially those of the Priests and Levites. 
They have much of a national tone in them ; 
they give other and parallel accounts to 
those in the books of the Kings of the same 
events. In these we may see Ezra's pur- 
pose to infuse a national tone in the rem- 
nant brought back from Babylon, and the 
need of exact genealogical records of tho Le- 
vitical families, that the details of the Tem- 
ple worship may be restored to those who 
alone were competent to conduct them ; and 
also to give independent and corroborative 
narratives of the facts recorded by Jeremiah 
in the books of the Kings. These facts have 
stood much in the way of those who wish to 
show that the books of Moses were an inven- 
tion of a forger after the " Captivity ;" for if 
this were so, then the books of the Chronicles 
are still later. To destroy the credibility 
of the Chronicles the date of their composi- 
tion would have to be placed later still. But 
the date and probable authorship have been 
abundantly established by competent critics. 
The authenticity of the Chronicles has been, 
then, the pivot upon which a great deal of 
critical acumen has been expended with an 
equivalently valuable result. The contents 
begin with the genealogies from Adam; 
and, after a rapid outline, come on to the 
later history of the two kingdoms ; and 
while not always identical with, still trav- 
erse much tho same ground as those of the 
books of the Kings. They are not sup- 

plementary or intentionally explanatory of 
the Kings, having another purpose in view ; 
but they do indirectly throw much light 
upon them. 

Chronology is the art of recording histori- 
cal events in their proper order and succes- 
sion, by expressing the interval of time 
which has elapsed between their occurrence 
and the occurrence of some other event 
chosen as a standard of reference. To treat 
this subject fully some explanation of tho 
calendar, or mode of measuring time, and 
regulating the year, would be proper, but 
limited space forbids any such digression, 
and attention will be given here only to a 
brief mention of those systems of chronology 
most commonly met with in history. By a 
system of chronology is understood a scheme 
of historical events arranged in their proper 
sequence, and at their proper intervals, either 
before or after a chosen standard of refer- 
ence ; and it is easy to see how different sys- 
tems may have been suggested and adopted 
in ancient times. For as tribes of men at 
first loosely associated together gradually 
developed a common national life, a need 
would arise of some fixed point of reckon- 
ing to which to refer in recording or com- 
paring events. The most important charac- 
teristic of such a fixed point of time would 
be some event associated with it, of such 
moment as to be generally known and Ions 
remembered. Hence we find events referred 
to earthquakes or eclipses, the accession of 
kings and other like occasions commonly 
known, or of common interest. Different 
nations would naturally have their own 
standards of reference, and their own sys- 
tems of chronology based upon them ; hence, 
as is well known in ancient history, the 
Greeks used one method of recording events, 
the Romans another, and tho nations of the 
East, and of Egypt, used various systems at 
different times : while in modern history, 
Christians, Mohammedans, Hindoos, and 
Chinese all have their own peculiar systems 
of chronology. As some six or eight of these 
are frequently mentioned in history, it will 
be well to notice them more particularly, 
and to explain how they may be connected 
with the-Vulgar or Christian era. 

In Greece the common life of the Hellenic 
race was kept alive and fostered by the four 
great national games, of which those at 
Olympia seem to have become prominent at 
an early day. It was the custom to name 
these games, which were celebrated every 
fourth year, early in July, from the win- 
ner of the foot-race; and at a later time 
to record his name in the gymnasium of 
Olympia. The first to be distinguished by 
this last honor was Corssbus ; and naturally 
tho event of his triumph having a fixed 
name of its own, and being brought regu- 
larly to the attention of the whole people 
every four years, became a ready standard 
to which all other events might be referred. 
Thus originated the era of the Olympiads, 
which are computed to have begun 776 years 

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before the Christian era. But as the year 
of the Olympiads begins in July, it is neces- 
sary in reducing Olympiads to years before 
Christ, to subtract the year ot the Olym- 
piad from 777 if the event befell from July 
to December, but from 776 if from January 
to June. For example, Rome was founded 
in the third year of the sixth Olympiad, in 
April ; then taking 5 X * +8 = 23 from 776, 
we have 753 B.C. for the date of the founda- 
tion of the city ; but if the year of the 
Olympiad is greater than 776, to find the 
year of the Christian era subtract from it 
776 if the event befell from July to Decem- 
ber, 777 if from January to June. 

The Roman system of chronology refers all 
events to the founding of the city of Rome, 
which is generally fixed in April, 753 B.C., 
though it is also placed in the years 752, 751 , 
750, and 747 B.C. A simple subtraction of 
the year of the city from 758 should give 
the year before Christ of any event re- 
corded in the era of Rome ; but owing to the 
different dates assigned for the beginning of 
that era, the reduction is not always at- 
tended with certainty ; nor is the difficulty 
lessened by the fact that the Romans em- 
ployed two sorts of years, the civil year and 
the consular year, and further that the year 
of Rome does not coincide with the civil 
year, the latter beginning January 1, the 
other April 21. 

The era of Nabonassar is that used by 
Ptolemy in his records of Assyrian and 
Babylonian history. Its chief merit is that 
it begins at a definite moment of time, viz., 
Wednesday at noon, February 26, 747 B.C., 
and for that reason is famous in astronomy; 
but on account of a difference in length of 
the Julian and Babylonian years, it is no 
easy matter to convert dates from the era of 
Nabonassar to the Christian era. 

Before the Exodus the Jews began their 
year in September; but to commemorate 
that event the beginning of the year was 
changed. to about the time of the vernal 
equinox (Exodus xii. 2) for ecclesiastical 
matters, the former year being still retained 
in civil affairs. There is reason to believe 
that the Exodus formed a chronological era 
with the Israelites (I Kings vi. 1), but it is 
well known that tney recorded historical 
events by referring them to the year of the 
reigning king or conqueror. In the later 
history of the Jews, and until comparatively 
modern times, they used the Macedonian 
era, which they styled the Era of Contracts, 
because their Syrian governors compelled 
them to use it in making contracts. They 
are said, however, to use now a Mundane 
era, reckoning from the creation of the 
world, which they set about 3760 years be- 
fore Christ. ( Vide article Chronology in 
Dr. Smith '8 Dictionary of the Bible.J 

The Macedonian era, just spoken of, called 
also the Era of the Selcucidaa, was reckoned 
from the occupation of Babylon by Seleucus 
Nicator (311 B.C.). It was for a long time 
in general use in all the Greek countries 

bordering on the Levant ; but as those who 
used it varied much in their time of begin- 
ning the year, it is hard to determine with 
readiness dates recorded in it. 

The Vulgar or Christian era is that in 
common use in Europe and America, and 
largely in Asia. It was proposed some 500 
years after Christ by Dionysius Exiguus, 
and gradually came into use by all Chris- 
tians. Being designed to reckon from the 
Incarnation of Cubist, its author chose 
March 25 in the year of Rome 752 B.C. (?) at 
its initial point, but after a time this was de- 
ferred to the following January; and the 
Vulgar era now begins January 1 in the 
year of Rome 753 B.C. Besides the 25th of 
March and the 1st of January, the 25th of 
December has been taken as the beginning 
of the year; a fact to be remembered in 
reckoning and comparing dates in early 
Christian ages, and in late history, too, for 
that matter, because the 25th of March was 
retained as New Year's Day in England, 
together with the Old Style, until 1752 a.d., 
at which time a change of both year and 
style was made ; hence, though we now say 
that George Washington was born February 
22, 1732 a.d., those who recorded that event 
wrote it February 11, 1731 a.d. However, 
historical writers had already reckoned the 
year to begin at January 1. For an ex- 
planation of these matters, and for rules for 
avoiding error and confusion in dates, the 
reader must refer to the subject of the Cal- 
endar as treated in the various cyclopaedias. 
• The era of the Hegira is that used by the 
Mohammedans, and dates from the flight of 
Mohammed (the Hegira) from Mecca, or 
rather from a day shortly before the actual 
flight; so that it begins July 16, 622 a.d. 
But it is not used in Persia, where time is 
reckoned from the accession to the throne 
of Tezdegird, June 16, 632 a.d. 

It remains now to speak of an important, 
and at the same time very difficult, branch 
of chronology, viz., that of Biblical chro- 
nology. The basis of such a system is of 
course the text of the Bible ; and it might 
seem at first a simple matter to reduce its 
records to a tabulated scheme, but there are 
difficulties presented by the text itself, and 
in addition the Septuagint, or ancient Greek 
version, differs from the Hebrew text ; and 
again, the Samaritan Pentateuch differs from 
both these. Now two of these must have 
been altered, and as certain alterations are 
suspected in the Hebrew text, whether by 
design or by accident, it has become impos- 
sible to determine which of the three is 
right on those points where they differ. 
Hence there have been so many discrep- 
ant opinions and contradictory conclusions 
among those who have given attention to 
this subject, that from over-confidence in 
treating it in a positive manner, men have 
gone apparently to the opposite extreme of 
thinking that nothing whatever can be done 
with it. These remarks apply of course 
only to that part of Biblical chronology 

Digitized by 





which cannot be corroborated by contem- 
porary profane history ; but the truth about 
it, as in so many other cases, lies probably 
between two extremes, and a car«nil digest 
of the records of the Bible will afford a sys- 
tem of chronology which may be accepted 
as final ; because, though not absolutely cer- 
tain for the earliest ages, it is better than 
any other yet obtained ; and in later times 
is confirmed by contemporary history, and 
especially by the wonderful disclosures of 
modern research and discovery. 

The different systems of Bible chronology 
' which have been advocated by the most 
learned and able men may be arranged (to 
take no notice of the Rabbinical systems) in 
two classes, the long systems and the short 
systems; though all long systems do not 
agree with one another, neither do all short 
systems agree together. The advocates of the 
short systems base their calculations on the 
genealogies of the antediluvians and patri- 
archs as given in the Hebrew text (and in 
our version of the Bible), while those who 
^prefer the long systems choose the correspond- 
ing genealogies in the Septuagint, which 
are greater by one hundred years in the age 
of nearly every patriarch at the time when 
his successor was born. For this reason, and 
for certain other peculiarities of interpreta- 
tion and reckoning, there is a very consider- 
able difference between the two classes of 
chronologies, until they practically agree 
in the date of the destruction of Solomon's 
Temple. Taking Hales as a representative 
of the long systems and Ussher of the short, 
the two may be compared by the following 
table of six principal dates : 

EaJn. Umkar. 

Destitution of Solomon's Temple ...... M 686 B.C. 688 B.C. 

Foundation ** " u 1027 1012 

Exodus „1648 . 1491 

Call or Abram...... M .2078 1921 

Flood .3166 2348 

CreaUon 6411 4004 

Out of all the many systems which have 
been published and advocated, that of 
Ussher, Archbishop of Ireland, has received 
the most favor, and is best known, at least 
to English-speaking men ; owing, no doubt, 
to the fact that it is inserted in the margin 
of the Authorized Version of the Scrip- 
tures, completed and published under James 
I. of England ; and the dates of such events 
as the Creation, the Flood, the Exodus, etc., 
are commonly given in accordance with it. 
Perhaps it is as well to adopt it as any, both 
because it is based upon the Hebrew text of 
the Bible, and because it has been so long 
received and used. But there are many 
able advocates of the long system, and in 
particular the learned writer of the article 
Chronology in Smith's •* Dictionary of the 
Bible," to which reference has already been 
made, appears to favor the long system ; 
and he suggests a scheme nearly the same 
as that of Hales as the most probable, mak- 
ing, however, a correction of four years in 
the date of the Exodus (and of the preced- 
ing dates), based upon a theory that the 

14th day of the month Abtb (when the 
Passover was instituted) corresponded to 
the 14th day of an Egyptian month, Pha- 
meneth, and upon the fact, as shown by as- 
tronomy, that a full moon fell upon the 14th 
of Phameneth in the year 1652 B.C. His 
statement of the dates above given would 
therefore be, — 

Destruction of the Temple.. 
Foundation of the Temple..... 
Exodos... ~..~~...~.„.~.~< 

Abtui».H. mM .... N , WWH . MM ., 



...... 2082 

3159 or 3099 

6421 or 6361 

Cmtlott M .. HN .... HM .... MM .H MMM 

The article spoken of must be again re- 
ferred to for the explanation of the writer's 
grounds for his conclusions ; and in it also 
will be found a full consideration of the whole 
subject of Biblical chronology. For the 
more general subject, the ** Chronological 
Introduction to the History of the Church" 
and the " Church of the Redeemed, 11 by the 
late Dr. Samuel F. Jarvis, may be consulted. 

Authorities: Chronology and Calendar 
in Chambers's, Appleton's, and Metropoli- 
tan Encyclopaedias. 

Rev. R. A. Bbktok. 

Church. The word has usually been de- 
rived from the Greek adjective Kyriake, 
belonging to the Lord, through the Teu- 
tonic changes of (Anglo-Saxon) Cire, Cyrie ; 
O.Germ. Chirichu; Icelandic, Kyrkia; while 
the Latin races usually retained the other 
Greek word, EceUsia. The deviation has 
been challenged, but not on probably accu- 
rate grounds. It has three broad uses which 
are quite distinct : (A) the church building ; 
(B) the Church in a city or a Diocese fin the 
New Testament in a household] ; (C) the 
Mystical Body of Christ in its Unity ; 
these are quite distinct and definite uses and 
are generally well understood. It is only 
to the last two that this article refers. And , 
first, of the Mystical Body of Christ, which 
he purchased with His Blood (Acts xx. 28). 
Its Founder and Foundation is the Lord 
Himself. " Upon this Rock I will build my 
Church" (Matt. xvi. 18), and that Rock is 
Christ. Before its foundation He describes 
it, and calls it a Kingdom, His Kingdom, 
His Father's Kingdom, the Kingdom of 
God,. of Heaven, which He appoints to His 
Apostles. Men are bidden to enter it; it 
suffers violence and the violent take it by 
force; it is an open organization, yet it 
works as leaven in the soul. Parables best 
foreshadow its varied extent, power, and 

fifts. A net to gather all men, good and 
ad ; a pearl, a treasure worth all else ; the 
service of a great King which has great re- 
sponsibilities and eternal rewards; a tree 
which shall shadow and lodge many. It 
is to be in the world, not of the world, but 
to lift men out of the world. It is a power 
in the heart and life. It is a kingdom with 
a Divine policy and bestowing an immortal 
citizenship. It admits without distinction 
babes and old men, bond and free, simple 
and learned, rich and poor. It is founded 

Digitized by 





on love and in love, and its citizenship is re- 
tained by loving obedience. These intima- 
tions of it are part of the training the Apos- 
tles receive. Then offering the redemption 
on the Cross, He rises from the dead, and 
upon Himself as Eternal God and Immor- 
tal Man He founds His Church. It is a 
Covenant through Him, a union with Him, 
a worship of Him. Emphatically, it is the 
Church of Christ our God, who has bought 
it with His blood. 

But in many ways Christ's Church is 
mot governed as secular kingdoms are. He 
governs it as its Head (Eph. i. 22, 23 ; iv. 
1-10 ; Col. i. 16-22). By the Holy Ghost 
(St. Jobn xv. 7-16) ; by the Apostolic office 
(Eph. iv. 11, 12; St. Matt, xxviii. 20). For 
its purpose is to reconcile sinful man to the 
Father through the Son (2 Cor. v. 18, 19) 
by the pleading of the Holt Ghost (Rom. 
viii. 26) in our hearts. It follows that the 
ministry of reconciliation in the Church is in 
Christ's office as Apostle (Heb. iii. 1) and 
High-Priest, and He must appoint His .own 
officers, who share in His authority (St. 
John xx. 21). He gives gifts and offers sal- 
vation. He must select His own messen- 
gers (St. Mark iii. 13 ; St. John xv. 16). 
This Apostolic office continues while the 
world lasts (St. Matt xxviii. 20). But it 
exists only for His purposes and His work 
(St John xv. 14; St Mark xvi. 15, 16; 
St. Matt, xxviii. 18-20). But again, the 
work is for men. It reaches from the Th rone 
of God the Father, from the Holiest Pres- 
ence of Christ's unceasing intercession, to 
the life and happiness of the least of His 
loved race of men. This wondrous organi- 
zation is for the salvation of men, soul and 
body (Eph. ii.). -This King has laid down 
certain conditions on which He receives our 
allegiance in baptism. He assigns duties 
and responsibilities upon His citizens. He 
governs by eternal law of love, mercy, and 
justice. He has rights, privileges, and im- 
munities to confer, offices to grant, defenses 
to place about them. The conditions are 
faith (St. Mark xvi. 16 ; Rom. x. 9 ; Heb. 
xi. 6 ; Acts viii. 86, 37) and repentance 
(Acts ii. 88 ; St Luke xxiv. 27 ; 2 Peter iii. 
9). The oath of allegiance in baptism is 
the renunciation of the world, the flesh, and 
the devil, the vow of Faith and of obedienoe. 
The gifts are forgiveness (Luke xxiv. 47 ; 
Acts xxii.16), cleansing (1 Cor. vi. 11 ; Titus 
iii. 6), a new creature (Gr\. iii. 27; Col. iii. 
10; Eph. iv. 24), and life immortal (Rom. 
vi.). This is the first sacrament (military 
oath) to the Captain of our salvation (Heb. 
ii.). By it wo become citizens of His kingr 
dom (Eph. ii. 17-22 ; Phil. iii. 20, 21), sons 
of God (Rom. viii. 14-17 ; 1 John iii. 1, 2 ; 
St. John i. 12), heritors of his royal rights 
(Gal. iv. 1-7; Rev. iii. 21; Eph. ii. 6). 
These are the privileges and gifts with which 
His citizens are clothed. But in a second 
act He conveys His Holy Spirit for guid- 
ance and help (Heb. vi. 2 ; Acts ii. 88 ; viii. 
17 j xix. 1-6; JSph. iv. 80), whereby we be- 

come sanctified and are temples of the Holt 
Ghost (1 Cor. iii. 16, 17; vi. 19; Eph. i. 
18, 14). And a renewal of our vows is ap- 
pointed in the Holy Communion (St. John 
vi. 61, 67 ; 1 Cor. xi. 28-26] for forgiveness 
(St Matt xxvi. 26-28) ; ana direct power of 
absolution is given to His officers (St. John 
xx. 22, 23), or of discipline (1 Cor. v. 4, 6 ; 
1 Tim. i. 20) and of blessing (Heb. xiii. 
20, 21 ; 2 Cor. xii. 14). And He gov- 
erns according to a Law part of which 
is revealed, and part lies behind the veil 
of eternal life. For He cannot govern 
but by Law, being the fount and source 
of all Law to us ; and by perfect purity, holi- 
ness, and justice He governs us. The Law 
of Christ is drawn in part from the Law 
He gave on Mount Sinai, and whose princi- 
ples are immutable, and in part from His 
own revelation of mercy and of justice 
(Gal. vi. 8; St Matt, v., vii., x. ; St. Luke 
vi.; St. John xiii. 84,86; xiv., xv., xvi.). 
As the visible Church is, as it were, a polity 
and a colony from the eternal kingdom in 
heaven, it is governed not by laws of this 
world, but by Laws from thence (Phil. iii. 
20, 21, and the Epistles in the New Testa- 
ment generally) ; and the Law of Faith, of 
Righteousness, of Sanctification, the Law 
of Love and Forgiveness, the Law of Jus- 
tice and of Good Works, are intermingled 
in the sacred writings left to His Church, 
that they become the rule of our daily life 
as citizens governed by Him in His kingdom. 
But this citizenship, here probationary 
and disciplinary, involves certain respon- 
sibilities and duties. The conditions of en- 
trance never cease to be binding. Faith in 
Him as a Person having power of life and 
death (St. John v. 20-27; St. Matt xi. 
27-80; St. John xi. 25, 26; xiv. 6; St. 
Matt, xxviii. 18), as one with God (St. 
John, i. 1, 2; x. 28-80; xiv. 9-11), as to 
be worshiped (St. John ix. 85-88; St 
Luke xxiv. 52). Daily repenting. Increas- 
ing life in holiness (Gal. v. 22-25; Rom. 
viii. ; Phil. iv. 8; Rom. xii.; 1 Cor. iii. 
1U-23). Good works (Rom. xii.-xv. 7; 
Eph. ii. 10; Phil. ii. 12-16). Service to 
others (St. John xiii. 84, 86; St Matt. 
xxv. 81-46; Rom. xii. 18-21; Gal. v. 9, 
10). Service of worship (Heb. x. 24-81 ; 
1 Tim. ii. 1-4; Phil. iv. 6, 7; Eph. v. 19, 
20). "We have traced out the conditions of 
admission, the sacraments and their gifts, 
the rights and privileges, the heirship, the 
duties, the responsibilities, the blessing, and 
the strength, with an abundant reference to 
the Scripture, which is yet infinitely fuller of 
all of these. But again, all these gifts are 
contained in one Body, Our Lord's prayer 
for unity (St John xvii.) cannot be 
meaningless. The Scripture is full of this 
unity, oitk net, onb narrow way. For 
there is but one Atonement, one Resurrec- 
tion, one Mediator, one King, one kingdom, 
one citizenship, one Lord, one Faith, one 
baptism. For God is one, and our calling 
is one in the unity of the Holt Ghost. 

Digitized by 





This kingdom bo created) so governed, 
composed of such citizens and having aims 
not of this earth, and a certainty of dura- 
tion beyond the continuance of this earth, 
more, — expecting only its completion when 
this earth shall pass away, dependent upon 
an immortal King who holds eternal power, 
who is planning, shaping, fitting together 
by so many modes so many diverse lower 
interests, sanctifying men and giving them 
immortal hopes, must not merely give its 
gifts to us upon our consent to join it, but 
this consent must express, on our part, a 
deep conviction of our needs, of our fatal 
danger in rejecting it and Him it represents, 
and of the glorious benefits it confers upon 
every one belonging to it. For it is a 
peculiar kingdom ; it exists in the subjects 
of earthly kingdoms, a spiritual state within 
a secular one, lifting up and purifying the 
secular state ; a state that binds into one all 
the kindreds of the earth, yet does not inter- 
fere with, nay, sanctions their political con- 
dition (Rom. xiii. 1-7; St. Matt. xxii. 21) ; 
yet binds them by an oath and by mutual 
pledges to the Person of their King, who 
rules them by the law of love and obedience. 
It is therefore a bounden duty to become 
citizens of it. 

But this organization, so compacted, gov- 
erned, and equipped, must be considered as a 
polity, having definite ends and employing 
definite instruments. But, it must nave 
historic continuity. This is essential to it. 
It must have it, for it is part of God's plan 
for the world throughout time as well as for 
all men ; and, too, it cannot fail. It may be 
maimed and injured at times, but it must be' 
perpetual, and have power of self-perpetua- 
tion in its visible organization. Its assured 
perpetuity rests in the Person of Christ, 
its visible perpetuity in the Apostolic office, 
which perpetuates itself. These facts of its 
historic continuity, of its perpetuity under 
all disasters, must be necessarily noted and 
accepted as fundamental : first, for our 
own faith (Heb. xi. 10; 1 Pet. v. 4), and, 
secondly, as relating to the general proof of 
the certainty of this kingdom (Matt. xxiv. ; 
St. Mark xiii.; 1 Cor. xv.). For its doc- 
trines have been and are borrowed, its 
authority imitated, its polity copied, its 
laws transferred, its citizenship promised. 
But in the past such • organizations have 
failed, and all similar present ones we may 
be assured will fail also as soon as the forces 
so borrowed, not being self-sustaining, shall 
be expended. This Body, this Church, this 
visible kingdom, this Divine organization, 
this state within all, and permeating all 
earthly states, yet not of them, endowed 
with supremal vitality, inheriting a per- 
petuity, must have grunted to it, as a body, 
csrtain powers, both because of its Founder 
and because of the abiding presence of the 
lloi.Y Ghost. Its Founder had a definite 
purpose, the Holy Spirit has a definite 
mission in and through the Church. There- 
fore It becomes a politeia in the fullest sense 

of the word. Every state is founded to ex- 
press some mighty political truth in behalf 
of and through the people who compose it. 
This heavenly kingdom is founded that men 
might know the only true God and Jesus 
Christ whom He has sent (John xvii. 
2). It is therefore Trinitarian, (Atban. 2 
Ep. ad Serapion), because of the baptismal 
words, which are the germ of this principle. 
It must, for itself and for its citizens, obtain 
the defense and continual blessing of the 
Holy Trinity ; it is the public dejvository 
and the sole defender of this Faith. Its 
polity is framed for that end. It involves 
the use of all the means which can set forth 
before men the truth of the doctrine, its 
vital relation to the lives of men, and the 
necessity of believing in and therefore act- 
ing on all the consequences that flow from 
it. It must be the keeper and defender of 
this Faith, neither adding to it nor subtract- 
ing from it. It must proclaim before all 
men this Faith, and it must not exaggerate 
nor jet weaken the conditions of accept- 
ance and the gifts that shall flow from it. 
As its government is framed upon this fact, 
the Holy Scriptures are given to it as an in- 
spired record ot it, and its historic develop- 
ment and continuity, the history of God's 
teachings by it, and the results of its being 
received or rejected extending over a long 
section of its career, (a) in the Patriarchal, 
(6) the Mosaic, (c) the Christian revelation. 
This sacred inspired series of documents 
must be held and defended intact; and 
under the lines of action suggested by and 
contained in them, its policy must be carried 
out. This involves the arrangement of a 
Creed (Apostles', Nicene, the Psalm Qui- 
cunque Vult), the formation of a worship, — 
divinely indicated, — with rites and ceremo- 
nies and a ritual which shall oft'er to the king 
the renewed homage of his subjects, and 
also serve as an instruction and a teaching, 
and a public confession of this Faith in 
ways that shall attract all men. For as 
these rites, this Creed, and these documents, 
each, rightly used, shall train men, they 
mould their lives into a heavenly type, and 
so lift them up above other men, therefore 
the lives of the citizens of this kingdom 
should show the truth and sanctifying power 
of its laws, and the glorious love and mercy 
of its King. But the very fact of such a 
deposit made in a state so founded, and 
having its increase by a spiritual birth and 
given such a polity, determines for it another 
characteristic. It must be aggressive, for it 
is missionary, and this aggressiveness flows 
from the purest source — love. Its Founder 
was aggressive from utter love. The Holy 
Spirit abiding in it is an aggressive love, 
and it is the sole and magnificent peculiarity 
of the Church to be aggressive, to seek to 
gather all in its fold through love. 

Again, the extension throughout all races 
and in all states leads to another peculiarity 
in its Divine constitution. Intrusted with 
a positive Faith, having a special law, gov- 

Digitized by 





ernod by a mode which possesses the greatest 
flexibility and power or adaptation, having 
a universally accepted Creed and broad 
foundations of a common ritual, it has points 
of unity and community among all these, 
and it is joined together by many hands and 
sinew* to its, for the present, unseen Head. 
The Church as a state within other states is 
peculiarly placed. It has to protest boldly 
against sin. It has to be aggressive. These 
are points of moral antagonism. If, then, 
these widely spread parts of the Church were 
to be gathered as one body Yinder a visible 
head, the friction, to call it by no stronger 
name, thus created would be a hindrance 
almost fatal to the discharge of its true 
functions. The fear of this, when as yet it 
could not possibly exist, led heathen em- 
perors upon political principles of mistaken 
self-defense to persecute it, a danger that 
threatened its existence, but was divinely 
turned into a means of strength and of greater 
growth. When such an organization was 
effected contrary to all the traditions of its 
Divine founding, it has awakened the jeal- 
ousy and antagonism' of the several secular 
kingdoms, and has in itself led to assertions 
of the faith unwarranted, unfounded, and, 
were they logically carried out, subversive 
of its existence. This, then, leads us to the 
second and equally correct use of the title 
Church used with reference to the Church 
in each secular state. (B) To appoint a sin- 
gle visible Head when its Founder appointed 
none, and left no provision in its constitution 
for such Headship, is then opposed to and 
well nigh fatal to the lofty ends for which 
the Church is established. But, on the con- 
trary, in the Apostolic College together, He 
established this Headship ; to them all in com- 
mon He gave his own Apostolate (St. John 
xx. 21) in full. They were to be, as they yet 
are, in a common bond, yet as sufficiently in- 
dependent to care for the necessarily separate 
interests of the Church in each nationality. 
They were to have the power of holding 
counsel. Nor yet was the Church solely vested 
in them, but also the people were to be an 
integral part of it. The interdependence of 
the several parts of the Church by their 
nationalities was secured through the Apos- 
tolate ; the independence of the several 
nationalities was secured through their race 
or tribal peculiarities and customs, — non-es- 
sential in themselves, but the outgrowth of 
their mental dispositions, and of their forms 
of life and of government, and therefore an- 
tagonistic and creating jealousies and bick- 
erings, were they to clash through the too 
close proximity of their diverse interests. 
So there was at the first the greatest freedom 
of play allowed the several portions of the 
Church in their own regions. Every por- 
tion was allowed to have its own mod«*8 of 
.acting and of legislating within the great 
lines of a common Faith. Causes arose 
which providentially drew the different parts 
of the Church together, when it became so 
widely spread as to appear in danger of fall- 

ing apart by its mere extent Heresies oc- 
casioned Councils, and Councils bound the 
Churches together in the defense of a com- 
mon Faith and in the unity of a common 
worship. So that it was not, it is not now, 
permitted us to admit a visible Head, but a 
visible common executive office. A bond of 
unity in the common Faith, common Law, 
which results from the needs of the time, a 
common worship of our one Lord. It also 
follows that as it exists whole and complete 
in each and every part, that the Episcopate 
held in common is equally present in each 
one of its members, that the Faith is com- 
plete in the Creed and the Scriptures, and the 
Law of government and identity of policy, 
both of aggression and conservation, and 
unity of worship, are complete in each part 
of the Church. So it is not arrogance, not 
presumption for any part of the Church to 
say that it is the Church as regards the 
nation to which it is established, and that it 
must be so as regards the necessity for each 
man to be within its pale, and the responsi- 
bility of the Church to gather into its pale 
all who are vet without. It follows that 
missionaries from one nation to another not 
having the Faith, when they have estab- 
lished the Church and given to it what in- 
strumentalities and officers the Head of the 
Church has left, have thereby effected an ex- 
tension of the old /historic Church, and it 
must become national and independent, yet 
in closest union of all the common traditions 
which belong to that Church. This was 
precisely the principle of the national 
Church of America at the close of the Rev- 
olution, when, by 1789 a.d., it had received 
the Episcopate from the English line. What- 
ever the English Church had of the common 
Catholic Faith and use became ours as heirs 
taking from a common estate under a com- 
mon will which had made provision for our 
inheriting. " Go ye into all the world." 
" Make disciples of all the nations." There- 
fore we, though but a century old, justly 
claim from our Founder a historic continuity 
in the Episcopate, in the Deposit of the 
Scriptures, in the Common Creeds, in the 
broad unity of the Liturgies, in the govern- 
ment under the Canon Law of the universal 
Church. We hold these by the right of a 
common heritage. If it b-4 the duty of the 
One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church 
to make disciples of all nations, that portion 
of it becomes the national Church in that 
country which it enters under this historic 
law of independence. 

The topic broadens at every step, and we 
must stop here, for much which could be 
properly said here will be found under other 
headings, — Episcopacy, Bishop, Apos- 
tolic Succession, Apostle, British and 
Anglican Churches. To these the reader 
must go for further information. But we 
cannot close without repeating that Christ's 
Church is founded upon Himself by Him- 
self, in His Resurrection, officered by His 
appointment, equipped by His gifts, sent by 

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His mission, and having His own continual 
presence and the abiding indwelling of the 
Holy Ghost, that He might present it to 
Himself a glorious Church, not having spot 
or wrinkle or any such thing, but that it 
should be holy and without blemish ; and in 
it He cherishes each of us. "For wo are 
members of His body, of His flesh, of His 
bones " 

Church Congress. The Church Congress 
in the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
United States is a voluntary organization, 
in its membership co-extensive with the 
communion of that Church. In the main 
features of its purpose and plan similar to 
the kindred institution in the Church of 
England, its history also, although measured 
by fewer years than that of the former, 
like that has been one of half-doubtful ex- 
periment, eventually illustrated and vindi- 
cated by signal success. Originating in a 
small conference of clergy and laity, held in 
Trinity Church, New Haven, some ten years 
since, it took permanent form and title at 
a succeeding meeting, held in the parish of 
Christ Church, " Kiverdale," New York 
City. At the latter meeting permanent offi- 
cers were elected, as also the members of the 
General and Executive Committees. Sub- 
committees also were appointed, for the selec- 
tion of topics, writers, and speakers for the 
first annual session, to be held in Association 
Hall, New York. On that occasion, in Octo- 
ber, 1876 A.p., memorable for the Churchly 
order of its proceedings, the scholarly and 
eloquent character of the papers and ad- 
dresses, and, as at all succeeding sessions, 
the thoroughly catholic comprehensiveness 
of opinion and representation at the several 
discussions, it wrought conviction, even in 
the minds of its earlier opponents, of the 
rightfulness, the wisdom, and expediency of 
such a deliberative organization within the 
Church in the United States. 

Inclusive of the first meeting in New 
York, and excepting, as is now the rule of 
the Congress, the years in which a General 
Convention is held, eight sessions of the 
Congress, each occupying four or more days, 
have been held. Two of these have been in 
New York, and others in Philadelphia, 
Boston, Cincinnati, Albany, Providence, and 
Richmond. The opening service is uni- 
formly that of Holy Communion, with an 
address by some one of the Bishops. On the 
same day, and at the place appointed for 
the discussion of topics, the Bishop of tho 
Diocese has, with one exception, delivered 
the inaugural address. This has been fol- 
lowed by a service, memorial of deceased 
officials, with an address by the General Sec- 

The presiding officer at any meeting is 
the Bishop of the Diocese in which any 
Congress is held. The permanent officers 
are all the Bishops, thirteen of other clergy 
and of the laity, thirty-one as Vice-Presi- 
dents, together with a General Committee 
of forty, and an Executive Committee of 

twenty, clerical members. This latter, for 
convenience, is in the main composed of 
gentlemen residing in the city of New York, 
and holds its meetings semi-monthly during 
the greater part of the year. Vice-Presi- 
dents and members of the General Commit- 
tee are, to a considerable extent, represen- 
tatives of the different Dioceses throughout 
the country. Two Honorary Vice-Presi- 
dents, by election, are the Very Rev. Canon 
E. H. Plumptre, D.D.,and the Rev. Arch- 
deacon Emery, both of the English Church, 
and the latter One of the founders, and the 
present Honorary Secretary of the English 
Congress. The General Secretary, Rev. 
Geo. D. Wildes, D.D., of New York, is as- 
sisted by four clerical Secretaries, one of 
whom is the Secretary of the Executive 
Committee. A permanent Treasurer, whose 
office, with that of the Congress, is at 2 
Bible House, completes the list of officials. 

The annual meetings extend over four 
days, with three daily sessions, and a dis- 
tinct topic, selected by the Executive Com- 
mittee. Usually two writers, three appointed 
speakers, and such volunteers as may pre- 
sent cards, occupy the time of the session. 
All these are limited as to length ; the rule is 
in every instance unvaried, and the expira- 
tion of the limit is signified by the bell of the 
Secretary. By the rules none but members 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church, or of 
Churches in communion with the same, can 
address the Congress, and no person is per- 
mitted to speak twice upon the same subject. 
All .questions of order are in the discretion 
of the Chairman, and his decision is final. 
Persons offering themselves as volunteer 
speakers are required to send their cards to 
the General Secretary, and are called upon 
in the order in which these are received. 
The Chairman only is to be addressed in 
speaking, and no question arising out of any 
paper or subject can be put to vote. The 
rules, so fitted for public deliberation, and 
realized as admirable in their working, em- 
brace also some minor specialties, com- 
pleting a system of order unexceptionable 
in the regulation of debate. 

The several daily sessions are opened 
with Collects and the singing of a hymn. 
Three of the latter are used on every occa- 
sion. Printed, as are the hymns, on. pro- 
grammes, with the Collects also, the large 
audiences, filling the music-halls or opera- 
houses in the various cities, have been en- 
abled to join in response and singing with a 
grandeur of effect seldom realized in any 
other assembly of Church people. 

A Local Committee appointed by the 
Bishop and others in the Diocese in which 
any Congress convenes, initiates and takes 
charge of the immediate local arrangements 
through sub-committees. The hospitalities 
of Church and other Christian people have , 
been uniformly abounding ana cheerfully 
dispensed. Not the least worthy among no- 
ticeable things is the fact that families con- 
nected with other Christian bodies have, as 

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in England, extended generous welcomes to 
their homes to large numbers of attendants 
at the various meetings. 

The Church Congress in the United 
States, while thus manifesting its thorough 
loyalty to the Church in her seemly order 
and rightful authority, is also a voluntary 
association for the free discussion of great 
Questions pertaining to both Church and 
State. It lays no claim to official authority 
or responsibility. It takes no votes, it passes 
no resolutions, it seeks no influence in legis- 
lation. Ke presented in its membership, 
its debates, and its working forces by a 
large proportion of distinguished and in- 
fluential laymen, it thus becomes represen- 
tative also of the whole Church. A chief 
feature in its aim, and a foremost and 
healthful characteristic of its history, has 
been illustrated in bringing together men of 
diverse and opposing schools of thought 
within the bounds of the Church. Such have 
found themselves drawn nearer together by 
the close contact of the Congress platform, 
and, as a distinguished Bishop has well said, 
" The discussions, instead of widening the 
breach between brethren, have tended to 
narrow it." 

The proceedings, papers, addresses, and 
speeches of the several sessions are em- 
bodied in annual reports, under the editor- 
ship of the General Secretary. These form 
a thesaurus of ripe learning, vigorous 
thought, and eloquent utterance upon great 
questions of the times, of which the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church may well be proud. 
To the student in theology and its cognate 
topics, no less than to the clergyman and 
thoughtful layman, these volumes will be 
found most valuable. 

The Ninth Church Congress is to be held 
in October, 1884 a.d. in Detroit, Michigan, 
under the Presidency of the Bishop of Mich- 
igan, the Rt. Rev. S. S. Harris, D.I)., L.L.D. 
Rbv. George D. Wildes, D.D. 

Churching Office. (The thanksgiving of 
women after childbirth, commonly called 
the Churching of Women.) A deep sense 
of the protection of Providence in her great 
peril has always filled the hearts of devout 
mothers. While this office, then, may be 
founded upon the Jewish law, and continued 
in imitation of the purification of the Holy 
Virgin Mary, yet it really lies farther back, 
in the thankfulness of deliverance from 
danger. The service as it stands in our 
Prayer-Book is somewhat changed, but in 
no material point, from the English office. 
The Kyries are omitted, and only one Psalm 
(cxvi.) in place of two (the cxxvii. also) in 
the English book. The " decently appar- 
eled," meant coming in with a veil* of white 
material, but this is disused. The conven- 
ient place, or as the ordinary shall direct, is 
all that is left of the early office, before the 
church door. Bishop Andrews directed be- 
fore the choir, Bishop Wren at the chancel 
rails. There is less change from the old 
Salisbury use than in many other services. 

There should always be an offering made, 
whether the prayer alone is used in behalf 
of the woman at the place of the thanksgiv- 
ings, or whether this office is used. 

Circumcision. The Jewish Covenant rite 
of cutting off the foreskin of the male child 
upon the eighth day, when also the child re- 
ceived its name (Gen. xvii. 28 ; xxi. 4 j Ex, 
xii. 48; Lev. xii. 8; Josh. v. 2). 

Circumcision, Feast of. The day was 
kept as the octave of the Nativity at first. 
Of the feast of the circumcision there is 
early observance, but after the seventh cen- 
tury there appear distinct directions for it 
As it fell upon the 1st of January, which was 
a festival of mad riot among the heathen, 
it was natural that it should not be kept 
as a feast among Christians when the ex- 
cesses of the heathen were so uncontrolled. 
There should be a celebration of the Holy 
Communion upon this feast, as upon all days 
when any part of our Lord's life and ac- 
tions are commemorated. 

Circumincession. The indwelling of the 
Three Divine Persons of the Holt Trinity 
in each other. It is expressly taught (St. 
John xiv. 10-11), " Believest thou not that I 
am in the Father and the Father in me ? 
. . . but the Father that dwelleth in me. 
He doeth the works. Believe me that I am 
in the Father, and the Father in me." 
So in xvii. 11, 21-28, and often implied, as 
in i. 1 ; Col. ii. 9. For in Him dwelleth all 
the fullness of the Godhead bodily. But 
it is a reasonable sequence from the myster- 
ious doctrine of the Holy Trinity. For 
though the Three Persons are distinct and 
separate, they are One in the Divine Nature, 
and the Divine Nature is entire in each Per- 
son, yet there is but one God ; which neces- 
sarily follows from the immutability and 
indivisibility of the Godhead. Yet the dis- 
tinction of Persons is shown by it, while 
the deep mystery of the Divine Unity is 
kept, for, saith Bishop Bull, " in order to 
that mutual existence (in each other) which 
is discerned in the Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost, it is absolutely necessary that there 
should be some distinction between those 
who are thusjoined together, — i.e., that those 
who mutually exist in each other should be 
different in reality and not in mode of con- 
ception only, for that which is simply one is 
not said to exist in itself or to interpene 
trate itself. . . . No similitude can be de- 
vised which shall be in every respect apt to 
illustrate it ; no language avails worthily to 
set it forth, seeing that it is a union which 
far transcends all other unions." (Bull's De- 
fense of the Nicene Creed, L. iv. ch. iv. § 18, 

Citation. A precept or a summons from 
the proper officer or Ecclesiastical judge, cit- 
ing the person against whom complaint is 
made to appear before him on a certain day 
at a certain place to answer to the complaints 
made against him. 

Clergy. (Clergy, from kleros, a lot, as 
men having chosen Gob for their heritage.) 

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They were also called Canon ici, from being 
under a rule or a canon. The name was 
made to include readers, acolytes, subdea- 
cons. The title, however, properly belongs 
only to the three orders, the Bishops, 
Priests, and Deacons. In the Scriptures 
St. Paul, in the Epistle to the Hebrews, im- 
plies theirs to be an office of authority ; so 
in his Epistles to Timothy and Titus. And 
a^ain, St. Peter (I Pet.v. 8) warns the clergy 
again st a vainglorious use of their office. 
This rank comes out clearly immediately 
after Apostolic times. In the Epistles of St. 
Ignatius, " without these (the Bishops, 
Presbyters, and Deacons) it cannot be called 
a Church" (to the Trallians, c. ix.), and 
Clement of Alexandria (Stro., 1. vi. c. v. in 
fin.). " For I suppose that the developments 
in the Church of the Bishops, Priests, and 
Deacons are imitated from the angelic glory, 
and of that economy which the Scriptures 
declare belong to those who live in the foot- 
steps of the Apostles, in perfection of right- 
eousness according to the Gospel." The 
appointment of Timothy and Titus over 
the Churches of Ephesus and of Crete to 
order and ordain, is an early proof of the 
development of Episcopal order in the 
footsteps of the Apostles. For if the Pres- 
byters thus were competent to arrange these 
things and to perpetuate their order by or- 
dination, why give Timothy and Titus such 
special instructions ? why send them at all ?" 
(But vide articles Bishop, Prksdyter, 
Dkacon, Ordination.) The clergy were 
from the Apostolic times regarded as a sepa- 
rate order, with special responsibilities and 
special immunities. In the Acts of the Apos- 
tles (xv. 23), "The Apostles and Elders- 
brethren," seems to be the soundest form of 
the words, segregating them from the laity. 
The Bishop exercised the highest adminis- 
trative and spiritual office, held in himself all 
the minor offices, and was (Rev. ii., iii.) held 

Sersonally responsible for the growth, purity, 
iscipline and orthodoxy of the Church 
committed to him. Certain of his preroga- 
tives he reserved to himself, chief of which 
were the ordination of fit persons to the 
Diaconate and to the Presbyterate ; and the 
admission by consecration of the elect to the 
office, to his own Episcopal rank ; confirma- 
tion, excommunication. As administrator 
of jurisdiction he gave letters dimissory to 
Presbyters going to other Dioceses, adminis- 
tered the revenues, enforced the discipline 
of the Canons upon his clergy and laity, and 
was the officer with whom lay the last appeal 
in all Ecclesiastical cases in his Diocese ; but 
if he were too arbitrary other Bishops could 
interfere. He sat as presiding officer in his 
Diocesan Synod, and had his place accord- 
ing to the precedence of his See (usually ac- 
cording to its political importance) in the 
Provincial Synod. 

The Presbyter shared with the Bishop, or 
had committed to him, the right to celebrate 
the Eucharist, to administer baptism, to give 
the benediction and the absolution, to conse- 

crate churches, and, in case of great need, .to 
reconcile penitents. He was also Counselor 
to his Bishop upon all Diocesan matters. 

The Deacon had the collection and dis- 
pensing of the moneys of the Diocese ; he 
could baptize, assist in divine eervice, ad- 
minister the cup at the Communion, could 
preach and aid in parochial work ; but of 
these offices, baptizing and preaching were 
exercised when neither Bishop nor Presbyter 
were present. The clergy were supported 
at first, and for many centuries, from the 
common fund of the Diocese, which was 
divided usually every month. This common 
fund came from tithes and gifts, bequests 
and endowments, which were often made ; 
the Bishop or Presbyter, if rich, often giv- 
ing all of his property into the common 
treasury, as did Cyprian and many others. 

The clergy had many immunities. Before 
the Empire was Christianized their immuni- 
ties were only within the Church. They 
were supported by the Church, and were 
forbidden any secular employment. They 
received the respect and honor due to 
their office. After the Empire became Ch ris- 
tian the civil law gave the Bishops certain 
prerogatives, as a share in municipal affairs 
and a power to pardon criminals, and also 
gave donations and revenues from the public 
treasury for the building of churches and 
the support of charitable work, till finally 
Bishops had their own Courts, and at last 
withdrew the inferior clergy from the secu- 
lar jurisdiction of the courts for crimes or 
misdemeanors. It was one of the causes of 
the Reformation to do away with the abuses 
that flowed from the exemption of the clergy 
from secular trial for secular causes. The 
power of the clergy was always very great, 
as with their monopoly, as it were, of the 
learning of the Middle Ages, and with their 
authority under the laws, civil and feudal, 
the churches and religious houses were the 
seats both of learning and of asylum. 

To-day, with the impressions that Inde- 
pendentism has made upon the minds of 
the majority of people, there is less than 
proper regard paid to the office of the clergy. 
While the cleric must, so far as his personal 
ability and character reach, only receive the 
consideration due him from them, yet his 
office and his teaching in that office need to 
be more reverentially received than they are. 
Surely something of the force of our Lord's 
solemn words still rests upon His officers : 
" He that heareth you hcareth Me, and he 
that despisetn you despiseth Me, and he that 
despisetn Me despisetn Him that sent Me." 

Clerk. (From clercua, a clergyman.) It 
is sometimes used to designate a clergyman, 
but has gradually received the moaning of 
the lay clerk, who, in the English Church, 
does yet, and many years ago did in the 
Church in this country, lead the responses 
and otherwise assist in the due conduct of 
divine service. 

Clinic Baptism. Baptism administered 
upon a sick-bed, or to one in imminent 

Digitized by 





danger of death. But since it often hap- 
pened that baptism so administered was 
given to one who, through fear of persecu- 
tion, had deferred it, the person so bap- 
tized, if he recovered, could not be admitted 
to any sacred office. It was one of the 
charges against Novatus that he had de- 
ferred baptism till he was perilously sick, 
and yet on his recovery, being debarred 
from clerical office, ho procured his conse- 
cration by deceitful practices. 

Cloveshoo. A Council was assembled at 
Cloveshoo by Ethel bald, king of the Mer- 
cians. There is considerable difficulty in de- 
termining the date, and more in identifying 
the place, which is thought to be Rochester 
or Abingdon, or, perhaps, Tewksbury. The 
date is given 742 or 747 A.D. j it is possible 
there may have been two Councils ; and if 
so, the first was chiefly concerned in inquir- 
ing how matters of religion, especially the 
Creed, were ordered in the early Church 
in Britain, and in confirming the privileges 
of the Church. In the Council ot 747 a.d. 
two letters were read from Zacharias, " the 
Pontiff and Apostolic lord to be venerated 
throughout the world/' and it is " acknowl- 
edged that the recital of these documents, 
in which he exhorts the English of every 
degree to reformation, under the threat of 
an anathema, was in obedience to his * Apos- 
tolical authority.' " Thirty Canons were 
passed at this Council, in which clergy and 
laity are enjoined to more careful living, 
and greater diligence in public worship and 
in the observance of holy-days. 

Not long after this Council certain Dioceses 
were taken from the Province of Canterbury 
and joined together into a new Province for 
an Archbishop of Lichfield. But Kenulf 
having annexed Kent to the kingdom of 
Mercia, and wishing to conciliate the clergv 
of his new territory, seconded Athelhard, 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, in his wish to 
recover these Dioceses to his Province. The 
matter was pressed at Rome, and Leo HI., 
on attaining the popedom, gave his consent 
that the new archbishopric should be abol- 
ished. This was done accordingly by a 
Council held at Cloveshoo in 803 a.d., which 
decreed " that the Archiepiscopal See, from 
this time forward, should never be in the 
monastery of Lichfield, nor in any other 
place but the city of Canterbury." Two 
other Councils were held in Cloveshoo in 
822 and 824 a.d. 

Coadjutor. Ho was a Bishop ordained to 

assist another Bixhop in case of infirmity or 
old age, was to assist him as long as he lived, 
and to succeed him when he died. In our 
Church he bears the title of Assistant Bishop. 

Ccena Domini. The Supper of the 
Lord, — i.e., the Holy Communion. 

Collect. Collects are short, comprehen- 
sive prayers, which are found in all known 
Liturgies and public devotional offices. 
There is no certain explanation to be given 
of the origin of the word, only that it is 
very ancient, as is the Collect itself. 

(a) The oldest Liturgies contain prayers 
upon this model, but in the Greek Liturgies 
it is called the Ectene — intense prayer—or 
the Exanostellaria. The latter being origi- 
nally a kind of precatory hymn invocating 
the grace of God, which is a characteristic 
of the Collect. The oldest collections of 
offices contain numerous short prayers. 
These sacramentaries of Leo I., Gelasius, 
and Gregory I. contain the originals of the 
major part of our present Collects, with 
some notable exceptions. As for the model 
on which they are framed, we may compare 
them with the two short prayers recorded in 
the Acts (i. 24, 25 ; iv. 24 aq.), to which they 
bear much resemblance, but they may be 
compared at an humble distance with the 
compactness and terseness of the Lord's 
Prayer. There is so definite and concise a 
structure in the Collect that it may be re- 
duced as it were to rule. The Collect is 
said to contain, — 

First, a single period; forming a single 
intense sentence. 

Secondly, only a single petition is offered 
in it. 

Thirdly, our Lord's mediation or atone- 
ment is pleaded ; or, it closes with an as- 
cription of praise to God. 

These mark its difference from the long 
rhetorical prayers with which the Eastern 
Liturgies arc filled, and their intensity and 
terse pointedness make them very marked. 
They are the arrows of prayer which Tertul- 
lian says Christians shot towards heaven. 

The structure of the Collect may bo seen 
by studying the similar points of two beau- 
tiful ones composed — the first by St. Gregory, 
about 600 a.d., and the other by Bishop 
Cosin, 1660 a.d.— a thousand years apart, — 
the Collect for Whitsunday by St. Gregory, 
and the Collect for the sixth Sunday after 
Epiphany by Bishop Cosin. They are both 
noble prayers, worthy of the holy men who 
composed them. 

Reason on which the 
petition is founded. 



who as at this time didst teach the 

hearts of Thy faithful people by 

aonding tc them the light of Thy 

Holy Spirit, 
grant us by the same Spirit to have a 

right judgment in all things, 

and ever more to rejoice ia His holy 


whose blessed Son was manifested that 
He might destroy the works of the 
devil and make us the Sons of God 
and heirs of eternal life, 

grant us, we beseech Thee, that hav- 
ing this hope we may purify our- 
selves even as He is pure, 

that when He shall appear again with 
power and great glory, we may be 
made like Him in His eternal and 
glorious kingdom, 

Digitized by 





Ascription or merits 

through the merits of Christ Jesus 
our Saviour, who liveth and reiga- 
eth with Thee in the Unity of the 
same Spirit, one God, world without 

where with Thee, Father, and Thee, 
Holy Ghost, He liveth and reign- 
eth, ever one God, world without 

(b) The title Collect does not belong 
only to the proper Collect for the Sunday or 
holy-day, but is also given to the two prayers 
immediately after the Creed in morning and 
evening prayer, to the five at the end of the 
Communion office, and also to the special 

Srayers in the several offices in the Prayer- 
ook as may be rubrically noted therein. 
There are one hundred and eleven Collects 
in our Prayer-Book. Eighty-five belong to 
special Sundays and holy-days, with Epistle 
and Gospel, and therefore imply a Commun- 
ion. Seven others, for occasional services, 
have also Epistle and Gospel for the same 
end. The remaining nineteen belong to 
special services, but without any Epistle or 
Gospel following. 

College. (From the Latin collegium, a 
community. ) It was an old Roman rule that 
not fewer than three persons could form a 
college. Hence it needs at least three Bish- 
ops to form a house competent to transact 
business and to administer affairs. Corpora- 
tions are in England often called colleges. 
The House of Bishops is also the College of 

Color. Colors were not used in the 
Church at first with any but the most gen- 
eral reference to their symbolism. The 
reference to the spiritual meaning attached 
to the several hues in common use was of the 
most general way. The modern use seems 
to date from the time when vestments and 
altar-cloths and Ecclesiastical decoration 
received a remarkable development, 860- 
1300 a.d. It was also the date of the great- 
est development of Church architecture. In 
the Mosaic ritual God directed the use of 
color : The blue and the white, the purple 
and the scarlet, of the Tabernacle hangings, 
and of the veil of the Most Holy Place ; 
the gold, the blue, the purple, scarlet, and 
white of the Ephod ; the gold chains, the 
many-hued breastplate, the mitre of blue, 
the curious girdle of the dress of the High- 
Priest ; the white robes of the ministering 
Priests. Occasional allusions to the purity 
of white (Ps. cxxxii.) and the symbolic hues 
in Ezekiel's vision (Ezek. i.) occur. But 
there and in the New Testament there is 
little allusion to symbolism of color, except 
in the Revelation (eh. iv. 3-5 ; xxi. 19- 
22). Color was used as a matter of course, 
but there was apparently no figurative, 
but only a decorative use of it at the differ- 
ent seasons of the Church's year. Of course 
vestments were of some color, but appar- 
ently of white, seldom of any other hue. 
But from the ninth to the thirteenth cen- 
tury there was a development of the mean- 
ing to be assigned to colors. Throughout 
Europe there was a great variety of usages, 
some of which may he preserved in the Sarum 
use. However, there is no law or authori- 

tative rule upon the use of colors in the 
Church of the Anglican communion. The 
inventories of Edward VI.'s Commission 
show a variety of usages in the colors of the 
vestments and in the altar-cloths. The 
Sarum use had probablv a larger influence 
than any other in England, but its rubrics 
were not rigidly enforced. So we may sup- 
pose that in reality the earlier English 
Church practically continued the earliest 
prominent use of white, at least in her vest- 
ments. After the Reformation white was 
ordered for the vestments of the Holy Com- 
munion. The Bishops wore a white rochet 
and a scarlet chimere. But as good old 
Bishop Hooper thought scarlet too gay a 
color for a Bishop, — probably connecting it 
with the scarlet woman of Revelation, — 
black was afterwards substituted. The stales 
are usually of black. The old Sarum colors, 
which prevailed in the English Church till 
the Reformation, and were in use in very 
many places after till 1640 a.d., were as 
follows : 

From Christmas to Septuagesima, for 
Sundays, white. 

From Septuagesima to Easter-eve, for 
Sundays, rea. 

From Easter to Whit-Sunday, for Sun- 
days, white. 

From Whit-Sunday to Christmas, for 
Sundays, red. 

All-Saints' days not martyrs, and festi- 
vals of our Lord, white. 

Martyrs, Invention of the Cross, etc., 

Black was not used, at least bv order, 
except in services for the dead. White 
and red are the only colors spoken of in the 
rubric of the Sarum missal. The inventories 
of the vestments in the return made in 1649 
a.d., give blue as the color next frequently 
used, but green and yellow are also found". 
The colors for the altar-cloths very probably 
followed the sequence of the colors of the vest- 
ments ordered for the seasons. That some 
series of colors appropriate to, and symbolic 
of, each season of the Christian year should be 
used is reasonable enough. It is used with 
much variation, indeed, everywhere in other 
parts of the Church, and such a usage is not 
contrary to, or interfered with by, any rubric 
or order in the Prayer-Book. The white 
linen for the vesting of the Holy Table for 
the Holy Communion is the proper and 
rubrical color at the celebration of that 
sacrament. Whether Sarum or Rome, or 
the Eastern use, or the caprice or taste of 
influential individuals be the rule followed, as 
taste develops and more surely as reverence 
for God's house, and care for its decent 
order and the honor to be paid Him in it, 
deepens, there must be a desire to use all 
proper and fit symbolism. As God Himself 

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has indicated the law of its uses, we can 
safely follow its suggestions, under our con- 
stituted authorities. It has already found 
expression in the generally correct) though 
wholly unauthoritative, directions found in 
many of the Church almanacs. It is a 
feeling which should be guided and trained 
rather than discouraged or repressed, or it 
may fall under the direction of some undis- 
ciplined taste or aimless caprice, or ignorant 
wilfulness. Either of these tempers lead to 
disorder, and might possibly lead to dis- 
obedience to lawful authority. 

Appended is a part of the temperate 
statements made in Scudamore's "Notitia 
Eucharistica" : 

44 The English colors appear to have been 
as follows: 

14 WhiU, daily from the eve of the Nativity 
to tb,o octave of the Epiphany inclusive, 
except when another color is especially ap- 
pointed, as below ; also daily from Evensong 
to the Friday before Whitsuntide inclusive; 
on Trinity Sunday and its Eve ; the con- 
version of St. Paul, the Purification of 
St. Mary ; the Annunciation, St. John Bap- 
tist, St. Michael, and all Saints, with their 
Eves; and the colors retained when they 
fall on a Sunday. 

"Bed, on all Sundays except those for 
which white is ordered, as above; on Ash- 
Wednesday, Maundy-Thursday, Good-Fri- 
day, Holy Saturday, till Evensong, all Whits 
week, with the Saturday before ; the Festi- 
vals of Martyrs, whose death is commemo- 
rated unless falling between Easter and 

44 Orange tawney (eroeeus) was prescribed 
for the Festivals of all Confessors. 

44 Oreen, or blue, on week-days from the 
octave of the Epiphany to Septuagesima 
Sunday ; from Trinity Sunday to Advent, 
except on Festivals, their Eves and Vigils. 

44 Violet, brown, or gray, on week-days from 
Septusgesima Sunday to Maundy-Thursday, 
and throughout Advent, except on Festivals 
and their Eves ; also on the Ember-days and 
the Vigils of the Purification, the Annun- 
ciation, the Ascension, and the fasted Vigils 
of Saints' day*." (Seudamore's Notitia 
Eucbaristica, p. 108 sq. q.v.) 

It is said that cloth of gold supersedes all 
oth er colors. 

Authorities : Blunt's Annotated Prayer- 
Book, Stephen's Sealed Books, vol. i., 
Smith's Dictionary of Antiquities. 

Colorado, The Missionary Jurisdiction 
of. Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico 
were part of the jurisdiction of the North- 
west under Bishop Talbot, 1859-66 a.d. 
Bishop Randall was elected for these Terri- 
tories in October, 1865 a.d. The name of 
Colorado was, popularly, Pike's Peak. Set- 
tlements began in 1860 ad. Wyoming was 
not known under that name till after Bishop 
Randall took charge. These three Territories 
formed one jurisdiction during Bishop Ran- 
dall's eight years' Episcopate. The follow- 
ing year, October, 187* a.d,, New Mexico 

and Arizona were made a separate mission* 
ary district, the Bishop of Colorado contin- 
uing to have jurisdiction in Wyoming. 
During Bishop Talbot's six years' charge 
of the North weH the Church was established 
in Denver, 1860 A.D., Rev. J. H. Kehler, 
rector; in Central City, 1864 a.d., Rev. 
Francis Granger, rector; and in Idaho 
Springs, 1804 a.d., Rev. William O. Jar- 
vis, missionary. The two former parishes 
had secured church buildings. Of course 
other points were visited by the Bishop and 
his clergy. 

Bishop Randall began his work (conse- 
crated December 28, 1866 a.d.) with charac- 
teristic energy in the spring of 1866 a.d. 
With an increase of missionaries he pushed 
on the work of the Church at new points, — 
Nevadaville, Black Hawk, Georgetown, 
Pueblo, etc. In 1867 a.d. he took steps 
looking to the establishment of a school for 
girls. In 1868 a.d. he began like efforts for 
a boys 1 school. The former was built in 
Denver in 1868 a.d. The latter at Golden 
in 1869 a.d. In 1870 a.d. he built, in con- 
nection with the boys' school, a school of 
mines, the Territory contributing most of 
the cost of its erection, afterwards deeded 
back to the Territory, and now one of the 
best of the State institutions. In 1871 a.d. 
he secured the means, $10,000, from Nathan 
Matthews, Esq., for the erection of Mat- 
thews Hall for a divinity school at Golden. 
The girls' and the boys' schools were named 
respectively for Mr. John D. Wolfe and 
Mr. Geo. A. Jarvis, who largely aided in 
their foundation. In 1873 a.d. a wing was 
added to Wolfe Hall, and an Episcopal resi- 
dence erected in Denver. Bishop Randall, 
during his active Episcopate, increased the 
number of parishes and missions to nineteen 
or twenty, and erected twelve churches. 
Besides these he bought and converted into 
chapels two or three saloons or "stores," 
for temporary use, in places that subse- 
quently became depopulated. In 1881 a.d. 
work was begun on behalf of the Christian 
education of the Shoshone Indians in Wy- 
oming, and a teacher, a layman, was em- 
ployed. He had resigned, however, before 
the Bishop's death, on September 28, 1878 
a.d., and the work was temporarily sus- 

Bishop Spalding (consecrated December 
31, 1873 a.d.) entered upon the work in 
February following. Some of the clergy 
had left or had abandoned their posts ; there 
were seven at work. Matthews Hall had 
seven divinity students under a competent 
instructor, with nothing to support them. 
Debts to a considerable amount had accrued 
against the school, and the income from 
pupils was greatly deficient. The financial 
panic beginning in the fall of 1873 a.d. was 
severely felt here from 1874 to 1 878 a.d. It 
was with no little difficulty and not without 
the generous aid of friends of missions that 
all indebtedness was met and the schools 
put upon a better basis. Wolfe Hall from 

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1876 to 1882 a.d. was more than self-sup- 
porting. By liberal aid from Mils Wolfe 
and others, and the earnings of the school, 
enlargements were made in 1878-80 a.d., 
oosting $18,000. Jarvis Hall and Matthews 
Hall were both destroyed by fire in May, 
1878 a.d. Tho insurance, $8908 72 on 
Jarvis Hall, $6430.61 on Matthews Hall, 
and $989.34 on the library, was all that was 
left us. The site was abandoned and re- 
verted to the donor under the terms of the 

These schools were the next year removed 
to Denver. Jarvis Hall rebuilt here has 
had much better success. It is under the 
most effective organisation and discipline 
under the wardenship of Dean Hart of the 
Cathedral, assisted by live maeters. Its spe- 
cialty is the fitting of boys for the best col- 
leges. The girls 1 school is one of the best 
in the country; the principal, Miss F. M. 
Buchan, is assisted by a corps of ten teach- 
ers. The studies embrace all those usual in 
such seminaries, music and art being spe- 
cialties. Both schools greatly need better and 
ampler buildings, ana libraries and appara- 
tus for scientific studies. 

When the present Bishop took charge 
the work was confined to the two principal 
towns in Wyoming, Cheyenne and Laramie 
City, and to the eight or nine principal 

5 laces east of the main range of the Kocky 
fountains. For four or five years, during 
the " hard times," the growth of population 
though steady was not rapid. The Church 
was making real progress, though the first 
object was to strengthen the foundations 
already laid, and to set in order tho things 
that were wanting. A memorial church to 
Bishop Randall, Trinity, was built in Den- 
ver, 1874 a.d., churches in West Denver, 
Greeley, Cafion City, Boulder, Kosita, were 
erected, and the churches at Colorado Springs 
and Central City were completed. All in- 
habited parts of the jurisdiction were often 
visited and missions established wherever 
practicable. In 1878 a.d., with the dis- 
covery of the silver mines of Leadville and 
the impetus given to railway building, a 
new era of temporal prosperity was dawn- 
ing. The church built in that city cost 
$16,000, on which a debt remained of $8000. 
The Church has been planted in Ouray, La 
Plata, San Juan, Rio Grande, Conejos, Cus- 
ter, Saguache, Gunnison, and other counties, 
and strengthened in Pueblo, El Paso, Boul- 
der, Wild, and Arapahoe Counties in the 
moro eastern parts of the State. Seven par- 
ishes are self-sustaining. In Wyoming three 
new missions are well established on the 
Union Pacific Railroad, and at Lander, in 
Sweetwater County, while the parishes of 
Cheyenne and Laramie City are self-sup- 
porting. The Indian Mission at the Sho- 
shone and northern Arapahoe Agency is 
under the charge of an able missionary, who 
is about to build a chapel. The govern- 
ment is building a school costing $12,000. 
Three more churches are to be built in Wyo- 

ming and several in Colorado, if the means 
can be secured, in 1884 a.d. 
The Cathedral was begun in Denver in 

1880 a.d., and ready for use in November, 

1881 a.d. It will seat 1200. Its cost was 
$90,000, some $26,000 of which came from 
the sale of lots owned by the congregation. 
The Bishop secured and gave the site, its 
value at the time being $12,000. The cor- 
poration, which is the board of trustees of 
the schools and mission and most parish and 
other property, the title of which is "The 
Bishop and Chapter of the Cathedral of St. 
John the Evangelist, Denver, Colorado," 
was organized as early as 1879 a.d. The 
Cathedral organization is practical and ef- 

In February, 1879 a.d., St Luke's Hospi- 
tal, Denver, Colorado, was organized. A 
suitable block of four acres, with a large 
frame building originally used as a notel, 
was purchased and put in order, with ac- 
commodations for thirty-five to forty pa- 
tients. The property is valued at $12,000, 
and the debt thereon is. $4000. The hospi- 
tal is under strictly Church management, 
and its benefits are extended to all without 
regard to sect or religion. It has treated 
over seven hundred patients and is under 
excellent management. It will long need 
aid in its charitable work. It has strong 
claims on Eastern communities, whence 
many of its patients come. 

Bishop Spalding has been in charge of the 
jurisdiction ten years. The gains are as 
follows : 

The population of Colorado and Wyoming 
in 1870 a.d. was 50,000, in 1880 a.d. 214,000. 
Tho per cent, of increase was 828. It was 
hardly to be expected that in so new and 
rapidly growing a frontier country we could 
keep pace with the secular growth. In some 
respects we have fallen short. In other im- 
portant respects our statistics show a greater 
proportionate growth of the Church than of 
the Territories. 

In 1878 a.d. tho number of Church fami- 
lies reported was 360. In 1883 a.d. it was 
1921 ; increase, 438 per cent. The number 
of souls for whom the clergy were caring was, 
at the respective dates, 620 and 13,141 ; in- 
crease, 2019 per cent. The infants baptized 
were, in 1873 a.d. 117; in 1888 a.d. 890; 
increase 288 per cent. Of adults in the years 
respectively, 17 and 61 ; increa«e 258 per 
cent. In 1878 a.d. there were confirmed 48 ; 
in 1888 a.d. 127. Since June 1, 20 more 
have been confirmed, making the number 
for the last year 147; but these are not 
counted, not being yet reported. Without 
these the increase is 164 per cent. In the 
ten years previous to 1874 a.d. 466 were con- 
firmed. From then to June 1, 1888 a.d., 
1081 ; increase, 181 per cent. The gain 
in the number of communicants is also 
especially gratifying. There were reported, 
in 1878 a.d. 550; in 1888 a.d. 2112; an in- 
crease of 284 per cent. So of Sunday-school 
teachers and scholars; in 1873 a.d. the re* 

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port gave 658 j in 1883 a.i>. 2082 ; a gain of 

216 per cent. 

The ordinations to the priesthood and di- 
aconate number 32. There had been pre- 
viously ordained in and for Colorado 18 ; an 
increase of 146 per cent. There were here 12 
churches ; the report now shows 82 ; increase, 
166 per cent. Three of those built before 
1874 A.D. are unused ; not one built since is 
unserviceable. The usual proportion — not 
greater than in Eastern dioceses — will, in 
time, from decay of towns and changes of 
population, become useless. There were, 
ten years ago, 2 rectories, omitting 1 that 
was subsequently alienated and lost by the 
vestry ; there are now 16 ; a ^ain of 700 per 
cent. The number of sittings in the churches 
at the former date was 1600 ; at the latter 
date, 8281 ; an increase of 417 per cent. 
There were 7 clergymen at work in tbe juris- 
diction. There were two or three others not 
belonging here or not employed. The report 
now shows 28 ; a gain of 300 pi*r cent. The 
number of parishes and missions was 19. It 
is now 63; percent, of increase, 179. There 
were 2 self-supporting. There are now 9 ; 
increase, 250 per cent. The offerings for all 
purposes of the jurisdiction have increased in 
much greater proportion. They were, 1873 
a.d. $5086 ; in 1883 a.d. $52,509 ; a gain of 
932 per cent. The value of churches and 
rectories was, at the first date, $26,300 ; at 
the present, $249,350 ; increase, 848 per cent. 
The Episcopal residence was wortn $9000. 
Its value now is $25,000; increase, 177 per 
cent. Wolfe Hall (building, grounds, and 
furniture) was valued at $30,000. Its value 
now is $80,000 ; an increase of 166 per cent 
Jarvis Hall had cost, with its furniture and 
apparatus, $19,781. Notwithstanding the 
disastrous fire, which left only the insurance 
of $8903.72, the value of its present lands 
and buildings is $50,000 ; an increase of 310 
per cent. Matthews Hall, at Golden, cost 
$10,000. Matthews Hall, in Denver, is 
worth $15,000; increase, 50 per cent. Jar- 
vis Hall endowment for theological educa- 
tion was estimated, in 1874, at $12,000. 
Nine years later its value is $75,000 ; an in- 
crease of 477 per cent. The increase in value 
of all our school property is from $73,000 to 
$220,000,-201 per cent. 

Such have been some of our gains. It is 
a fair showing. It gives good grounds for 
encouragement and confidence as to future 
growth and prosperity. There is much that 
cannot be gathered from statistics. The 
great results for which we should be, above 
all things, solicitous, the coming of Christ's 
spiritual kingdom, the* souls gathered in and 
saved in Christ and built up in Him and 
edified, the fulfilling of the number of His 
elect, — no figures can tabulate these more 
substantial gains. 

Very little special aid has been received 
during the last three years from individuals 
or parishes at the East. And yet the mis- 
sionary ground now open to us and inviting 
us is four times as large as it was ten years 

ago. To keep our present missionaries will 
require $14100 more than the Board of Mis- 
sions appropriates, and with several mission 
chapels to build at once, and many in the 
near future, there are no funds available 
but such as may be secured by solicitations. 
Mistake is made in withholding assistance 
that may, unless corrected, be fatal to our 
continuing to lead in pioneer work as in the 
past — to our becoming strong as heretofore, 
relatively to all other Christian bodies, in 
the vast wildernesses that are yet to be 
evangelized within the limits of the two 
jurisdictions. We are not receiving more 
than a fourth part of the amount of aid that 
is given to each of two or three leading de- 
nominations for Colorado and Wyoming. 
And we are expected to be even more suc- 
cessful than they t Whether our friends who 
have hitherto helped the work in this por- 
tion of the great New West come to see 
and rectify the mistake or not, it is clearly 
our interest and our duty to rely more and 
more for the support of all our work upon 
the active efforts and generous offerings of 
our own people. Our strength is in what 
we do and in what we are. 

We cannot expect tbe same proportionate 
increases as in the past. There is much in 
the immediate outlook that is discouraging. 
The times are again becoming hard. There 
is no sale for mines. Owners of valuable 
properties are unable to develop them. We 
are discovering by sad experience that the 
work in all our mining districts, and these 
embrace a large portion of tbe country, 
must always be of a missionary character. 
The population in mining districts is mi- 
gratory. Miners are bard- working men; 
dependent for daily bread upon daily wages. 
The few who acquire wealth move to lower 
altitudes and to cities that promise greater 
comforts and advantages. Still we shall 
have for generations good towns in the min- 
ing regions, and it is in these that much of 
our best work must be done. 

The jurisdiction of Wyoming, as separate 
from Colorado, was established by the House 
of Bishops in October, 1883 a.d. The Mis- 
sionary Bishop of Colorado is the Provisional 
Bishop. It is now the latest formed of the 
missionary districts ; it is to be hoped that its 
needs will excite new interest. 

Statistics for 1886 a.d.: Clergy, 84; mis- 
sions, 40; baptisms, 392; confirmed, 175; 
com., 2076; candidates for H. O ., 1 ; ordi- 
nations diac, 3; pr., 1 ; contr., $32,465.18 
Kt. Rev. J. F. Spalding, D.D. 

Colossians. This Epistle to the Co1os< 
sians — one of the three doctrinal Epistles 
which St. Paul sent out to the Churches 
from his own hired house in his first im- 
prisonment — forms a strong link in the 
chain of doctrinal statements he makes con- 
cerning the Church as the body of Christ, 
the fullness of Him that filleth all things. 
It is not merely a restating of what had 
been eloquently put forth in the Epistles to 
the Epbesians, but it was something more, 

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or rather different. The dangers of the 
Church at Coloss» required him to warn 
them of their being misled and drawn from 
the unity of the Faith (c/. ch. i. 23, with ii. 
8 and 18-23), dangers which have not ceased 
to assail the members of the Church, to 
alienate them from their true Lord and 
Head. In it he uses terms which passed 
into early Liturgic usage (ch. ii. 13-15 and 
St James 7 Liturgy). There is considerable 
resemblance upon many points in this Epis- 
tle compared with the doctrines and the di- 
rections upon our social duties which occupy 
the Epistle to the Ephesians. These are 
largely repeated in this Epistle; indeed, 
there are nearly forty places where the two 
Epistles coincide and mutually illustrate 
each other ; but the Church at Colossse had 
many evils of a local character to contend 
with. Under a pretended philosophy and 
spiritual wisdom, the heresies of will-worship 
and of worship of angels, and a pretense to 
pierce into things hidden, some claimed a 
false humility and made a show of asceti- 
cism. A claim to supernatural powers and 
to a supernatural knowledge is ever most 
attractive to many minds, and the Colossian 
Christians were in great danger of being 
greatly misled. St. Paul wisely and boldly 
meets the danger by using the words which 
might have, and afterwards did, become 
freighted with false meaning, such as the 
word " fullness," and by setting forth the 
true supernatural teaching of Christ. He 
recounts his own former preaching upon the 
fullness of the reconciliation our Lord has 
effected. He warns them that these teachers 
do not bold fast by the " Head from which 
all the body by joints and bands, having 
nourishment ministered and knit together, 
increaseth with the increase of God." 

He foresaw so much of the later Gnostic 
vagaries, and met them by using the word 
"fullness" (pleroma), and by reciting the 
heavenly oraers and ranks, so anticipating 
the scons of these Gnostics ; the will-worship, 
the claim to an esoteric knowledge, the vain 
deceits of later heresies, are all, as it were, 
provided for by the Apostle's peculiar phrase- 

The Epistle bears every mark of the 
Apostle's own hand. It is within the broad 
scope of the Apostle's thoughts and teach- 
ings before alluded to and elsewhere im- 
plied, but here in the leisure of the prison 
Drought together and set forth with his own 
peculiar enthusiastic energy. The Apostle, 
chained to his guards, has lost none of the 
energy and force which he possessed when 
free, and he was as fully alive to the needs 
of the Colossians as though he were present 
and ministering to them. The practical 
hortatory portion, which occupies the last 
two chapters, is Pauline throughout in the 
clearness, directness, and delicacy with which 
sin is reproved and love, forbearance, and 
forgiveness are urged. The salutation and 
messages are all unmistakably from him 
vrhu forgot no friend and overlooked no 

need of the Church to which he was writ- 

Comes. An old collection of Epistles 
and Gospels, which has been ascribed to St. 
Jerome (380 a. d ), but may be probably later. 
It contains the Epistles and Gospels very 
nearly as we now use them, and whf never 
it disagrees from the Roman rit« it agrees 
with the English use, except when the Re- 
formers (1649-62 a.d.) or Reviser (1602 A.D.) 
may have arbitrarily changed. The Comes 
is mentioned as fur back as 471 a.d. Its ar- 
rangement corresponds to the Salisbury use 
so very closely, and differs from the Roman 
use in so many ways, as to show that it was 
received and appropriated independently of 
any Roman influence. Several slight circum- 
stances point to the probability that it belongs 
to St. Jerome's time at least. Before his time 
there was no special series of selected Scrip- 
tures ; after the date above given the Scrip- 
tures begin to be cited as though such a lec- 
tionarv were in use, by St. Ambrose, Augus- 
tine, Leo, etc. In the part appropriated to 
the saints none are commemorated after St. 
Jerome's day. Therofore it is exceedingly 
probable that this selection of Epistles and 
Gospels came to us from the East through the 
Gallican Church, and may have been in use 
before the days of Augustine of Canterbury. 

Commemorations. ( Vide Diptychs.) In 
England, at Oxford and Cambridge, certain 
commemoration days are kept, on which the 
names of all known benefactors to the uni- 
versities are proclaimed, special psalms and 
lessons appointed, and special collects and 
versicles recited. These days wero observed 
before the Reformation. 

Commendam. A living given in charge 
to a clergyman till a proper pastor is ap- 
pointed. A living is then held in com- 
mendam. They are held by Bishops whose 
incomes are of small amount. 

Commendatory Letters are very ancient 
in use. Such were the letters Apolloa 
brought from Ephesus to the Church m 
Corinth and Achaia, and such that St. Paul 
referred to in 2 Cor. iii. 1, as well known 
and of constant use (cf. 1 Cor. xvi. 8). 
(For further notices, see Literjs Forma* 


Commentaries. Expositions or explana- 
tions of Holy Scriptures. It is one of the 
most difficult tasks ever set before men, 
since it is so difficult to grasp the whole 
nexus of revelation, to understand its ex- 
ceeding breadth and yet its positiveness, to 
reach up to its strictness and yet its love, its 
unswerving statements yet its tenderness to 
all mankind. The task requires a prayerful, 
submissive mind, and a thoroughly trained 
logical power, and a full command of all the 
important learning that can illustrate or 
explain the Holy Scriptures. It demands 
that Scripture shall be diligently compared 
with Scripture and not against Scripture, 
and that there should be no prepossessions, 
no theories formed to be narrowly carried 
out, and above all that the expositor should 

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lay down for himself and strictly adhere 
to the rule that the Church is the keeper 
and witness of Holy Writ. 

For this purpose much of the ancient com- 
mentaries is most useful. St. Chrysostom 
and Augustine and Jerome form a valued 
series. Origen has some very valuable ex- 
positions, but is not to be trusted. Theophy- 
lact has compressed much of St. Chrysostom 
and added useful comments of his own. 

The "Critici Sacri " is the work of 
Bishop Peareon and other English divines. 
But it is useless to go on with the list, so 
many new and valuable commentaries have 
appeared. Perhaps for general use the Cam- 
bridge Bible for the use of schools, pub- 
lished in separate volumes, on each book of 
the Old ana New Testaments, is the best for 
those who wish for special commentaries 
upon single books. 

Burgon's '* Plain Commentary" and 
Isaac Williams's "Devotional Commen- 
tary" are beyond praise. The "Speaker's 
Commentary," and Alford on the New 
Testament^ are excellent. But while admit- 
ting the excellence of separate writers, it 
will be well to take only those who adhere 
most strictly to what has ever been received 
in the Church. 

Commination Office. An office in the 
English Prayer-Book appointed for Ash- 
Wednesday. It is one of the last remnants 
left of the older penitential offices that 
carried out the disciplinary system of the 
early ages. Then offenders were deprived 
for a given length of time of their rights 
and privileges in the Church, not only till 
they proved their repentance but till the set 
time was expired. The English office has 
adapted the very old Salisbury service for 
Ash- Wednesday, prefacing it with an ad- 
dress and a recital of the curses of Mount 
Ebal, and then with an exhortation uses the 
older service very nearly as it stood. It 
was an endeavor to preserve something 
of the old disciplinary system and to re- 
mind men, by its reciting the denouncing of 
God's anger and judgments against sin- 
ners, that justice has not lost its stern vigor. 
The service was dropped out of our Prayer- 
Book, but the three last prayers were trans- 
ferred to their present place after the Ash- 
Wednesday Collect, and the seven Peniten- 
tial Psalms (with the oversight of omitting 
the 61st Psalm) were ordered for the proper 
Psalms for the day. The oversight occurred 
by not noting that it was used at length in 
the Commination, and therefore was not put 
into the table for proper Psalms for Ash- 

Commissary. An officer sent by a Bishop 
to mako inspections of parishes for him ana 
to report thereon. 

Common Prayer. In its proper place 
will be found the history of the Prayer- 
Book. But here it is well to mark the 
meaning of the word Common, what belongs 
to, and is to be used by, also that it may be 
joined in and understood by the congrega- 

tion ; not only that, but that all have a com- 
mon share in its petitions, so that none are 
left out, of all estates and conditions of 
men, and that there are in it no petitions 
that any one may refuse to say Amen 
to, and that there are in it all the parts 
of worship and praise and confession, as 
well as of prayer, which all can join in, and 
in which, as Christians holding a common 
heritage, all can claim a portion. It is 
Common in the highest and noblest sense of 
the word. 

Communion. Vide Lord's Supper. 

Communion (Holy), Office of. The ear- 
liest descriptions which we have of the Com- 
munion office of the early Church prove 
that from the beginning it contained these 
parts: The reading of Holy Scripture, with 
exhortation based upon it ;* the kiss of peace, 
with prayer for all men ; the offering of 
bread and wine; the thanksgiving, ending 
with the Triumphal Hymn ("Holy, holy, 
holy") ; the recital of the words of Institu* 
tion ; the Oblation of the elements to God, 
and the Invocation of the Holy Ghost 
upon them ; the administration of the conse- 
crated elements in both kinds ; the dismissal 
of the people (presumably after a thanks- 
giving). There is no ancient Liturgy* in 
which these parts do not appear, whatever 
else may be added, and no description of one 
which does not seem to imply them all. 
And, besides, they are always found in the 
order in which they have just been men- 
tioned, the only variation of importance 
being that the great Intercession for all 
men, and especially for the whole Church, 
occupies different parts of the service. In 
the Liturgy of the Greek Church it has 
stood for many centuries after the Invoca- 
tion of the Holy Ghost, — that is'to say, at 
the end of the consecration ; in the ancient 
Liturgy of Gaul and Spain, which is be- 
lieved to have been brought almost in Apos- 
tolic times from Ephesus, it stands early in 
the service, soon after the lessons from 
Scripture; in the Roman Liturgy, which, 
though much older than the doctrine of 
transubstantiation, and bearing in its text 
no indication of it, yet shows many traces 
of being mutilated and confused, it is di- 
vided. One other difference may be noted 
here as of interest in the study of our own 
service: the Greek Liturgy has no proper 
Prefaces to the Triumphal Hymn ; the Gallic 
or Ephesine (so called) has more than a hun- 
dred and fifty for different occasions ; the 
Roman was once as rich in its variations, 
though now it has but eleven. 

Our Liturgy came to us from the Churches 
of England and Scotland, and it was theirs 
by descent from the Church of ancient days 
in England, modified in Scotland by Eastern 
influences. It is impossible to go into its 
early history here. It must suffice to say 
that the Liturgy of the Church of Efngland 

* Thin word fc need in this article in iti strict mom, 
m applying only to the office of the Holy Communion. 

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was never identical with that of the Church 
of Rome, and that it always showed that it 
was in part an inheritance from the Church 
of Gaul, which had, in its turn, taken its 
form of Eucharistic worship from the East. 
At the time cf the Reformation there was 
first added to the Latin form of Consecra- 
tion an English form for the preparation of 
the communicants, and for administration 
to them ; then a complete service was pub- 
lished in English (in 1549 a.d.), adding to 
the defective Roman form certain things 
from the ancient Liturgies, though not in 
the ancient order, together with certain 
others peculiar to itself; and then (in 1552 
a.d.) the service was put into nearly its 
present shape, the form of the prayer of con- 
secration being carried back more nearly 
into conformity with the Roman, in part, 
as it seems to the writer, from a feeling that 
a wrong order had been adopted three years 
before. The American Liturgy is taken 
almost exactly from that in the English 
Prayer- Book, with the important exception 
that the Prayer of Consecration follows the 
Scotch form, — not that in the Scotch book 
of 1637 a.d., which never went into use, but 
that which was taken from primitive sources 
by the non-jurors in 1718 a.d., and which 
was borrowed from them by the Scotch 

These things being premised, the mean- 
ing of the several parts of the service may be 
readily seen. First, after this recital of the 
Lord '8 Prayer, and the Collect for Purity as 
preparatory to the whole service, comes, as 
in the earliest days, the reading of Hory 
Scriptures. The lesson from the Old Testa- 
ment (called in some services the Prophecy) 
is with us invariable throughout the year, 
consisting- of the Ten Commandments, 
which also serves, a proper response being 
provided to lead to a confession of sin and a 
prayer for grace. The Epistles and the Gos- 
pel are two lessons from the two parts of the 
New Testament, and are read by us in' ac- 
cordance with a very ancient calendar, 
which the Church of Rome has confused, as 
she has almost everything else in the Lit- 
urgy. To these the Collects, most of which 
are also very ancient, serve as a fitting and 
devout introduction. The Creed is the pro- 
fession of our Faith as based on the Scrip- 
tures, parts of which have just been read, and 
the Sermon is an explanation of them and 
an exhortation based upon them. The offer- 
ing of alms shows our charity, corresponding 
to the kiss of peace ; and the offering of bread 
and wine is like the ancient presentation of 
the first fruits of the earth. The Prayer for 
the Church Militant is our great Interces- 
sion, keeping the position which it had in 
the old Liturgy of Gaul, and reminding us 
that English Christianity came in part from 
the East, and very probably from Ephesus 
and from St. John. The Exhortation is a 
continuation of the Sermon, having for its 
purpose to begin the special preparation of 
the people for receiving the Holy Sacrament. 

It leads to the Invitation, which is followed 
most naturally, we may say necessarily, by 
a humble Confession of sins and an Absolu- 
tion, the latter having its most solemn form 
— that of a prayer. The Comfortable Words 
which follow are peculiar to our office and 
to those from which it was taken, and are 
in a translation made (it is thought) by 
Archbishop Cranmer expressly for the first 
English Prayer-Book ; they serve to confirm 
the faith of the worshipers in God's prom- 
ises of pardon. Then comes a form of words 
which can be traced back to the very earli- 
est days, brief versicles and responses pre- 
paring the way for the Angelic or Trium- 
phal Hymn (it is not strictly correct to call 
this the Trisagion) ; and in certain days the 
form of thanksgiving is made longer and 
adapted to the special commemoration, our 
number of proper prefaces being, however, 
probably owing to Roman influences, very 
small. The Prayer of Humble Access comes 
in as a parenthesis, though very suitably, 
between the Triumphal Hymn and the lofty 
strain of praise with which the Prayer of 
Consecration begins (which, by the way, 
first appears in the Scotch service of 1764 
a.d. ). The essential parts of this prayer are, 
through God's gooa providence, in their 
proper order, in our book, as they were in 
every ancient Liturgy, as they are to-day 
in those of the Greek Church, and as so 
many of the earnest divines of the Church 
of England have wished that they might be 
in hers. The Words of Institution are fol- 
lowed by an Oblation of the .elements to 
God, as a memorial of the one sacrifice of 
Christ ; and after it is the Invocation of 
the Holt Spirit, which completes the Con- 
secration. But the prayer goes on with a 
brief intercession, which reminds us cf that 
in the Greek Liturgy, an offering of the 
souls and the bodies of the worshipers to 
God, a prayer that their sins may not pre- 
vent the acceptance of their worship, and a 
doxology, which latter is prolonged and 
echoed in a hymn. Then comes the admin- 
istration in both kinds, according to Christ's 
institution. The Post-Communion, as it is 
called, is more elaborate in our offices than 
in almost any other. It includes the Lord's 
Prayer as offered by those who have now 
renewed their covenant with God, a prayer 
of Thanksgiving, the venerable Gloria in 
Excclsis, and the Blessing of Peace. No 
other service than the English and our own 
has the Lord's Prayer in this part of the 
service, all others placing it before the Com- 
munion. The otner peculiarities of our 
Liturgy, which we share with those from 
which it is derived, are the Comfortable 
Words (a peculiarity of which we have no 
need to oe ashamed), and the position of the 
Gloria in ExeeUis ; and in regard to the lat- 
ter, though there are reasons for placing it 
as the Hymn of the Incarnation, at the be- 
ginning of the offices, as in the English ser- 
vice of 1549 a.d., use seems to commend its 
present position very strongly. The place 

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of the Prayer of Humble Access in our 
books, as to which we follow the English, 
makes a break in the strain of thanksgiving, 
which is not found in the ancient offices ; 
but it is, as has been said, of the nature of a 
parenthesis, and most fittingly expresses the 
feeling of humility with which we take 
upon our lips the praises of God. 

It does not come within the scope of this 
article to speak of the rubrics ot the ser- 
vice or of the doctrines of the Eucharist. 

Authorities : Hammond's Liturgies, East- 
ern and Western ; Koeling's Liturga Bri- 
tannica, Freeman's Principles of Divine 
Service, Marshall's Ancient Liturgies of 
the Church of England, Hall's Fragmenta 
Liturgica. Kev. Prof. S. Hart. 

Communion in One Kind. The admin- 
istration only of the bread and not the wine 
in the Lord's Supper. This practice, which 
is contrary to the express command, " Drink 
ye all," and to the continual usage of the 
Church everywhere else, has been the rule 
of the Roman Church for the last seven 
hundred years only. 

Communion of Saints. The latter part 
of the IX. Article of the Creed. It forms a 
complement to the former part, — the Holy 
Catholic Church, and serves to partly ex- 
plain it. It was a later addition to this 
Article. It adds to and carries on the con- 
fession of the outer visible union with 
Christ in the Holy Catholic Church, and 
confesses the inner mystical union with 
Him. It is best understood in this con- 
nection with the first verses of the first 
Epistle general of St. John, and adds the 
doctrine of the union of all his saints living 
and departed, which is brought out so nobly 
in the eleventh and twelfth chapters of the 
Epistle to the Hebrews, especially in the 
22d and 24th verses of the twelfth chapter, 
which form an inspired exposition of its true 
meaning in the Creed. 

Communion-Table. The name synony- 
mous with the altar in the Christian Church. 
The Order for the Holy Communion in 
the Prayer- Book calls it, as does the Greek 
Church, the Holy Table and the Lord's 
Table, and so in the Ordinal. In the form 
for the Consecration of a Church or Chapel, 
which was compiled by the Bishops of this 
Church in 1799 a.d., the altar is called the 
Communion-Table. In the Office of Insti- 
tution, framed in 1804 a.d. and revised in 
1808 a.d., it is called Altar. It is both an 
altar and table, for as the place for offering 
the oblation of bread and wine it is an altar, 
and with respect to the feast it is a table. 
In the New Testament the use is indifferent 
in the few allusions made to it. Heb. xiii. 
10: " We have an Altar whereof they have 
no right to eat which serve the Tabernacle." 
1 Cor. x. 21 : " Ye cannot be partakers of 
the Lord's Table and the table of devils," 
•• where what was on the *able of devils was 
from the altar of devils." And throughout 
table and altar are used indifferently. In 
strictness the table is the Lord's Table, the 

Holy Table, not the Communicant's Table 
so that the term Communion-Table is in- 

Compline, in the English Church, before 
the Reformation, was the last service of the 
day. When the two services of Morning 
and Evening Prayer were arranged, the 
services of the first hours were joined together 
to form the morning services, and the Vesper 
and Compline of the last hours were con- 
joined into a fixed form for the Evening 
Prayer. It was not intended that the public 
worship should interfere with the use of pri- 
vate prayer, an idea which has often been 
put forth, but she intended that the public 
worship should be common, and "under- 
standea of the people." 

Conception. The truth of the conception 
of Ciirist by the operation of the Holt 
Ghost is of fundamental importance to the 
Christian. Unless it be so, the ancient 
prophecy (Is. vii. 14) has failed, the records 
of the Evangelists St. Matthew and St. Mark 
are false, the first chapter of St. John 
meaningless, and our faith vain; not merely 
this, but the whole career of the Christian 
Church an effect without a cause, if Christ is 
not the pre-existing Eternal Son of God, of 
one substance with His Father, begotten 
of His Father before all worlds. 

Conclave. A room that can be locked, 
then an assembly-room, and, lastly, the as- 
sembly itself, generally the assembly of 
Cardinals, and more especially that assembly 
convened for the purpose of electing a new 
Pope. Up to the eleventh century the peo- 
ple as well as the clergy had a voice in the 
election, but under the guidance, it is said, 
of Hildebrand, afterwards the famous Gre- 
gory VII., Pope Nicholas II. arranged that 
the Cardinals, i.«., the Presbvters of the 
Cardinal Churches, should hold the election 
to the exclusion of the rights of the other 
parties to the election, 1059 a.d. The elec- 
tion is conducted under certain very minute 
rules, the chief of which is the absolute 
seclusion of the Cardinals from all external 

Concomitance. The doctrine that in 
transubstantiation the Blood inheres in the 
Body in the Eucharist, and therefore that 
there is. practically no withholding of the 
grace and value of the Cup in the Commun- 
ion. This strange and erroneous doctrine 
was invented to parry the proofs that the 
Cup must by the New Testament rule be 
given to the' laity in the administration of 
the Lord's Supper. 

Concordance. (From eoneordare^ to 
agree.) A dictionary and reference book 
of all the words which occur in an author. 
It is most generally applied to a verbal con- 
cordance of the Bible. There are many con- 
cordances, some of subjects (topical} and 
others of words (verbal), in the Hebrew, 
Greek (Septuagint), Latin (Vulgate), Eng* 
lish, French, and German. Those in English 
claim our attention. The earlier concord- 
ances were quite defective, as they gave 

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bat the leading words. But they were su- 
perseded by the great work of Alexander 
Crudex (1787 a.d.). It is in many re- 
pects the corapletest, and is arranged in very 
convenient form. It was incomplete in 
proper names, but that has been supplied in 
late editions. The most ambitious, and in 
many respects the most exhaustive, concord- 
ance is the recent one by Dr. Young, of 
Edinburgh, 1879 a.d. It gives the Hebrew 
and Greek words. It arranges these by sub- 
jects under the separate use of each word, 
not merely as noun or verb, etc., but in its 
several senses. It is probably the most per- 
fect concordance that can be prepared. 

Concordat. An agreement between 
powers relative to some subject. This word 
is usually restrained to agreements made be- 
tween the Papacy and the contracting power 
acknowledging the Roman obedience, and it 
will be found that very often it was entered 
into to prevent the government from assert- 
ing and enforcing the just independence of 
the national Church. (Such is the history of 
at least one concordat in France, the Prag- 
matic sanction (1516 a.d.), under Francis 
I. } who was in correspondence with Melanc- 
thon. A second concordat was formed be- 
tween Napoleon I. and Pius VII., which, 
however, did not give anything to the Roman 
See. It is now in force, after having been 
abrogated in 1817 a.d. to give place to a vain 
effort to restore the concordat of 1616 a.d. 
The interval between these concordats is 
filled with most instructive history. So in 
Spain the liberties of the Church were secured 
in the concordat of 1762 a.d., but in 1851 a.d. 
another not so favorable was made. But 
Portugal is noted upon the Peninsula for the 
firmness with which it has defended the prac- 
tical independence of the Portuguese Church. 
In Germany the efforts of Joseph II. pro- 
duced a great deal of excitement, but the in- 
tervention of the French Revolution and the 
treatment Napoleon inflicted upon Pius VI. 

Produced a reaction in favor of the Roman 
ee, and concordats were formed with the 
several states of Germany more or less 
favorable to the Roman See. The most 
favorable one (Austria in 1855 a.d.), proved 
to be a failure; many provisions in it could 
not be carried out, and those which were 
worked unfavorable results politically, so 
that in 1870 a.d. it was abolished. The his- 
tory of the concordats from 1516 a.d. to the 
present day is the history of the effort to 
reconcile the National Historical Independ- 
ence of the several Churches of Europe with 
the desire to remain, for varying, and often 
narrow, political reasons, in the obedience 
of the Roman See. 

Condignity. A topic in the pre re forma- 
tion discussion as to the relation of works 
done before, and those under the gracious 
influences of God. Some, works, it was held 
by some, could be done so well that thereby 
a man could deserve salvation (congruity). 
On the other hand it was contended that a 
man under only divine influence could 

deserve eternal life (condignity \ The error 
in each case was the insisting (whether wit- 
tingly or not) that man could desorve or 
merit eternal life. Compare the Xlllth of 
the Articles upon this. 

Confession. A word used with a wide 
signification and many applications. It 
means an acknowledgment of either an act 
or a belief, therefore it may be used to sig- 
nify (a) The acknowledgment of any sin 
or sins, (b) The avowal of a belief, (c) The 
public documents containing such avowals 
which have been put forth with authority. 
It often is used simply as meaning auricular 
confession of sins to a priest. 

Confession of Faith. The great Confes- 
sion of Faith is made in the Creed. The 
Church can recognize no other Confession of 
Faith, though documents bearing: that title 
have been put forth, and the'XXXIX. Arti- 
cles of the English and American Churches 
are popularly so styled. It is really an 
error, though the XXXIX. Articles contain 
decisions upon theological points and pro- 
tests upon errors in vogue at the time (1662 
a.d.), and upon some points of Church 
Polity. The Confession of Faith is properly 
the one made at Baptism : " Dost thou be- 
lieve all the Articles of the Christian Faith?" 
Anciently it was necessary to recite the Creed 
at that time. But this does not cover all 
that is now placed under this title. It refers 
now to those documents which were pub- 
lished during the first century of the Refor- 
mation (and is made to include those since), 
containing declarations upon points of faith, 
protests against errors, or malpractices in 
religion, and assertions . upon controverted 
or undetermined articles. The first and 
most notable of these is the Confession of 
Augsburg, presented to the Emperor Charles 
V. (June 25, 1530 a.d.) in full diet at Augs- 
burg. It was read! to the Diet in Gorman, 
and made a very deep impression. This and 
its Defense (Apologia) against the attempted 
refutations of Eck, Coehlaeus, and other 
Roman theologians have become one of- the 
standard authorities of the Lutheran Com- 
munion. The Calyinistic Confession of Basle, 
which took shape from a speech by (Ecolam- 

Sadius .1531 a.d., and was written out by 
lyconius in 1534 a.d. ; the Helvetic Con- 
fession of 1586 A. d., in Basle, to unify the 
Swiss Reformers ; the Genevan Catechism, 
the work of Calvin, 1586 a d., takes rank as 
a confession, — are documents of this rank for 
the Calvinistic communion on the Continent; 
the Westminster Confession of Faith for 
the Presbyterians. These constitute only a 
very few of the many symbolic books, — i.e., 
collections of standard Confessions of Faith 
of the various religious bodies wh^h receive 

Confession of Sin. It is one el the es- 
sentials of repentance. " I said, I vHX con- 
fess my transgressions unto the LoRD^and 
thou forgavebt the iniquity of my sin M '^a. 
zxxii. 5). It is, however, a question ag(> 
manner and before whom this confession c. 

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ain is to be made. As to manner, it is to be 
complete and unreserved, so far as memory 
and conscience can render* this confession ; 
tbe Holy Scriptures are full of it, and so are 
the writings of all the best and holiest men 
of all times. This confession is to be un- 
shrinking in owning the character and hein- 
ousness of sin. But before whom is this 
to be made ? To God beyond a doubt ; but 
David's confession, which was finally re- 
corded so fully, and for all ages, in the 
61st Psalm, was first before Nathan : " And 
David said unto Nathan, I have sinned 
against the Lord, and Nathan said unto 
David, The Lord also hath put away thy 
sin." Here we see confession before a Priest 
and absolution, but it is equally clear that it 
was open, and before all who were present 
in the Royal chamber, and that this was no 
secret confession, concealed, and never to be 
divulged. There is no example recorded 
of such auricular confession in the Bible ; 
on the contrary, the most open and public 
acknowledgment of wrong-doing is urged, 
not only in the Psalms, the great Peniten- 
tial authority for the Church, but also by 
the conduct of the Primitive Church during 
the first centuries, when she kept up her 
strict discipline (vide Discipline) in ac- 
cordance with the precept of St. James: 
" Confess your faults one to another, and 

gray one for another that ye may be 
ealed." With these and other directions be- 
fore us (St. Matt. iii. 6-8 ; Acts xxx. 18, 19), 
we may compare (not contrast) our Lord's 
commission in St. Matt. xvi. 19; xviii. 
18 ; and most explicitly repeated in St. John 
xx. 23 : " Beceive ye the Holt Ghost : 
whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted 
unto them ; and whose soever sins ye retain, 
they are retained," made to the eleven 
Apostles, as a committal of His own author- 
ity as Son of Man to forgive sins. This in 
nowise conflicts with the public confession, 
nay, rather agrees wiih it. Indeed, while 
it was clearly recognized that there were 
cases in which it were better that there 
should be no public confession, — we are not 
speaking of the ordinary wearing fretful- 
ness of daily occurrence, — yet these were 
few and of rare occurrence, and they were 
exceptional cases. But we have full and 
clear information as to this. In this line 
and upon the best precedents the Church 
has given her children the public confes- 
sions of sin she places in her public formu- 
laries. They are three: the one in the 
Morning and Evening Prayer, the one in 
the Communion service, and the Prayer in 
the Ash- Wednesday service. Other confes- 
sions, in phrase, not in form, occur in the 
Collects; but these are the outlines upon 
which the Church instructs her children to 
irame their self-examination and confession, 
and she looks for an honest and devout de- 
sire on their part to give a hearty meaning 
to the lowly words she puts into their 
mouths. The public use of forms of con- 
fession was not intended to interfere with 

any private and devotional forms for the 

But while the Church thus publicly and 
openly avows her use of public confession, 
she does not interfere with the unburdening 
of the heart and its troubles to her minis- 
ters. Confession in private is urged upon 
the condemned convict in his cell, and at the 
close of the exhortation in the Communion 
service she uses these words : " And because 
it is requisite that no man should come to 
the Holy Communion but with a full trust 
in God's mercy, and with a quiet conscience, 
therefore, if there be any of you who by 
this means cannot quiet his own conscience 
herein, but requireth further comfort or 
counsel, let him come to me or to some other 
minister of God's Word and open his grief, 
that he may receive such godly counsel and 
advice as may tend to the quieting of his 
conscience and the removing of all scruple 
and doubtfulness." So far she exhorts 
and advises the confidence which should 
ever exist between a faithful Priest and his 
people in any case of conscience or of 
scruple. The use of absolution under such 
cases must always be decided by the cir- 
cumstances. (Vuie Absolution.) 

Confession (Auricular), that is, confes- 
sion into the ear of the Priest, who is bound to 
absolute secrecy, and who is at liberty to ques- 
tion the penitent in any way upon any part of 
his or her conduct. The practice arose upon 
the cessation of making public confession, 
and grew gradually till, after having been 
recognized by the Western Church, in 
several enactments of local Synods it was 
enjoined as a necessary preliminary to re- 
ceiving the Communion and as obligatory 
on every one once a year on pain of excom- 
munication, and therefore refusal of Chris- 
tian burial. (IV. Council of Lateran, Can. 
21, 1216 a.d.) 

Confessor. One who at the risk of his 
life confesses his faith in Christ. For the 
use of the word, compare St. Matt. x. 32, and 
1 Tim. vi. 18. The confessors were held in 
great esteem, and obtained so much influence 
that St. Cyprian, while admiring them and 
their constancy, had to oppose their ill-ad- 
vised relaxations of the discipline of the 
lapsed. The title confessor properly belongs 
to him who at any time at the danger of his 
life because of it has confessed his faith in 
the Lord Jesus Christ. 

Confessor. The title given to the Priest 
who hears confessions. 

Confirmation. The imposition of the 
Bishop's hands, whereby the gift of the 
Holy Ghost is given to the person con- 
firmed ; the strengthening of the soul by 
the graces of the Spirit. It bore several 
names in the works of the Fathers,— e.^., the 
Seal, the Chrism, tbe Imposition of Hands. 
The seal from Eph. iv. 80; the chrism 
from 1 John ii. 27; the imposition of haitfs 
from Heb. vi. 2. The terra confirmation or 
strengthening appears to come from Eph. 
iii. 16. The rite without doubt was typified 


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by the descent of the Holy Spirit upon 
Him at our Lord's baptism. He declared 
constantly that He came not only for the 
Redemptive acts which He alone could effect, 
but also to give the Holy Ghost, which gift, 
including all other gifts in that, He gave to 
the Apostles when He breathed on them, 
and afterwards when at the day of Pente- 
cost He sent Him upon the Apostles. 

It was emphatically the Rite for that gift, 
as Baptism was the appointed Sacrament fur 
our entrance and birth into Christ ; so it 
was implied in St Peter's words : " Repent, 
and be baptized every one of you in the name 
of J ksus Christ for the remission of sins, 
and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy 
Ghost. For the promise is unto you, and to 
your children, and to all that are afar off, 
and to as many as the Lord bur God shall 
call" (Acts ii. 38, 39). Now this promise 
is the pouring out of the Spirit, as St. Peter 
in the first part of his sermon had shown. 
The words of St. Peter imply then, that 
those who should be baptized were also to be 
confirmed. So, too, when Philip the evan- 
gelist went down to Samaria and baptized 
he could not confirm, but the Apostles sent 
Peter and John thither to confer that grace 
(Acts viii. 14-17). So, St. Paul confirmed 
the disciples at Ephesus (Actsxix. 6), a gift 
to which he repeatedly refers in his Epistle 
to the Ephesians (ch. i. 13, 14 ; iii. 16 ; iv. 4, 
80). So laying on of hand* is made a foun- 
dation act (Heb. vi.. 2). So the anointing 
and sealing of the Holy Spirit in 2 Cor. 
i. 21. There is a series of texts which 
derive their chief if not their full sense 
from this laying on of hands ; the fore- 
most places are the viii. .chapter of Ro- 
mans, Galatians vi. 6-8, and the references 
in 1 Corinthians to the body being the Tem- 
ple of the Holy Ghost. In the study of 
these passages comparison should also be 
made with the two leading prophecies, the 
text from Joel ii. 28, 82, and Isaiah xi. 1, 2. 

It is not at all necessary to bring a long 
array of quotations from the Fathers to prove 
the fact that Confirmation — the laying on 
of hands — was the practice of the Church 
from the first. It may be necessary, how- 
ever, to remark that Confirmation followed 
baptism immediately, and for that reason is 
the less often alluded to iu the earliest Pa- 
tristic writings, since it was, as it were, 
bound up in baptism. With baptism and 
Confirmation followed the receiving the 
Holy Communion, and so was not dwelt 
upon as discursively as other rites of the 
Church. The ancient formulas used both 
laying on of hands and the unction with 
consecrated oil. The laying on of hands was 
with the words, "Almighty Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, who hast regenerated 
Thy servants by water and the Holy 
Ghost, who hast given them remission of 
aH their sins, do Thou, O Lord, send upon 
them the Holy Ghost, Thy ^Comforter ; 
and give thorn the spirit of wisdom and un- 
derstanding the spirit of counsel and grace, 

the spirit of knowledge and true godliness. 
Fill them with the spirit of the fear of God, 
in the name of -our Lord Jesus Christ, 
with whom Thou livest and reignest ever 
God with the Holy Ghost for ever and 
ever. Amen." Then the Buhop signed 
them on the forehead with the chrism, say- 
ing, u The sign of Christ to eternal life. 
Amen." (The Gelasian Sacramentary c. 
500.) This form, as we see, is directly :n 
the same line as our own service, with the 
one important omission of the chrism. 

In our office the versicles are from the 
ancient Salisbury use. The words which 
accompany the act of the laying on of hands 
are drawn from several sentences of Holy 
Scripture. The Collect was framed after 
the pattern of one by Hermann, Archbishop 
of Cologne (1646 a.d.). The rubric on the a<fc 
mission of those ready and desirous of being 
confirmed to the Holy Communion was 
taken from a Constitution by Archbishop 
Peckham. 1281 a.d. 

The blessings of Confirmation are to be 
received with a prepared and devout heart, 
not hastily or without instruction. To this 
end it is usual to deliver lectures upon Con- 
firmation as a necessity in the Christian life, 
and because of its Apostolic appointment in 
the economy of the Christian Church, upon 
the duties of a devout and prayerful prepa- 
ration, together with instruction about the 
Church and her office, and the duties laid 
upon the person confirmed in that act. 
Tnese blessings and the position of this holy 
rite are well set forth in a homily dated 
before the Reformation : "In Baptism he 
was born again spiritually to live, in Con- 
firmation he is made bold to fight. There 
he received remission of sin, here he re- 
ceiveth increase of grace. There the Spirit 
of God did make him a new man, here the 
same Spirit doth defend him in his dangerous 
conflict. There he was washed and made 
clean, here he is nourished and made strong. 
In Baptism he was chosen to be God's son 
and an inheritor of His heavenly kingdom ; 
in Confirmation God shall give him His 
Holy Spirit to be his mentor, to instruct 
him and perfect him, that he lose not by his 
folly that inheritance which he is called 
unto. In Baptism he was called and chosen 
to be one of God's soldiers, and had his 
white coat of innocency delivered unto him, 
and also his badge, which was the red cross, 
the instrument of His Passion set upon his 
forehead and other parts of his body; in 
Confirmation he is encouraged to fight and 
take the armor of God put upon him, which 
be able to bear off the fiery darts of the 
devil and to defend him from all harm, if he 
will use them in his battle and not put him- 
self in danger of his enemies by entering the 
field without them." 

It is often asked, Is Confirmation as neces- 
sary to salvation as Baptism ? A careful ex- 
amination of the Scriptures quoted and re- 
ferred to above — especially the viii. of Ro- 
mans and the iv. of Ephesians — will show 

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that it is, for it is part of the means of grace 
for our resurrection (cf. Rom. viii. 11 j Eph. 
iv. 80). 

Congregation. A word to which several 
meanings are attached. In the Old Testa- 
ment it means (as does also the word Con- 
vocation) the whole people, whether in the 
wilderness, wber* they were always easily 
gathered, or in Canaan. It meant either a 
Congregation for worship, or a Congrega- 
tion for deliberation, and so generally re- 
presented by the heads of the families. In 
the New Testament it meant the Ecclesia, 
whether merely a local congregation or the 
whole body of the Failbful. But except in 
one place the Ecclesia is translated Church 
in the A. V. In later Church usage it was 
restricted to the local gathering or to the 
organized body receiving ministration from 
a Pastor. It is a modern error, refuted by all 
early Church History, to give to the Congre- 
gation the formative voice, and to make it the 
source of authority to its officers. Through- 
out the New Testament, the Apostles exer- 
cised independent authority and ordained as 
men answerable to God for their authority. 
So, too, in the subapostolic record in Rev. 
ii. and iii. The Congregation had many 
privileges, which of need modified the action 
of the ruling body. The officers were not 
despots, but acting in God's behalf to the 
Congregation, and bearers and executants 
of His Covenant. They exist only for the 
sake of the Congregation, but from God. 
The Laity in Congregation had the right to 
nominate to the vacant Bishopric, to assent 
or object to the ordination of Deacons (Acts 
vi. 3) or Presbyters (1 Tim. iii.) ; as largely 
controlling the finances its influence was 
weighty. St. Cyprian's consultation of the 
Congregations in Carthage is a good illus- 
tration. But these primitive Congregations 
were not so wholly regulated as our own 
modern ones are; the clergy being more a 
body gathered around their Bishop, and 
directed by him, than a number of Presby- 
ters and Deacons scattered over the Diocese 
and holding their Parochial cure at the 
hands of the Congregation. The Congrega- 
tions themselves were not so marked I v 
parted, even when much more scattered, 
and certainly in the city Churches, though 
there were many Churches and Congrega- 
tions, they really formed for all minor 
legislative purposes but one body. 

But our Congregations now are nearly 
identical with their Parishes. A Congre- 
gation may contain many individuals other 
than those in nonage, who cannot take any 
part in the management of the affairs of the 
Parish, or may be merely attendants on the 
services. But apart from these, generally a 
Congregation is made up of persons per- 
manently members of the Parish, and for 
all proper purposes the two names apply to 
only one body. Yet in some particulars the 
modern Congregation is still endowed with 
the sam e privileges as the older. In an or- 
dination the consent of the Congregation is 

had. The Congregation being offended bv 
the scandalous conduct of a member he is 
proceeded against; and the Congregation 
has to be satisfied of his repentance and 
amendment. (Rubric to the Holy Commun- 
ion.) In the Prayer- Book throughout, the 
people present at a service are distinguished 
from the Congregation. So properly at the 
office of Consecration of a Church or Chapel. 
As the Church is consecrated for the Parish, 
the Congregation, not the People, is the 
term used. So, too, in the office of Institu- 
tion, in the Prayers and in the first of the 
two closing Rubrics. 

In the Digest of Canons the words " Par- 
ish or Congregation" seem to imply a 
slight difference in the use of the two, the 
one not completely coinciding with the 
other. The Vestry sign testimonials as 
representatives of the Parish or Congrega- 
tion (Tit. i., Can. ii., { 8 J Can. vi., { 2). A 
clergyman can be rector of a Parish or Con- 
gregation (Tit. i., Can. xiv., J 2, J 4). The 
term " Congregation " is a broader term here 
than " Parish," for a Congregation must ex- 
ist in a Parish , but a Congregation may not 
be organized into a Parish, therefore all 
general directions about music, about Con- 
gregations within the Territory of one 
Bishop placing themselves under the juris- 
diction of another, use simply the term Con- 
gregation. The mere gathering of a Congre- 
gation needs the authority of no Canon, but 
when this Congregation attempts to organ- 
ize, then it must take the steps pointed out 
by the Canons, both of the Church at large 
and the special ones of the Diocese, in order 
to become a Parish. Still, since the Parish 
is a regular organization, and the Congre- 
gation is a body with looser cohesion, and 
since for certain purposes the Church rightly 
speaks of the Congregation, the Parish, 
which can often act solely through its re- 
presentatives, the Vestry, must in some 
capacities act as a Congregation also. 

Connecticut, Diocese of. Connecticut 
was not, like some of her sister colonies, 
first settled by companies of Churchmen, 
nor had she, like others, royal governors 
who brought with them the forms of the 
national Church and in some sense estab- 
lished it within their jurisdiction. To be 
sure, the Rev. Messrs. Hooker and Stone, 
who led the settlers of Hartford in 1685 a.d., 
and the Rev. John Davenport, who was the 
founder of New Haven in 1088 a.d., had all 
received Holy Orders in the Church of Eng- 
land ; but it was far from their purpose to 
build up in the forests of Connecticut and 
by the side of her pleasant waters a Church 
which should extend to a new land her doc- 
trine, discipline, and worship. It need 
hardly be said that the colonists were of one 
mind with their teachers, that it was in- 
tended that each of the towns which were 
organized in the early days should contain 
(or, to use the words of the theory, should 
be) a "Church of Christ," of the pure 
Congregational type. Yet it was as early at 

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1064 a.d., a year before the New Hayen col- 
ony was united to Connecticut, — Say brook 
bad been merged in this latter at an earlier 
date, — that William Pitkin and others peti- 
tioned the General Assembly in regard to 
privileges which they claimed as members of 
the Church of England, but which were with- 
held from them by the ecclesiastical author- 
ity here. But the first expression of a wish 
for the services of the Church seems to have 
come from a few Churchmen in Stratford 
about 1690 a.d., though it does not appear 
that any petition for a missionary was made 
till 1702 a.d., in which year two missionaries 
of the recently founded Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel, the Rev. Messrs. George 
Keith and John Talbot, visited New London 
and preached there. Three years later, the 
Stratford Churchmen applied to the Rev. 
Mr. Vesey, rector of Trinity Church, New 
York, for his assistance, and in 1706 a.d. 
the Rev. George Muirson, missionary at Rye 
in New York colony, began to officiate for 
them, being ably encouraged by a layman 
whose name should always be held in honor, 
Col. Caleb Heathcote. In April, 1707 A.D., 
the parish of Christ Church, Stratford, was 
organized ; but Mr. Muirson soon died, and it 
was left without a settled clergyman for more 
than fifteen years. In 1708 a.d. occurred two 
events of interest in the ecclesiastical his* 
tory of Connecticut ; the Congregational and 
the Presbyterian elements in the colony were 
united under the Saybrook platform of gov- 
ernment, and the General Assembly in- 
cluded in the act which authorized it a 
clause for "the relief of sober dissenters," 
not freeing them from taxes for the support 
of the standing order, but removing the 
penalty for non-attendance at its services. 
But we do not hear of any sign of activity 
and hardly of life on the part of the Church 
until on Trinity Sunday, 1722 a.d., the Rev. 
George Pigot took charge of the parish at 

In this year (1722 a.d.) is properly dated 
the foundation of the Church in Connecticut ; 
yet not from Mr. Pigot's labors, but from a 
most remarkable event, which is almost, if 
not quite, unparalleled in history, and which 
had its origin in the influence of " the first 
missionary of our Church in Connecticut, 
the Book of Common Prayer," and in par- 
ticular of a copy of it which belonged to 
Mr. Smithson, of Guilford. That book had 
been studied, while he was yet a boy, by 
Samuel Johnson, who was graduated at 
Yale College and became for several years its 
tutor, and then Congregational pastor in 
West Haven, being held in high reputation 
for his abilities and his learning. With him 
other ministers of the standing order had 
joined in the study of the questions sug- 
gested by the Prayer- Book; and they had 
met in the college library to read and to 
discuss such books as Archbishop King's 
" Inventions of Men in the Worship of 
God," Scott's " Christian Life," and other 
writings of English divines. Among these 

ministers were Mr. Timothy Cutler, the 
Hector of the College, for ten years (1709- 
1719 a.d.) pastor at Stratford ; Mr. Daniel 
Brown, its only other officer of instruction ; 
Mr. James Wetmore, of North Haven ; Mr. 
Jared Eliot, of Killing wood; Mr. John 
Hart, of East Guilford ; and Mr. Samuel 
Whitlesey, of Wallingford. The result of 
their studies appeared on the day after the 
Commencement in 1722 a.d., when the seven 
ministers just named made a declaration that 
" some of them doubted of the validity, and 
the rest were more fully persuaded of the 
invalidity, of the Presbyterian ordination in 
opposition to the Episcopal." The declara- 
tion caused great consternation and excite- 
ment. A public disputation was held, 
which was moderated by Governor Salton 
stall, himself a Congregational minister, who 
had bad great influence in the framing and 
adoption of the Saybrook platform, and who, 
it may be noted, had entertained Keith and 
Talbot at their visit to New London twenty 
years before. The result was that some of 
the doubters were persuaded to remain in 
their former positions ; but Messrs. Johnson, 
Cutler, and Brown were not moved from 
their determination to seek holy orders at 
the hands of a Bishop ; they sailed for Eng- 
land, where they were ordained in March, 
1723, and they were soon followed by Mr. 
Wetmore. Mr. Brown died iii England 
soon after his ordination, but the others re- 
turned as missionaries of the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel, Mr. Johnson be- 
ing authorized to take up the work at Strat- 
ford, while Dr. Cutler (he had received the 
Divinity degree at Oxford) was sent to Bos- 
ton, Mass., and Mr. Wetmore to Rye, New 
York. The progress of the Church in Con- 
necticut was worthy of this wonderful be- 
ginning. Based on earnest conviction, fos- 
tered by earnest devotion, led by men of 
learning " well reported of among all the 
people," who testified their sincerity by 
giving up all they had and risking the dan- 
gers of six thousand miles of sea- voyage, be- 
sides the no less real dangers of pestilence 
and the violence of enemies, it was strong 
and courageous in itself, and it commanded 
the respect of its adversaries. With scarce 
an exception its clergy were natives of the 
colony and educated among their own peo- 
ple ; at first they came from the ranks of 
the ministry of the Congregational*' order or 
from among those who were preparing for 
it ; and all that was excellent in the charac- 
ter or in the religious convictions of the .peo- 
ple was exhibited in them. In Connecticut, 
if anywhere, the Church was accepted on her 
own merits, and on her own merits she stood. 
Within eleven years after Johnson's return to 
Stratford five other parishes were organized: 
one at Fairtield in 1727 a.d., another at New 
London under Samuel Seabury (father of 
the Bishop) in 1732 a.d., at Newtown and 
Redding under John Beach, and at Hebron 
in 1734 a.d., and in 1736 a.d. it was estimated 
that there were seven hundred Church fain- 

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ilies in tbe colony. Meanwhile, in 1727 a.d., 
the Legislature had passed a law which al- 
lowed the members of any settled ecclesi- 
astical society to pay their ecclesiastical 
taxes for the support of their own services 
instead of those of the standing order. The 
visit of Dean Berkeley to America had not 
been without its effects in Connecticut. He 
bad resided in Rhode Island from 1729 a.d. to 
1731 a.d., and though he was disappointed 
in his project of establishing a college in Ber- 
muda and founding Bishoprics in the colonies, 
his influence had been great, and the books 
which he gave to Yale College and the schol- 
arships which he endowed there extended 
that influence after his return. Soon great 
theological and religious controversies were 
rising in the colony. A period of irreligion 
and ungodliness bad come upon the descend- 
ants of the pious settlers ; and then in 1 740 a.d. 
the great awakening began. In the midst 
of the excitement Mr. George Whitefleld 
visited the eastern part of Connecticut and 

fave much encouragement to the " New 
lights," as those were called who favored a 
change from the former religious beliefs and 
methods. Many irregularities attended the 
whole movement ; and the strange speeches 
and actions of Whitefleld and James Dav- 
enport, encouraging separation, and after a 
while finding it necessary to purify the sep- 
aratists, distressed and alarmed devout peo- 
ple and threw nanny into a most unnatural 
and unhealthy frame of mind. Tbe harm 
produced by the New Lights or feared from 
them was so great that in 1742 a.d. the law in 
favor of sober dissenters was repealed. In 
all these troubles the calm teaching of the 
Church was able to save many from undue 
enthusiasm or from utter recklessness, and 
her influence was constantly on tbe gain. 
Thirty years later, in 1774 a.d., the Congre- 
gation alia ts estimated that the Episcopalians, 
with their twenty clergymen ana forty 
churches, were one-thirteenth part of all the 
inhabitants of the colony. It need hardly 
be said that all along the need of a Bishop 
was keenly felt, and petitions were sent again 
and again to the Bishops of the English 
Church, — formally as early as 1742, and in 
a more informal manner in the letters and 
reports of the missionaries. Many brave 
lives were sacrificed, one-fifth part of those 
who left Connecticut to apply for holy 
orders never returning. The rause of Amer- 
ican Episcopacy had friends in England, 
but the constant reply to the petitions was 
non po8*nmu$. Then came the political 
troubles and the war of the Revolution. 
Most of tbe clergy were faithful to the Brit- 
ish crown, as well from principle as from the 
obligation of their ordination vows, and per- 
sisted for a time in the use of the Prayer- 
Book with all the state prayers. Their suf- 
ferings were great and were patiently en- 
dured, and they suffered sometimes as much 
from the violence of the British troops as 
from the patriotism of the revolutionists. 
During the war two of the clergy died, 

three went within the British lines, and one 
to England, leaving thirteen within tho limits 
of the State, and one in Great Barrington, 
Mass., which was reckoned ecclesiastically 
with Connecticut. Of these fourteen, it is 
worthy of mention, twelve were born in 
Connecticut, one in New Hampshire, and 
one in New York, and none of them had 
had any other than Episcopal ordination, 
though two had been Congregational licen- 

A preliminary treaty of peace was signed 
November 80, 1782 a.d., and news of it 
was received on this side of the ocean early 
in 1788 a.d. The Connecticut clergy doubt- 
less thought much on the course ot events 
and consulted with each other; and they 
were ready to act. Moreover, they were 
alarmed at tbe tenor of a pamphlet published 
by the Rev. Dr. (afterwards Bishop) White 
in 1782 A.D., advocating, at least as a tem- 
porary expedient under their existing cir- 
cumstances, the adoption by American 
Churchmen of a Presbyterian form of gov- 
ernment. They therefore came together at 
the earliest possible day. Ten of the four- 
teen clergymen met at the rectory in Wood- 
bury on the festival of the Annunciation in 
1788 A.0., the rector, the Rev. John Rutgers 
Marshall, probably presiding, and the fiev. 
Abraham Jarvis acting as Secretary. They 
decided to do two things : to elect a Bishop 
and to reply to Dr. White's pamphlet. 
Their first choice for the Episcopate was the 
venerable and honored Rev. Jeremiah 
Learning, till lately of Nor walk, a defender 
of the Church and a sufferer for her sake ; 
and, in case (as seemed likely) his age and 
infirmities should force him to decline tbe 
burden, they decided to ask tbe Rev. Dr. 
Samuel Seabury to undertake it. Dr. Sea- 
bury was the son of a faithful clergyman, 
a native of New London, of strong and vig- 
orous character, well known and highly 
esteemed in the State. The Secretary was 
to go to New York, to consult with Mr. 
Learning and Dr. Seabury, and to arrange 
as to testimonials and letters of commenda- 
tion ; and tbe clergy directed him to instruct 
the one who should go to England to ask 
for consecration, that, if his petition was 
unsuccessful there, he should go to Scotland 
and seek the Episcopate at the hands of the 
bishops of the disestablished Church in that 
country. The clergy also authorized Mr. 
Jarvis to write a letter to Dr. White, point- 
ing out the dangerous consequences of the 
ideas which he had advanced in his pam- 
phlet, assuring him that they were utterly 
opposed to the principles of Connecticut 
Churchmen, and urging that at least noth- 
ing of the kind ought to be advanced until 
a request for the Episcopate had been made 
and rejected. It was found that Mr. Learn- 
ing felt it impossible for him to accept the 
election which was offered him ; and Dr. 
Seabury sailed for England not far from the 
time when the formal proclamation of peace 
was made, and arrived in London July 7, 

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1788 a.d., several months before the evacu- 
ation of New York. The story of his 
sojourn in England cannot be told at length 
here. The English Bishops sought and ob 
tained from Parliament permission to ordain 
Deacons and Priests for the United States ; 
but the Erastian notions which prevailed in 
this Church, the machinations of English 
politician*, and the arguments of influential 
Congregation&lists in Connecticut prevented 
the consecration of a Bishop. Yet Dr. Sea- 
bury waited for more than a year, till at 
last, losing all hope of an English consecra- 
tion, he decided to act upon the instructions 
given him at the time of his election, sec- 
onded as they were by the advice of Eng- 
lish friends, and to make application to the 
Bishops of the Scotch Church. The answer 
came from them almost at once, that they 
would freely give him what they had, " a 
free, valid, and purely Ecclesiastical Episco- 
pacy," and he turned his steps to Aberdeen. 
There, on Sunday, November 14, 1784 
a.d., in the chapel within Bishop Skinner's 
house in Long Acre, the worshiping-place 
of a large congregation, he was consecrated 
Bishop of Connecticut by three of the four 
Bishops of Scotland, — the Rt. Rev. Robert 
Kilgour, Bishop of Aberdeen and Primus, 
the lit. Rev. Arthur Petrie, Bishop of Ross 
and Moray, and theRt. Rev. John Skinner, 
Bishop Coadjutor of Aberdeen. On the fol- 
lowing day Bishop Seabury signed a " Con- 
cordate' 7 with his consecrators, in which 
they covenanted communion in faith and in 
ecclesiastical matters* and Bishop Seabury 

Promised to use his influence for the introd- 
uction of the Scotch Eucharistic office into 
his Diocese. The Bishop returned to Con- 
necticut to find but nine clergymen left, one 
having gone to another State and four hav- 
ing withdrawn, under British influence, to 
Nova Scotia. On the 2d of August, 1785 
A. P., the clergy met their Bishop at Mid- 
dletown;on the 3d they formally acknowl- 
edged and received him, and he ordained four 
candidates to the diaconate ; on the follow- 
ing day he delivered his primary charge; 
and on the 5th a committee was appointed to 
act with the Bishop in setting forth such 
changes as should be thought necessary in 
the Prayer-Book, in consequence of which 
appointment a few amendments, relating to 
the State prayers, were duly published a 
week later. There was a strong disinclina- 
tion to make any other changes in the ser- 
vices, and it does not appear that any action 
was taken upon the further recommenda- 
tions of the committee. But almost imme- 
diately after the publication of the " Pro- 
posed Book" drawn up by the Philadelphia 
Convention of 1785 a. p., and probably in con- 
sequence of it, Bishop Seabury set forth and 
recommended for use a Communion office, 
almost identical with the Scotch office, dif- 
fering -from the English in matters of ar- 
rangement, and especially in having a dis- 
tinct and formal Oblation and Invocation 
in their primitive order after the words of 

Institution. (This Scotch office must not be 
confused with that in the so-called Arch- 
bishop Laud's book of 1637 a.d., which was 
quite different ; it is a lineal descendant of the 
Non-Jurors' office of 1718 a.d.) Many things 
seeming to prevent a union between Connect- 
icut ana the Dio eses to the south, the clergy, 
in February, 1786 a.d., decided to elect a 
coadjutor Bishop, thinking that it might be 
necessary to have a complete College of Bish- 
ops in the Scotch line ; and Mr. Learning and 
Mr. Mansfield both declining, Mr. Jarvis was 
elected. But he did not decide at once, and 
the whole project was abandoned, when, after 
much prayer, much correspondence, and 
much patience, a union was effected with 
the Dioceses which had secured Bishops 
from England. The Rev. Messrs. Bela Hub- 
bard and Abraham Jarvis were chosen to 
accompany the Bishop to the Convention at 
Philadelphia at Michaelmas, 1789 a.d. ; and 
on the 2d of October they became members of 
that body, Bishops Seabury and White organ- 
izing as the Houseof Bishops. At this Con- 
vention the Prayer-Book was revised, and 
the sound and moderate views of the Bishop 
of Connecticut had great weight in the re- 
vision. Especially do we owe it to him that 
the prayer of Consecration in the Commu- 
nion office was taken almost exactly from the 
Scotch service. On the 80th of September, 
1790 a.d., the clergy of Connecticut voted to 
confirm the doings of their proctors in the 
General Convention (the Rev. James Say re 
being the only dissentient) and to adopt the 
new Prayer-Book ; but the use of Bishop 
Seabury '8 Communion office was not alto- 

? ether abandoned for some thirty years, 
n the same year a College of Doctors was 
established ; but it is not mentioned after 
1792 a.d., having been displaced by the 
Standing Committee, which was first chosen 
in 1791 a.d. The members of the Standing 
Committee were all clergymen; and it has 
been the uniform law of the Diocese to this 
day, with the exception of the year 1818 a.d., 
that they should all be chosen from the cler- 
ical order. Delegates of the laity had met 
with the clergy in 1788 a.d. to consult con- 
cerning the Bishop's salary ; but the laity 
were not summoned to sit in Convention 
till 1792 a.d., when it was necessary to 
elect deputies of each order to the General 
Convention. This was, therefore, in one 
sense the first Convention of the Diocese; 
the convocations of the clergy began many 
years before a Bishop was elected, and con- 
tinued to be held regularly for many years 
after. The revival of the Church in Con- 
necticut under Bishop Seabury was most 
real and permanent. To increase and con- 
firm its prosperity, he felt it necessary to es- 
tablish an institution for Church education, 
and in 1788 a.d. steps were taken for the 
foundation of an Episcopal academy, which 
was permanently located at Cheshire in 1796 
a.d. Though sometimes called Seabury Col- 
lege, a collegiate charter could not be obtained 
for it from the Legislature. In the midst of 

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active work f t the good of his diocese and 
of his parish in New London, Bishop Sea- 
hury died on the 25th of February, 1796 a.d. 
He had ordained forty-eight Deacons and 
forty-three Priests, and had confirmed a 
ver;- large number of persons in Connecti- 
cut, Rhode Island, and elsewhere. It may 
be noted that he had been Bishop • f Bhode 
Island since 1790 a.d., though there was no 
union of the Dioceses. 

The Bev. Dr. Abraham Jarvis was chosen 
in May, 1796 a.d., to succeed Bishop Sea- 
bury, but he declined the Episcopate, as did 
also the Bev. John Bowden, principal of the 
Episcopal Academy. In June, 1797 a.d., 
Dr. Jarvis was again elected ; and on the 18th 
of October be was consecrated in Trinity 
Church, New Haven, by Bishops White, 
Provoost, and Bass. His Episcopate of six- 
teen years was a quiet one, except for the 
persistent annoyance caused him by Am mi 
# Bogers, whom he had deposed from the 
ministry. The establishment of the Church- 
man'* Magazine in 1804 a.d. and the se- 
curing of additional facilities for the work 
of the academy at Cheshire, were among 
the signs of growth and prosperity. The 
trustees of the Bishop's Fund were chartered 
in 1709 a.d., though they were not organ- 
ized till 1813 a.d. Bishop Jarvis died 
May 8, 1813 a.d., and. chiefly for financial 
reasons, there was much delay in the choice 
of a successor. In 1815 a.d., the Bev. John 
Croes was elected, but he was soon after 
chosen to New Jersey, and accepted that 
Diocese; and in the following year Bishop 
Hobart, of New York, was " requested to 
visit and perform the Episcopal offices in 
this Diocese," which he accordingly did, 
confirming very large numbers of persons 
in different places. Meanwhile, matters 
were ripening in Connecticut for the mixed 
political and religious revolution of 1818 
a.d., in which year, by the adoption of a 
State Constitution (though by a small ma- 
jority), the establishment of the Congrega- 
tional order was broken. This event^was 
preceded and followed by a long war of 
pamphlets, in which the champions of the 
Church showed zeal and ability. The revo- 
lution did much to strengthen the Church 
in material things, though it brought into 
the civil membership of its parishes many 
who did not become communicants. The 
Bishop's Fund was increased in part by a 
gilt from the State of one-seventh of the 
amount repaid by the general government 
on account of money paid out during the 
war of independence, and in part by another 
grant from the Legislature, and on the 2d 
day of June, 1819 a.d., the Convention pro- 
ceeded to the election of a Bishop. Thirty- 
three clergymen and fifty-four lay delegates 
were present, only five of the latter being 
from parishes on the east side of the Connec- 
ticut River. The choice fell upon the Rev. 
Dr. T. C. Browneli, an as-istant minister of 
Trinity Church, New York, sometime pro- 
fessor in Union College, and he was con- 

secrated in Trinity Church, New Haven, on 
the 27th of October, by Bishops White, Ho- 
bart, and Griswold. Bishop Browneli en- 
tered upon his work with vigor, and aided 
it by timely publications of much value. He 
was deeply interested in education, and in 
1820 a.d. the General Theological Semi- 
nary was removed to New Haven, where it 
remained about two years. Renewed at- 
tempts were made to secure a charter for a 
college, and at last, in 1828 a.d., the relig- 
ious bodies other than the Congregational- 
ists uniting with the Church, Washington 
College was incorporated by the Legislature, 
and Bishop Browneli was chosen its first 
president In 1845 a.d. its name was 
changed to Trinity College. A Christian 
Knowledge Society for diocesan missionary 
purposes had been chartered in 1818 a.d., 
and a Church Scholarship Society for assist- 
ance to young men in their studies for the 
ministry was founded in 1827 a.d., while 
in 1865 a.d. a charter was obtained for the 
Fund for Aged and Infirm Clergy and 
Clergymen's Widows. Bishop Brownell's 
Episcopate is a long record of faithful labor 
and wise counsel on his part, and of rapid 
growth following the blessing of God upon 
it. In 1831 a.d. he retired from the presi- 
dency of the college that he might devote 
all his time to the work of the Diocese. At 
the end of a quarter of a century from the 
time of his consecration the number of 
the clergy had increased to a hundred, and 
among them were many whose names were 
prominent in the church, — none more so 
than that of the learned Dr. S. F. Jarvis. 
At the Convention of 1851 a.d. the Bishop 
asked for an assistant, smd the Conven- 
tion elected the Rev. John Williams, Pres- 
ident of Trinity College, who was conse- 
crated in St. John's Church, Hartford, on 
the 29th day of October. Bishop Williams 
remained for three years at the head of the 
college, and a theological department grew 
up there under his supervision, which was 
removed in 1854 a.d., when he resigned the 
presidency, to M i delicto wn, where it was in- 
corporated a* the Berkeley Divinity School, 
and it has been no unimportant part of the 
work of Bishop Williams's Episcopate that 
he has trained there so many of the clergy 
of the Church. The educational equipment 
of the Diocese was completed in 1875 a.d. 
by the establishment of St. Margaret's Dio- 
cesan School for Girls in Waterbury. After 
1859 a.d., Bishop Browneli was not able to 
attend the Conventions, and on the 13th of 
January, 1865 a.d., he died, having held the 
Episcopate for more than forty-five years, 
during the latter twelve of which he bad 
been presiding Bishop of the Church in the 
United States. During the thirty-two years 
which have passed since Bishop Williams's 
election the number of confirmations has 
been about 31,500, the proportional increase 
in the number of communicants has ex- 
ceeded that of the population of the State 
and that of any other religious body within 

Digitized by 





it, the present number being about 22,000, 
and the number of Deacons ordained has 
been 283, or about one-fifteenth of the whole 
number of the clergy now in the country. 
The number of clergy canonically resident 
in the Diocese at the time of the last Con- 
vention was 187. The contributions reported 
for the preceding year for parochial expenses 
and salaries were about $400,000; for dio- 
cesan missions and other charitable objects 
within the Diocese, $28,000 ; and for Church 
and charitable objects without the Diocese, 
$14,000. Until 1878 a.d the organization of 
all the parishes had been by State law under 
the Congregational form as ecclesiastical so- 
cieties ; in that year legislative authority was 
obtained for organization in a more churchly 
way and under the provisions of a Canon. 

Two simple facts go a long ways in show- 
ing the influence of the Church in Connecti- 
cut. The one is, that, at least since 1790 a.d., 
the public fast has been annually appointed 
by the Governor of the State on Good- 
Friday ; the other, that there are within the 
limits of the State but two houses of worship 
of the Unitarian denomination. 

Statistics for 1886 a.d. : Clergy, 194 ; par- 
ishes, 144; missions, 28; candidates for H. 
O, 17; ordinations dine, 9; pr., 7; bap., 
2103; eon., I486; com., 22,354; contr., 

Rev. Prof. S. Hart. 

Consanguinity. Relationship by blood, 
as compared with Affinity, or relationship 
by marriage. Blood relationship within 
certain degrees has always been held an im- 
pediment to marriage. What those degrees 
are, beyond what the Civil Law has deter- 
mined, has not been authoritatively settled 
by the Church in this country, though the 
Bishops have recommended, without en- 
deavoring to bring the matter up in form, 
the adoption of the English Law, which is 
based upon the Levitical Table (Lev. xviii. 

Conscience. Few words in any language 
are used with a greater variety of mean- 
ings or with more indefiniteness of signifi- 
cation than the word conscience. When 
the translation of our Bible that is now in 
use was made, and for many years after- 
wards, we had but the one word con- 
science for the two classes of mental phe- 
nomena, which we now indicate by the 
two forms of the words, — conscience and 
consciousness. Bjr the latter we mean, 
primarily and in the strictest sense, the 
means, or process rather, by which we know, 
immediately, what